Richard C. Hoagland
|This article may rely excessively on sources too closely associated with the subject, preventing the article from being verifiable and neutral. (May 2014)|
|Richard C. Hoagland|
|Born||Richard Charles Hoagland
April 25, 1945
Morristown, New Jersey, U.S.
|Residence||Placitas, New Mexico, U.S.|
|Known for||Theories about advanced ancient civilizations colonizing the solar system; accusations of corruption of NASA and U.S. government|
|Notable work(s)||The Monuments of Mars: A City on the Edge of Forever|
|Partner(s)||Robin Falkov|
|Awards||International Angstrom Medal for Excellence in Science, 1993.[note 1]
Ig Nobel Prize for Astronomy, 1997.
Richard Charles Hoagland, (born April 25, 1945 in Morristown, New Jersey) is an American author, and a proponent of various conspiracy theories about NASA, lost alien civilizations on the Moon and on Mars and other related topics.
His writings claim that advanced civilizations exist or once existed on the Moon, Mars and on some of the moons of Jupiter and Saturn, and that NASA and the United States government have conspired to keep these facts secret. He has advocated his ideas in two published books, videos, lectures, interviews, and press conferences. His views have never been published in peer-reviewed journals.
Hoagland's self-reported curriculum vitae includes positions as Curator of Astronomy and Space Science at the Springfield Science Museum, 1964–1967, and Assistant Director at the Gengras Science Center[note 2] in West Hartford, Connecticut, 1967–1968. He was a Science Advisor to CBS News during the Apollo program, 1968–1971. In July 1968, Hoagland filed a copyright registration for a planetarium presentation and show script called The Grand Tour. In 1969, he was contracted by the Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corporation to write a chapter about the Moon for a press book. The Grumman publication was intended to educate members of the media and government officials concerning the Apollo Lunar Module.
A popular planetarium lecturer at the Springfield Science Museum, Hoagland produced a program called "Mars: Infinity to 1965" to coincide with the Mariners 3 and 4 missions. Charles Renaud produced a radio program for WTIC (AM) in Hartford, Connecticut, The Night of the Encounter, which covered the July 14, 1965 Mariner 4 flyby of the planet Mars.[note 3] Hoagland was interviewed for the program at the Springfield Science Museum by WTIC announcer Dick Bertel.
In 1976, Hoagland, an avid Star Trek fan, initiated a letter-writing campaign that successfully persuaded President Gerald Ford to name the first Space Shuttle the Enterprise, replacing the previously slated name for the prototype vehicle, Constitution.[note 4] The Enterprise was rolled out for public display on September 17, 1976, Constitution Day.
Hoagland authored the book The Monuments of Mars: A City on the Edge of Forever, and co-authored the book Dark Mission: The Secret History of NASA, which was ranked 21st on November 18, 2007 on The New York Times Best Seller list for paperback nonfiction.
Hoagland runs The Enterprise Mission website, which he describes as "an independent NASA watchdog and research group, the Enterprise Mission, attempting to figure out how much of what NASA has found in the solar system over the past 50 years has actually been silently filed out of sight as classified material, and therefore totally unknown to the American people."
While Hoagland makes frequent reference to his receipt of the "International Angstrom Medal for Excellence in Science" in August 1993, the organization that awarded the medal, The Angstrom Foundation Aktiebolag, founded by Lars-Jonas Ångström, was not authorized by Uppsala University or the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to make use of the academy's Anders Jonas Ångström memorial medal. The academy has long authorized only Uppsala University to use their medal for the Ångström's Prize (Ångströms premium), awarded yearly by Uppsala professors to physics students. Mr. Ångström stated in May 2000 that although his award to Hoagland was a mistake, he acted with good faith and with good intentions.
Claims by Hoagland
Hoagland has proposed a form of physics he calls "hyperdimensional physics" which, supported by the work of pseudoscientific overunity claimant Thomas E. Bearden[original research?], he claims to represent the full implementation of James Clerk Maxwell's original 20 quaternion equations, instead of the reduced Maxwell's equations as amended by Oliver Heaviside commonly taught today.[original research?] These ideas are rejected by the mainstream physics community as unfounded.
Hoagland claims the "Face on Mars" is part of a city built on Cydonia Planitia consisting of very large pyramids and mounds arranged in a geometric pattern. To Hoagland, this is evidence that an advanced civilization might once have existed on Mars. Since it was originally first imaged, the "face" has been near-universally accepted as an optical illusion, an example of the psychological phenomenon of pareidolia. Similar optical illusions can be found in the geology of Earth; examples include the Old Man of the Mountain, the Pedra da Gávea, and Stac Levenish.
Although the Pioneer 10 plaque was designed entirely by Carl Sagan, Linda Salzman Sagan, and Frank Drake, Hoagland has inaccurately asserted that he co-created the Pioneer 10 plaque with Eric Burgess.
On December 9, 2007 Hoagland wrote that the problems NASA was then having with the Engine Cut-off (ECO) low-fuel sensors in the Space Shuttle main fuel tank were due to what he called the "torsion field," which he claimed would never be resolved by conventional engineering.[self-published source] On February 7, 2008, STS-122 launched successfully. In the postlaunch press conference mission managers reported that the ECO sensors had performed flawlessly. The problem had been traced to an external tank feed-through connector — and corrected using perfectly conventional engineering. The mission ended, as planned, on February 20 — and was called a complete success. Hoagland also asserts that the orbital parameters of spin-stabilized satellites are influenced by an anti-gravity field in addition to the energy imparted by their launch rockets, which has been kept secret for fifty years until revealed by himself in August 2008.[self-published source]
During Coast to Coast AM, on May 21, 2009, Hoagland stated that NASA is destroying evidence of life on Mars through the heating of soil samples to high temperatures by the various rovers and landers, which has killed "Martians."[self-published source]
On December 2, 2010, Hoagland said that the Space Shuttle Discovery mission STS-133, then on the launch pad, would be the first post-Newtonian mission.[self-published source] He explained that the spacecraft would be powered to orbit by "... energy ... coming from space, i.e., free energy, hyperdimensional physics, torsion [field] physics ... ," although he did not explain what he meant by that and was not pressed by host George Noory. STS-133 was delayed by needed repairs to the external tank, but launched successfully, and conventionally, on February 24, 2011.
Hoagland released the recording[self-published source] of a National Press Club news conference held on October 30, 2007 in which Hoagland and Ken Johnston, a former NASA employee who worked in the Lunar Receiving Laboratory during the Apollo missions, announced that Johnston was ordered to destroy Apollo lunar images and data 40 years ago. Johnston states that he secretly preserved these Apollo images in a private album of "about 1000 old NASA photos and other memorabilia" from his time at NASA,[self-published source] and some of these images were printed and discussed along with Johnston's story in Dark Mission.[self-published source] In December 2007, Project Camelot released a three-part interview with Hoagland.[self-published source] In it, he discussed "the secret history of NASA," and elaborated on his various claims about the Moon. He also discussed a variety of additional topics, such as "hyperdimensional physics," ancient monuments, the Vatican, consciousness, and the year 2012.
Responses by scientists
Many scientists have responded to Hoagland's claims and assertions. Professional astronomer Phil Plait described Hoagland as a pseudoscientist and his claims as ridiculous. Prof. Ralph Greenberg asserted that the logic of Hoagland's deductions from the geometry of Cydonia Mensae is flawed and says that he is not a trained scientist in any sense. The claim that the crashing of the Galileo orbiter into Jupiter caused a "mysterious black spot" on the planet has since been disputed by both NASA and Plait. There is photographic evidence that a similar "black spot" was present in imagery of Jupiter taken in 1998. A second image referenced by Plait shows a dark ring which looks similar to the spot Hoagland cited. In 1995, Malin Space Science Systems, NASA prime contractor for planetary imaging, published a paper critiquing claims that the "city" at Cydonia is artificial, the claimed mathematical relationships, and — very specifically — denying any claims about concealing questionable data from the public.
In October 1997, Hoagland received the Ig Nobel Prize for Astronomy "for identifying artificial features on the moon and on Mars, including a human face on Mars and ten-mile high buildings on the far side of the moon." The prize is a parody award given for outlandish or "trivial" contributions to science.
- Hoagland, Richard C. (2002). The Monuments of Mars: A City on the Edge of Forever (5th ed.). Berkeley: Frog, Ltd. ISBN 978-1-58394-054-9.
- Hoagland, Richard C.; Bara, Mike (2009). Dark Mission: The Secret History of NASA, Revised and Expanded Edition. Port Townsend: Feral House. ISBN 978-1-932595-48-2.
Contributions, introductions, forewords
- Hoagland, Richard C.; Bova, Ben (May 1977). "The origin of the solar system". In Bova, Ben; Bell, Trudy E. Closeup: new worlds. Chapter by Richard C. Hoagland and Ben Bova. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 978-0-312-14490-6.
- Haas, George J.; Saunders, William R. (2005). The Cydonia Codex: Reflections from Mars. Forewords by Dr. Mark J. Carlotto and Richard C. Hoagland. ISBN 978-1-58394-121-8.
- NASA (1972). "The Moon". In Hoagland, Richard C. NASA Apollo Spacecraft Lunar Excursion Module News Reference. Chapter by Richard C. Hoagland. Periscope Film LLC (published September 2011). ISBN 978-1-937684-98-3.
- Hoagland, Richard C. (Author (with NASA Lewis Research Center)) (1990). Monuments of Mars: City on the Edge of Forever (VHS tape). Cleveland, OH: NASA Lewis Research Center. OCLC 23350482.
- Hoagland, Richard C. (Executive Producer, Writer (with Geline, Robert J.)) (1992). The Monuments of Mars: A Terrestrial Connection (VHS tape). New York: BC Video Inc. OCLC 41520112.
- Hoagland, Richard C. (1996). Hoagland's Mars, Vol. 1, The NASA-Cydonia Briefings (VHS tape). Venice, CA: UFO Central Home Video. OCLC 41559991. "Short version, revised and updated"
- Hoagland, Richard C. (Disk 1: "The Gods of Cydonia: The Case for Ancient Artificial Structures in the Solar System") (2005). God, Man and ET: The Question of Other Worlds in Science, Theology, and Mythology (DVD). Venice, CA: Knowledge 2020 Media. OCLC 58528205.
- A private award presented to Hoagland by Lars-Jonas Ångström in Washington, D.C., August 1993; not to be confused with the long-established Ångström's Prize (Ångströms premium), awarded yearly by professors at Uppsala University to physics students.
- The Children's Museum, formerly The Science Center of Connecticut, is home to the Gengras Planetarium.
- The WTIC radio program, A Night of Encounter (submission title), was submitted by WTIC President Paul W. Morency as an entry for a Peabody Award, but it did not win. Contrary to what Hoagland states on his biography page, the program was not nominated for the award since there is no intermediate level of competition. All winners are chosen directly from the entire field of accepted entries. The entry form, along with an archival 7" 45 rpm gramophone audio recording of the program, are currently being held at the Hargrett Rare Book and Manuscript Library at the University of Georgia Libraries in Athens, Georgia. WTIC announcer Dick Bertel hosted the program and interviewed Hoagland. The program also featured a conversation between Hoagland and astronomer Dr. Robert S. Richardson, associate director of the Griffith Observatory.
- In "Why 'Enterprise?'", The Enterprise Mission credits the 1976 Space Shuttle letter-writing campaign as being "organized by Richard C. Hoagland and a small group of associates, including White House consultant, Jerome Glenn." Glenn is the co-founder and Director of The Millennium Project, a think tank. His résumé posted on his organization's website mentions that he was "instrumental in naming the first Space Shuttle the Enterprise."
- "rich-ang.jpg". The Enterprise Mission. Retrieved April 18, 2013. Image of an Anders Jonas Ångström memorial medal of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences and Lars-Jonas Ångström with Richard C. Hoagland in Washington, D.C.
- "The 1997 Ig Nobel Prize Winners". Improbable Research, Inc. Retrieved April 18, 2013.
- "Mars Pathfinder Conspiracy". Coast to Coast AM. June 17, 1997. Retrieved November 16, 2012. Art Bell confirms that Hoagland's middle name is Charles.
- Richard C. Hoagland on Facebook
- Grossinger, Richard, ed. (1986). "The 'Face' on Mars". Planetary Mysteries: Megaliths, Glaciers, the Face on Mars, and Aboriginal Dreamtime. Berkeley: North Atlantic Books. ISBN 978-0-938190-90-5.
- Hoagland, Richard (December 2007). Dark Mission: Richard Hoagland. Interview with Kerry Cassidy. Retrieved November 16, 2012.
- "NASA Cover-Ups Continue". National Press Club. The news conference was sponsored by the Enterprise Mission. October 30, 2007. Archived from the original on November 3, 2007. Retrieved November 2, 2012. Two press releases were issued by The Enterprise Mission website announcing the 30 October 2007 National Press Club new conference, dated October 22, 2007 and October 30, 2007. Video excerpt: "Richard C. Hoagland Press Conference - October 30, 2007". YouTube. Uploaded by user aparfrey on February 16, 2009.
- Teague, Bill. "Media Coverage of Richard Hoagland's Press Conference of March 21st (-- From Various Sources -- )". V J Enterprises. Retrieved November 16, 2012. Information concerning the National Press Club press conference held in Washington, D.C., March 21, 1996.
- Knize, Francis C. P. (May 28, 2004). "OMB Peer Review: Public Comment Concerning NASA" (PDF). Washington, D.C.: The White House. p. 12. Retrieved November 16, 2012. "Efrain Palermo and Richard Hoagland for their previous research which was submitted as peer reviewed material concerning the feature of water streaks on Mars and the possibility of water actually being able to collect on the surface." Efrain Palermo writes on his personal website: "I am not a scientist or a geologist. I am a layman astronomer and an artist."
- Oberg, James (January 21, 2008). "The dark side of space disaster theories". The Space Review. Retrieved November 16, 2012.
- Plait, Phil (2008). "Richard Hoagland's Nonsense". Bad Astronomy (Blog). badastronomy.com. Retrieved November 16, 2012.
- Library of Congress. Copyright Office (July–December 1968). Dramas and Works Prepared for Oral Delivery. Catalog of Copyright Entries: Third Series. Volume 22, Parts 3–4, Number 2. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. p. 108. 0 026 718 105 6. Retrieved November 9, 2012.
- Sanderson, Richard (August 10, 2000). "Springfield's Link to the Red Planet". Springfield Journal. Vol. 26 No. 3. Archived from the original on October 27, 2002. Retrieved November 16, 2012.
- "The Night of the Encounter". Goldenage-WTIC.org. Retrieved November 17, 2012. Page includes a half-hour of excerpts from the 1965 WTIC radio program in the MP3 format.
- Deming, Joan; Slovinac, Patricia et al. (February 2008, revised July 2008). "NASA-wide Survey and Evaluation of Historic Facilities in the Context of the U.S. Space Shuttle Program: Roll-Up Report" (PDF). Washington, D.C.: Prepared by Archaeological Consultants, Inc. for NASA. p. 36. Retrieved November 17, 2012. Report cites Heppenheimer, Tom A. (2002). Development of the Space Shuttle, 1972–1981. History of the Space Shuttle. Vol. 2. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press. pp. 100–101. ISBN 978-1-58834-009-2.
- "November 18, 2007: Paperback Nonfiction". The New York Times. Retrieved November 22, 2012. "Rankings reflect sales, for the week ended Nov. 3 ..."
- "The Enterprise Mission" (Official website). The Enterprise Mission. Retrieved April 10, 2013.
- Hoagland, Richard C.; Bara, Mike (2007). Dark Mission: The Secret History of NASA. Port Townsend: Feral House. p. I. ISBN 978-1-932595-26-0.; Ibid., 2009, p. 57.
- "Richard C. Hoagland - Guests - Coast to Coast AM". Coast to Coast AM. Retrieved April 11, 2013.
- "Richard C. Hoagland: Biographical Information". The Enterprise Mission. Retrieved April 19, 2013.
- Plait, Phil (2008). "Richard Hoagland's Credentials". Bad Astronomy (Blog). badastronomy.com. Retrieved April 19, 2013.
- "The Enterprise Mission - Physics Lab". The Enterprise Mission. Retrieved April 11, 2013. An online repository of "hyperdimensional physics"-related papers.
- Hoagland, Richard C.; Wilcock, David (May 15, 2004). Hoagland & Wilcock on Coast to Coast. Interview with Art Bell. Coast to Coast AM. Retrieved December 6, 2007. Transcript courtesy of The Enterprise Mission.
- Bearden, T. E. (February 2004). "Precursor Engineering: Directly Altering Physical Reality". Cheniere.org. Retrieved April 11, 2013.
- Bearden, T. E. "Maxwell's Quaternion Equations". Rex Research. Retrieved April 11, 2013.
- Chu-Carroll, Mark (October 31, 2010). "Free Energy by Switching Cameras (Classic Repost)". Good Math, Bad Math (Blog). Scientopia.org. Retrieved April 2013.
- Britt, Robert Roy (March 18, 2004). "Scientist attacks alien claims on Mars". CNN. SPACE.com. Retrieved October 12, 2007.
- Normand Baillargeon, A Short Course in Intellectual Self Defense: Find Your Inner Chomsky, page 177 (Seven Stories Press, 2007). ISBN 978-1-58322-765-7
- Charles M. Wynn, Arthur W. Wiggins, Quantum Leaps in the Wrong Direction: Where Real Science Ends... and Pseudoscience begins (Joseph Henry Press, 2001). ISBN 0-309-17135-0
- Dunning, Brian (April 22, 2008). "Skeptoid #97: The Face on Mars Revealed". Skeptoid (Podcast). Skeptoid Media, Inc. Retrieved August 26, 2008.
- "Badlands Guardian Geological Feature". Google Maps. Retrieved April 26, 2007.
- Posner, Gary P. (November–December 2000). "The Face Behind the 'Face' on Mars: A Skeptical Look at Richard C. Hoagland". Skeptical Inquirer (Amherst, New York: Committee for Skeptical Inquiry) 24 (6): 20–26. Retrieved April 17, 2013.
- Posner, Gary P. "My Response to Bara/Hoagland Rebuttal". Gary P. Posner. Retrieved April 17, 2013.
- Hoagland, Richard C.; Wilcock, David (December 9, 2007, updated December 10, 2007). "NASA Will NEVER Solve the Shuttle 'ECO Sensor Problem'... Alone". The Enterprise Mission. Retrieved April 17, 2013.
- Hoagland, Richard C. (2008). "Von Braun's 50-Year-Old Secret: The US Explorer I Discovery that Could Have Saved the World ...". The Enterprise Mission. Retrieved April 17, 2013.
- "Mars Update". Coast to Coast AM. May 21, 2009. Retrieved April 18, 2013.
- "New Lifeform/Transhumanism". Coast to Coast AM. December 2, 2010. Retrieved April 18, 2013.
- Hoagland, Richard C. (Director) (2007). Enterprise Mission National Press Club NASA Briefing, October 30, 2007 (DVD). The Enterprise Mission. Archived from the original on January 17, 2008.
- "Ken Johnston - Guests - Coast to Coast AM". Coast to Coast AM. Retrieved April 18, 2013. Ken Johnston's biography and list of guest appearances on Coast to Coast AM.
- Dark Mission, 2009, p. 215
- Dark Mission, 2009, "The Ken Johnston Collection," pp. 214–234
- Hoagland, Richard C.; Wilcock, David (2004). "Interplanetary 'Day After Tomorrow?': Part 1". The Enterprise Mission. Retrieved April 18, 2013.
- Greenberg, Ralph (c. 2000). "The D&M Pyramid on Mars". University of Washington. Retrieved April 18, 2013.
- "PIA01496: Jovian Dark Spot". NASA. Retrieved June 28, 2006.
- Malin, Michael C. (1995). "Observations of the 'Face on Mars' and similar features by the Mars Global Surveyor Orbiter Camera". Malin Space Science Systems. Retrieved April 18, 2013.
- Official website
- Richard C. Hoagland - Guests - Coast to Coast AM Richard C. Hoagland's biography and list of guest appearances on Coast to Coast AM.
- Richard C. Hoagland at the Internet Movie Database
- Richard C. Hoagland at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database
- Richard C. Hoagland on Facebook
- Exposing Pseudo Astronomy Ep 26: Richard C. Hoagland, Part 1 - 19.5°
- Exposing Pseudo Astronomy Ep 59: The Face on Mars, Part 1
- Exposing Pseudo Astronomy Ep 60: The Face on Mars, Part 2
- Exposing Pseudo Astronomy Ep 68: Expat in Hoaglandia: A Fantasia of NASA Conspiracies
- Exposing Pseudo Astronomy Ep 72: Solar System Mysteries "Solved" by PseudoScience, Part 1 - Iapetus
- Exposing Pseudo Astronomy Ep 79: Is the Movie "John Carter" a Leak by Those "In the Know?"
- Exposing Pseudo Astronomy Ep 82: How to Design a Hyperdimensional Physics Experiment - Discusses Hoaglands claims about torsion physics and how to go about testing them.
- Exposing Pseudo Astronomy Ep 88: Is Phobos Hollow? - Discussion of Richard Hoaglands 2010 claims that the Martian moon, Phobos is hollow.