Richard C. Hoagland
|Richard C. Hoagland|
|Born||Richard Charles Hoagland
25 April 1945
Morristown, New Jersey, U.S.
|Residence||Placitas, New Mexico, U.S.|
|Known for||Theories about extraterrestrial civilizations; accusations of corruption of NASA and U.S. government|
|Notable work(s)||The Monuments of Mars: A City on the Edge of Forever|
|Awards||International Angstrom Medal for Excellence in Science, 1993.[note 1]
Ig Nobel Prize for Astronomy, 1997.
Richard Charles Hoagland, (born 25 April 1945 in Morristown, New Jersey) is an American author, and a proponent of various conspiracy theories about NASA, lost alien civilizations on the Moon and on Mars and other related topics.
His writings claim that advanced civilizations exist or once existed on the Moon, Mars and on some of the moons of Jupiter and Saturn, and that NASA and the United States government have conspired to keep these facts secret. He has advocated his ideas in two published books, videos, lectures, interviews, and press conferences. His views have never been published in peer-reviewed journals.
Hoagland's self-reported curriculum vitae includes positions as Curator of Astronomy and Space Science at the Springfield Science Museum, 1964–1967, and Assistant Director at the Gengras Science Center[note 2] in West Hartford, Connecticut, 1967–1968. He was a Science Advisor to CBS News during the Apollo program, 1968–1971. In July 1968, Hoagland filed a copyright registration for a planetarium presentation and show script called The Grand Tour. In 1969, he was contracted by the Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corporation to write a chapter about the Moon for a press book. The Grumman publication was intended to educate members of the media and government officials concerning the Apollo Lunar Module.
A popular planetarium lecturer at the Springfield Science Museum, Hoagland produced a program called "Mars: Infinity to 1965" to coincide with the Mariners 3 and 4 missions. Charles Renaud produced a radio program for WTIC (AM) in Hartford, Connecticut, The Night of the Encounter, which covered the 14 July 1965 Mariner 4 flyby of the planet Mars.[note 3] Hoagland was interviewed for the program at the Springfield Science Museum by WTIC announcer Dick Bertel.
In 1976, Hoagland, an avid Star Trek fan, initiated a letter-writing campaign that successfully persuaded President Gerald Ford to name the first Space Shuttle the Enterprise, replacing the previously slated name for the prototype vehicle, Constitution.[note 4] The Enterprise was rolled out for public display on 17 September 1976, Constitution Day.
Hoagland authored the book The Monuments of Mars: A City on the Edge of Forever, and co-authored the book Dark Mission: The Secret History of NASA, which was ranked 21st on 18 November 2007 on The New York Times Best Seller list for paperback nonfiction.
Hoagland runs The Enterprise Mission website, which he describes as "an independent NASA watchdog and research group, the Enterprise Mission, attempting to figure out how much of what NASA has found in the solar system over the past 50 years has actually been silently filed out of sight as classified material, and therefore totally unknown to the American people."
While Hoagland makes frequent reference to his receipt of the "International Angstrom Medal for Excellence in Science" in August 1993, the organization that awarded the medal, The Angstrom Foundation Aktiebolag, founded by Lars-Jonas Ångström, was not authorized by Uppsala University or the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to make use of the academy's Anders Jonas Ångström memorial medal. The academy has long authorized only Uppsala University to use their medal for the Ångström's Prize (Ångströms premium), awarded yearly by Uppsala professors to physics students. Mr. Ångström stated in May 2000 that although his award to Hoagland was a mistake, he acted with good faith and with good intentions.
Hyperdimensional physics 
Hoagland has proposed a form of physics he calls "hyperdimensional physics" which, supported by the work of pseudoscientific overunity claimant Thomas E. Bearden, he claims to represent the full implementation of James Clerk Maxwell's original 20 quaternion equations, instead of the reduced Maxwell's equations as amended by Oliver Heaviside commonly taught today. These ideas are rejected by the mainstream physics community as unfounded.
A tenet of these views holds that vast amounts of energy originating from dimensions we cannot perceive are available at latitudes 19.5° both south and north on the Sun and every planet in the Solar System. Hoagland points to the colossal volcano, Olympus Mons, on Mars, as the supreme example, in addition to Earth's biggest volcano, Mauna Loa on the island of Hawaiʻi, and the anticyclonic storm on Jupiter. Olympus Mons is centered at approximately 18.65°N 226.2°E, and the massive shield spans from 13.48°N to 23.68°N and from 220.76°E to 232.2°E. Jupiter's Great Red Spot is centered at 22.0°S. According to Hoagland, an essential prediction of his theory is that a massive planet is yet to be discovered in the Solar System. To date, no research conducted in mainstream astronomy would appear to substantiate these theories. Data analyzed from the WISE all-sky infrared survey, fully released in March 2012, has yet to reveal a Jupiter-size planet within the Oort cloud. The survey should be able to reveal such an object.
Mars, Face on Mars, and Cydonia 
Hoagland claims the "Face on Mars" is part of a city built on Cydonia Planitia consisting of very large pyramids and mounds arranged in a geometric pattern, with the ratios between measured angles roughly equaling mathematical constants such as pi (π), e, as well as the square root of 2 (√2), the square root of 3 (√3), and the number 3. He states that the ratio between the surface area of a sphere and the surface area of the tetrahedron inscribed within it, ≈2.720699, which is π × (√3)/2, is an approximation of e that he refers to as e'. Since e'/π = (√3)/2 = ≈0.866, he speculates that the primary meaning of the geometry of Cydonia is to emphasize the ratio of the sphere and circumscribed tetrahedron. To Hoagland, this is evidence that an advanced civilization might once have existed on Mars, and that NASA is suppressing the evidence for reasons explained in a 1960 Brookings Institution report entitled "Proposed Studies on the Implications of Peaceful Space Activities for Human Affairs."[note 5] In fact, although the report did state that it is a possibility that such information would destabilize society, it did not itself even consider the question of withholding information from the public. The report recommended that the question ought to be studied.
On 5 April 1998, NASA's Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) space probe sent back better images of the Cydonia region that indicated that the "face" was an irregularly shaped mesa. Hoagland contends these images were run through multiple filters that degraded the original image in quality, giving it a catbox appearance which obscures what is really on Mars. On 21 September 2006, several new three-dimensional views were released, derived from the high-resolution stereo camera on the European Space Agency's Mars Express space probe. In response to their publication, he remarked, "Science is not what you see or what you feel, it's what you can measure!" His co-author Mike Bara has accused the European Space Agency, which released that photo set, of fraud. The image from the HiRISE camera on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), released in April 2007, was so detailed that even Hoagland appears to have abandoned his contention that the whole structure is a "face." In the epilogue to his book released the following October, he analyzed the details of the "face" within the MRO frame and declares: "Nothing in this image is natural. [...] Natural geology doesn't come with 'parallel walls,' 'multiple, 3-D planes,' 'twisted beams'—or repetitive examples of obvious 'thin girders.'"
In March 2010, Mars Express returned radar and visual data from Mars' larger moon, Phobos, showing the moon in unprecedented detail. Hoagland wrote that Phobos was revealed to be artificial, a "manufactured" satellite. He added that ESA itself would announce this finding at the September 2010 meeting of the European Planetary Science Congress (EPSC) in Rome. The Phobos session at EPSC in fact announced that Phobos is probably formed from re-accretion of orbiting debris.
Hoagland also claims that the true color of Mars is salmon red with patches of greenish plant life and a light blue sky. This runs counter to widely accepted spectrographic observations. He also claims that Mars was once the moon of a larger planet which exploded, leaving Mars isolated,[note 6] that the advanced civilization on Mars had prior warning of the cataclysm and so escaped by migrating to planet Earth, eventually adapting to the environment and becoming the present human race, and that the numerous objects surrounding the landing sites of the Mars Exploration Rovers are in fact pieces of Martian machinery.
Life on Europa 
Hoagland claims to have originated the idea, in a 1980 article in Star & Sky magazine, that oceans, and possibly life, may exist beneath the surface of Jupiter's moon Europa. In fact, Ralph Greenberg, Professor of Mathematics at the University of Washington, has pointed out that multiple scientists published similar theories throughout the 1970s. Isaac Asimov, for example, postulated it in his 1979 book Extraterrestrial Civilizations. Hoagland himself references the work of Cassen, Peale, and Reynolds, whose computer modeling demonstrated the possibility that tidal heating could maintain an ocean beneath the icy surface.
The Moon 
Hoagland rejects the entire body of knowledge represented by professional selenology and asserts that there are large semitransparent structures constructed of glass on the lunar surface, visible in some Apollo photography when the images are digitally manipulated, and even more so when old photoprints are re-scanned on amateur equipment in non-clean conditions. He goes on to say that NASA is suppressing knowledge of an ancient civilization on the Moon, and that the advanced technology of this civilization is lying around on the Moon's surface. He alleged in Dark Mission that the twelve Apollo moonwalkers, who would be well qualified to confirm the existence of lunar artifacts and glass structures, have had their memories selectively edited with hypnosis so that they no longer remember seeing evidence of a lunar civilization. He has stated that a feature in an image of the lunar surface, believed by professional planetary scientists to be a rock, is actually the severed head of a robot, and that "someone with an obvious 'in'" to JPL was the true originator of the Apollo Moon landing hoax conspiracy theory in July 1969.
On 6 October 2009, he opined that the upcoming LCROSS lunar impact was targeted on a manned lunar base, set up by the "secret space program," and that the impact would reveal some secrets. He also said that the impact would be recorded by ALSEP seismometers — the idea that ALSEP was turned off in September 1977 was "just another NASA lie." Eighteen days after the LCROSS lunar impacts, Hoagland released a digitally manipulated copy of the plume image released by NASA. He wrote that the rectilinear pixellation pattern emphasized by his manipulation of the photograph is in fact a ruined city.
It is Hoagland's opinion that NASA's two Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) spacecraft were sent to map the gravitational field of the Moon to confirm the "presence of actual engines inside the Moon." Based on his examination of earlier NASA lunar seismic data, he said that he found "symmetrical structures under the lunar surface at the depth of the core of the Moon." Moreover, he said that the "Moon is not ours" and that it was "brought here and placed in orbit" around the Earth.
U.S. government conspiracy 
Hoagland claims the United States government has covered up the presence of extraterrestrials, that the Space Agency[who?] murdered the Apollo 1 astronauts, that NASA missions to Mars are a "well documented interest of the Bush family," and that there is a clandestine space program which uses anti-gravity technology reverse-engineered from lunar artifacts and communicated by secret societies.
Hoagland further claims that President John F. Kennedy was assassinated by an agency or agencies opposed to his stated policy of inviting First Secretary Nikita Khrushchev to create a joint U.S.–Soviet manned lunar effort. He asserts that federal agencies such as the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and NASA are linked to Freemasonry.
NASA and the Egyptian gods 
Hoagland has written and spoken often about what he sees as NASA's "fanatical, relentless" drive to pay homage to the Egyptian gods Isis, Osiris, and Horus. Citing work by Robert Bauval and Graham Hancock on the symbolism of the Great Pyramid at Giza, he explains that these gods are honored via their proxies, the stars Sirius (Isis), the "belt" stars of Orion (Osiris), and Regulus (Horus). He has theorized that NASA preferentially arranges for key space mission events to occur when any of these five stars are at any of five elevations (−33°, −19.5°, 0, 19.5° and 33°) as seen from a significant place related to that space mission event.
As an example, he cites the fact that, at the exact time of the Lunar Orbit Insertion burn of Apollo 8, on 24 December 1968, the Orion belt star Mintaka was exactly on the horizon of the site in the Sea of Tranquility where the Apollo 11 Lunar Module would land seven months later.
He traces the origin of this obsession on the part of NASA to the geologist Dr. Farouk El-Baz, who is Egyptian by birth. He has written that El-Baz was "the most powerful single individual in the American space program" because of his influence over Apollo landing site selection. Two of the six Apollo landing sites satisfy Hoagland's Egyptian criteria:
- Mintaka at 19.5° at the moment of landing of Apollo 12, with the landing occurring six minutes earlier than scheduled.
- Sirius at -33° at the moment of landing of Apollo 16, after a one-month launch delay and a 6-hour landing delay.
Hoagland has published on his web site a "Table of Coincidence" specifying several additional Apollo events that he says satisfy his criteria for "fanatical, relentless" worship. Only one of the 135 Space Shuttle launches and 133 landings is included—the launch of STS-88.
Elenin and 2005 YU55 
During the summer and fall of 2011, Hoagland spoke and wrote comprehensively about comet C/2010 X1, also known as Elenin after its discoverer, amateur Russian astronomer Leonid Elenin, and asteroid 2005 YU55. During the 24 June 2011 teleconference sponsored by Project Camelot, he gave the correct dates for closest approach to Earth for both bodies. He said that 2005 YU55 would come dangerously close to both Earth and Moon while we were all distracted by Elenin.
Speaking at the August 2011 Exopolitics Great Britain expo held in Leeds, West Yorkshire, and again at Project Camelot's September Awake & Aware 2011 conference, held in Irvine, California, he expounded a complex pseudo-statistical theory which he said proved that Elenin was not a comet but some kind of time capsule, sent by a prior Earthly civilization thousands of years ago with a message for contemporary humanity. As he said a few weeks earlier before leaving for Leeds, "...it could have been sent on a trajectory 13,000 years ago, arriving back home in the inner Solar System now, as a flying time capsule through interplanetary space with some kind of vital information for now as we approach the end of the Mayan calendar..." His analysis depended upon highly counter-rational calculations such as that the odds of any given comet having any given inclination to the ecliptic are one in 360 divided by the inclination in degrees. When, in late August, professional and amateur cometary astronomers announced that Elenin had begun to break up, Hoagland denied this and showed a 19 August 2011 STEREO-B image which he said proved that the "object/structure" apparently had a "'tetrahedral shield'" protecting "'Elenin the spacecraft'" from a coronal mass ejection.
Elenin wrote about the breakup of the comet that bears his name, published on 3 September 2011.
Hoagland told Coast to Coast AM host Rob Simone on 16 October 2011, "Well, Elenin, when he discovered it, back in December, remember, announcing he discovered it when it was at +19.5 magnitude, he also stated that he had calculated it had a 13,000 year orbit. 13,000 years is exactly half the precessional cycle — think Mayan calendar — and it takes us back to the time of Atlantis, the time of the previous high civilization that may have been destroyed on this planet, that left a whole bunch of clues, including Göbekli Tepe, as time capsules to help us avert the next time the cycle is going maybe do something bad to us..."
On 21 October 2011, on Coast to Coast AM, Hoagland said that 2005 YU55 had two "really weird" characteristics. First, he said that the asteroid was almost as spherical as a beach ball. Second, it had a rotation period of 19.5 hours. Both characteristics were later found to be inaccurate when better ephemerides and radar images became available.[note 7] In a 4 November 2011 interview on the Internet radio program Collision Course, he laid out a lunar impact scenario for 2005 YU55. He said that since both Elenin and 2005 YU55 had nearly coincident perihelions on 11 September 2011,[note 8] a "torsion field effect" at perihelion at a distance of 16 million miles (25.75 million km) from each other would have perturbed the asteroid's trajectory just enough so that it will collide with the Moon on 9 November 2011. This perturbation of the asteroid's orbit was the work of an intelligent force using hyperdimensional physics, according to Hoagland. Additionally, he said that if his scenario is correct, NASA would announce on 7 November 2011, when new radar observations are released, that the asteroid is going to collide with the Moon. Hoagland foretold of a "calm and reassuring" address by President Obama concerning the lunar impact at the 19th APEC Economic Leaders' Meeting in Honolulu, Hawaii, on 9 November 2011, even though the meetings in Honolulu had been long-scheduled for 12–13 November 2011, and took place as scheduled. He believes that calm reassurances are necessary to prevent people from panicking, possibly with lethal results due to stupidity, when a spectacular, but mostly harmless, meteor shower occurs in the Earth's atmosphere about three days after such a significant lunar impact.
On 7 November 2011, Hoagland announced that two sources, one in the "political structure" in Washington, D.C., and the other in the "intelligence community" in southern California, had informed him of an unconfirmed rumor that an Atlas-Centaur was being prepared for launch at Vandenberg Air Force Base that very night. According to the rumor, the launch will send either a probe to observe 2005 YU55 or, more interesting to Hoagland, a warhead to deflect the asteroid so that it "does not come within a certain radius of the Earth."
Neither of these two celestial bodies diverged from predicted paths. Elenin disintegrated completely into a dust cloud. If there was a message for humanity it was not made public. Wrapping up this event, Hoagland took issue with a Coast to Coast AM caller on 2 April 2012, countering the caller's charge that he was claiming that Elenin was a spaceship. He told the caller, "I said it was a probe...I never said it was a spaceship. I said it could be a time capsule. It could be a probe. It could be a chunk of rock directed on an intelligent course. I never said it was a spaceship."[note 9]
Torsion field sensing 
Since 2004, Hoagland has conducted a series of what he calls "experiments" designed to detect and, if possible, to measure the torsion field generated by the interactions of massive spinning objects, including distant planets and stars. He seeks to confirm an idea first proposed by amateur scientist Bruce DePalma according to which rotating masses generate inertial fields that cause an increase of the inertia of any other mass they pass through. More recently he has extended this belief to the proposition that large pyramids amplify this effect in their immediate vicinity. He has not said what units a torsion field would be measured in.
His equipment consists of a Bulova Accutron wristwatch manufactured in 1977 or earlier, placed in a tuning fork sensor enclosure which is electrically connected to a MicroSet precision watch timer manufactured by Mumford Micro Systems of Santa Barbara, California. The MicroSet output data is linked to a laptop computer by USB cabling and the Mumford-supplied software creates a dynamic display with many options for data management. The end result is a trace of the Accutron tuning fork frequency, nominally 360 Hz, recorded over any chosen time period. According to Hoagland's explanation, the inertia of the tuning fork should increase when it is influenced by the torsion field, and thus its frequency should decrease.
He has used this equipment on several occasions:
- Transit of Venus, 8 June 2004. Site: Coral Castle, Homestead, Florida. Result: Some frequency spiking during transit. Pronounced spiking to 364.474 Hz at moment of 3rd contact. Continued spiking, some off-scale, for many minutes after the transit was complete. Hoagland later published a second trace which is incompatible with his first report.
- Dawn at the Pyramid of the Sun, Teotihuacan, Mexico, 22 April 2009. Result: Published trace did not begin until five minutes after dawn. Spikes to 454.79 Hz (07:19:30) and 465.192 Hz (07:20:10).
- 26 April 2009. Site: Temple of the Masks, Tikal, Mexico. Result: Random spiking 14.531 Hz - 949.586 Hz.
- UK, Summer 2011. Sites: Stonehenge, Avebury, Silbury Hill. Mentioned on Coast to Coast AM, nothing published.
- Annular eclipse of the Sun, 20 May 2012. Site: Terrace of the High Finance Restaurant, Sandia Peak, New Mexico. Result: Several off-scale decreasing spikes prior to the eclipse. Six off-scale increasing spikes during the eclipse.
- Transit of Venus 5 June 2012. Site: Terrace of the High Finance Restaurant, Sandia Peak, New Mexico. Result: Not published.
- Grand Galactic Alignment 19 September 2012. Site: Temple of Kukulkan, Chichen Itza, Yucatan. Result: Project aborted, Hoagland and his partner ejected from the site by site security.
- Annular solar eclipse of May 10, 2013. Site: Mauna Kea. Result: No reading during eclipse due to technical difficulty.
Other claims 
Hoagland has asserted that he, and not Carl Sagan, co-created the Pioneer 10 plaque with Eric Burgess; that the Saturnian moon Iapetus is an artificial planetoid; that the Galileo orbiter, which burned up in Jupiter's atmosphere, caused a mysterious black spot due to its nuclear power source; that the 9/11 attacks were part of a pseudo-Masonic conspiracy; and that the Arecibo message was intentionally altered by its author, Carl Sagan.
On 9 December 2007 Hoagland wrote that the vexatious problems NASA was then having with the Engine Cut-off (ECO) low-fuel sensors in the Space Shuttle main fuel tank were due to what he called the "torsion field," which he claimed would never be resolved by conventional engineering. On 7 February 2008, STS-122 launched successfully. In the postlaunch press conference mission managers reported that the ECO sensors had performed flawlessly. The problem had been traced to an external tank feed-through connector — and corrected using perfectly conventional engineering. The mission ended, as planned, on 20 February — and was called a complete success. He also asserts that the orbital parameters of spin-stabilized satellites are influenced by an anti-gravity field in addition to the energy imparted by their launch rockets, which has been kept secret for fifty years until revealed by himself in August 2008.
The February 2009 satellite collision between Iridium 33 and Kosmos 2251 was "...deliberate, it was an act of violence," with the intent to make low Earth orbit "uninhabitable at some point," and to permit the termination of the International Space Station, the Space Shuttle program, and the Hubble Space Telescope, according to Hoagland on 16 March 2009 on Coast to Coast AM. The three terminations, he said, would be in line with a policy allowing NASA to devote resources to more inspiring programs. He predicted that NASA would announce before May 2009 that because of the increased risk of debris collisions, "Hubble cannot be rescued." As it happened, the Hubble Servicing Mission 4 was successfully completed by the crew of STS-125, and the space telescope was released by them on 19 May 2009. In addition, he said that NASA was lying about the two space-junk alerts in March 2009.
During Coast to Coast AM, on 21 May 2009, Hoagland stated that NASA is destroying evidence of life on Mars through the heating of soil samples to high temperatures by the various rovers and landers, which has killed "Martians."
On 10 June 2009, Hoagland said that a secret "interplanetary war" is being waged in Earth orbit between two factions of the "supranational government, the so-called secret government." The data for his theory consists of night-vision goggle observations conducted by Robin Falkov, Ed Grimsley, and others, from the roof of a hotel in Albuquerque, New Mexico, during the 2008 ExtraOrdinary Technology Conference.
Hoagland stated on 16 October 2009 that the new Ares I-X rocket, scheduled for rollout on 19 October for launch on 27 October, would never reach the launch pad. In fact, Ares arrived at pad 39B on 20 October 2009.
On 2 December 2010, Hoagland said that the Space Shuttle Discovery mission STS-133, then on the launch pad, would be the first post-Newtonian mission. He explained that the spacecraft would be powered to orbit by "...energy...coming from space, i.e., free energy, hyperdimensional physics, torsion [field] physics...," although he did not explain what he meant by that and was not pressed by host George Noory. STS-133 was delayed by needed repairs to the external tank, but launched successfully, and conventionally, on 24 February 2011.
Hoagland released the recording of a National Press Club news conference held on 30 October 2007 in which Hoagland and Ken Johnston, a former NASA employee who worked in the Lunar Receiving Laboratory during the Apollo missions, announced that Johnston was ordered to destroy Apollo lunar images and data 40 years ago. Johnston states that he secretly preserved these Apollo images in a private album of "about 1000 old NASA photos and other memorabilia" from his time at NASA, and some of these images were printed and discussed along with Johnston's story in Dark Mission. In December 2007, Project Camelot released a three-part interview with Hoagland. In it, he discussed "the secret history of NASA," and elaborated on his various claims about the Moon. He also discussed a variety of additional topics, such as "hyperdimensional physics," ancient monuments, the Vatican, consciousness, and the year 2012.
In November 2006, Conscious Media Network interviewed Hoagland. He has made numerous claims about the existence of intelligent extraterrestrial life, supported by digitally reprocessed photographic evidence from planetary exploration and testimonials by former government and military officials. During guest appearances on Coast to Coast AM, Hoagland references longstanding friendships with scientists from NASA and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) who, according to Hoagland, provide him with inside information. On 21 August 2008, he said, "We over here at Enterprise, except for a couple of people who have proven extremely reliable, and who we constantly check anyway, with the physics, with hard data, with real science, we do not depend on sources. When I come on and I say a so-and-so source told me, it's because I have additional confirmation from another mechanism, usually the physics, usually figuring it out in terms of the numbers, that backs up what our source or sources have told us."
Responses by scientists 
Many scientists have responded to Hoagland's claims and assertions. Professional astronomer Phil Plait described Hoagland as a pseudoscientist and his claims as ridiculous. Prof. Ralph Greenberg asserted that the logic of Hoagland's deductions from the geometry of Cydonia Mensae is flawed and says that he is not a trained scientist in any sense. The claim that the crashing of the Galileo orbiter into Jupiter caused a "mysterious black spot" on the planet has since been disputed by both NASA and Plait. There is photographic evidence that a similar "black spot" was present in imagery of Jupiter taken in 1998. A second image referenced by Plait shows a dark ring which looks similar to the spot Hoagland cited. In 1995, Malin Space Science Systems, NASA prime contractor for planetary imaging, published a paper critiquing claims that the "city" at Cydonia is artificial, the claimed mathematical relationships, and — very specifically — denying any claims about concealing questionable data from the public.
In October 1997, Hoagland received the Ig Nobel Prize for Astronomy "for identifying artificial features on the moon and on Mars, including a human face on Mars and ten-mile high buildings on the far side of the moon." The prize is a parody award given for outlandish or "trivial" contributions to science.
- Hoagland, Richard C. (1987). The Monuments of Mars: A City on the Edge of Forever (1st ed.). Berkeley: North Atlantic Books. ISBN 978-0-938-19078-3.
- —— (1996). The Monuments of Mars: A City on the Edge of Forever (4th ed.). Berkeley: North Atlantic Books. ISBN 978-1-883-31930-4.
- —— (1997; unfinished, not released). Europa: Waterworld of Jupiter. Berkeley: Frog, Ltd. ISBN 978-1-883-31966-3.
- —— (Unfinished, not released). The Heritage of Mars. Berkeley: North Atlantic Books.
- —— (2002). The Monuments of Mars: A City on the Edge of Forever (5th ed.). Berkeley: Frog, Ltd. ISBN 978-1-583-94054-9.
- ——; Bara, Mike (2007). Dark Mission: The Secret History of NASA. Port Townsend: Feral House. ISBN 978-1-932-59526-0.
- ——; Bara, Mike (2009). Dark Mission: The Secret History of NASA, Revised and Expanded Edition. Port Townsend: Feral House. ISBN 978-1-932-59548-2.
Contributions, introductions, forewords 
- Hoagland, Richard C.; Bova, Ben (May 1977). "The origin of the solar system". In Bova, Ben; Bell, Trudy E. Closeup: new worlds. Chapter by Richard C. Hoagland and Ben Bova. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 978-0-312-14490-6.
- Haas, George J.; Saunders, William R. (2005). The Cydonia Codex: Reflections from Mars. Forewords by Dr. Mark J. Carlotto and Richard C. Hoagland. ISBN 978-1-583-94121-8.
- NASA (1972). "The Moon". In Hoagland, Richard C. NASA Apollo Spacecraft Lunar Excursion Module News Reference. Chapter by Richard C. Hoagland. Periscope Film LLC (published September 2011). ISBN 978-1-937-68498-3.
- Hoagland, Richard C.; Enzmann, Robert D. (July/August 1974). "Torchships Now!". Worlds of If (New York: Universal Publishing and Distribution Corporation (UPD)).
- ——; (as Dick Hoagland) (September 1974). "Forum: Television: Never-Never Land and Clarke's Third Law". Galaxy (New York: Universal Publishing and Distribution Corporation (UPD)).
- ——; Enzmann, Robert D. (September/October 1974). "Torchships Now!". Worlds of If (New York: Universal Publishing and Distribution Corporation (UPD)).
- —— (November 1974). "Following Yonder Star". Worlds of If (New York: Universal Publishing and Distribution Corporation (UPD)).
- —— (December 1974). "Why We WON'T Find Life on Mars". Analog Science Fiction/Science Fact (New York: Condé Nast Publications).
- —— (September 1975). "Rendezvous in 1985". Analog Science Fiction/Science Fact (New York: Condé Nast Publications).
- —— (May 1977). "Return to Mars: A Mission for the Enterprise". Analog Science Fiction/Science Fact (New York: Condé Nast Publications).
- —— (January 1980). "The Europa Enigma". Star & Sky.
- —— (December 1982). "The Blivit in the B-Ring". Analog Science Fiction/Science Fact. (Part 1) (Davis Publications).
- —— (January 1983). "The Blivit in the B-Ring". Artwork by Thea Kynthia. Analog Science Fiction/Science Fact. (Part 2) (Davis Publications).
- —— (August 1983). "Space: The El Chichon Incident". Omni (New York: General Media, Inc.).
- —— (November 1986). "The Curious Case of the Humanoid Face ... On Mars". Analog Science Fiction/Science Fact (Davis Publications).
- Hoagland, Richard C. (Author (with NASA Lewis Research Center)) (1990) (VHS video). Monuments of Mars: City on the Edge of Forever (VHS tape). Cleveland, OH: NASA Lewis Research Center. OCLC 23350482.
- —— (1991) (VHS video). Hoagland's Mars, Vol. 1, The NASA-Cydonia Briefings (VHS tape). Signal Mountain, TN: Distributed by Curley & Co. OCLC 36143345.
- —— (1992) (VHS video). Hoagland's Mars: Vol. II, The U.N. Briefing, The Terrestrial Connection (VHS tape). New York: BC Video Inc. OCLC 42504936. "Extended version"
- —— (1992) (VHS video). The Monuments of Mars: A Terrestrial Connection (VHS tape). New York: BC Video Inc. OCLC 41520112.
- —— (1996) (VHS video). Hoagland's Mars, Vol. 1, The NASA-Cydonia Briefings (VHS tape). Venice, CA: UFO Central Home Video. OCLC 41559991. "Short version, revised and updated"
- —— (2000) (VHS video). Hoagland's Mars (VHS tape). Venice, CA: Knowledge 2020 Media. OCLC 51884429.
- —— (2005) (DVD video). God, Man and ET: The Question of Other Worlds in Science, Theology, and Mythology (DVD). Venice, CA: Knowledge 2020 Media. OCLC 58528205.
- A private award presented to Hoagland by Lars-Jonas Ångström in Washington, D.C., August 1993; not to be confused with the long-established Ångström's Prize (Ångströms premium), awarded yearly by professors at Uppsala University to physics students.
- The Children's Museum, formerly The Science Center of Connecticut, is home to the Gengras Planetarium.
- The WTIC radio program, A Night of Encounter (submission title), was submitted by WTIC President Paul W. Morency as an entry for a Peabody Award, but it did not win. Contrary to what Hoagland states on his biography page, the program was not nominated for the award since there is no intermediate level of competition. All winners are chosen directly from the entire field of accepted entries. The entry form, along with an archival 7" 45 rpm gramophone audio recording of the program, are currently being held at the Hargrett Rare Book and Manuscript Library at the University of Georgia Libraries in Athens, Georgia. WTIC announcer Dick Bertel hosted the program and interviewed Hoagland. The program also featured a conversation between Hoagland and astronomer Dr. Robert S. Richardson, associate director of the Griffith Observatory.
- In "Why 'Enterprise?'", The Enterprise Mission credits the 1976 Space Shuttle letter-writing campaign as being "organized by Richard C. Hoagland and a small group of associates, including White House consultant, Jerome Glenn." Glenn is the co-founder and Director of The Millennium Project, a think tank. His résumé posted on his organization's website mentions that he was "instrumental in naming the first Space Shuttle the Enterprise."
- The Brookings Institution's report prepared for the Committee on Long-Range Studies of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, "Proposed Studies on the Implications of Peaceful Space Activities for Human Affairs," published in December 1960, is available from the NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS). WorldCat lists nine editions of the report, published between 1960 and 1965. Page 184 of the report is of particular interest to Hoagland. On that page, the report recommends additional studies regarding the implications of the discovery of intelligent extraterrestrial life.
- Adapted with acknowledgment from the late Dr. Tom Van Flandern.
- Hoagland is not aware of any asteroids, including cinematic asteroids, that are not splinter-shaped. Small spheroidal celestial bodies such as 2005 YU55 strikes him as being "really weird" since they lack sufficient self-gravitation to force them to take on a spherical shape. Video: "Collision Course -Francis Walsh & Special Guest Richard Hoagland with YU55 News (11-4-2011) Pt.1". Collision Course, an Internet radio show hosted by Revolution Radio. 4 November 2011. YouTube. Uploaded by user DrakenI78 on 5 November 2011. See time index 05:28 - 08:32. In part 2 of the interview, he said that he that he does not think 2005 YU55 is an asteroid. He said, "...the damn thing looks like a ship, it looks technological. It does not look like any asteroid I have ever seen." See time index 0:01:19 - 0:01:43. Further reading: Szabo, Gyula M.; Kiss, László L. (July 2008). "The shape distribution of asteroid families – evidence for evolution driven by small impacts". Icarus 196 (1): 135–143. Bibcode:2008Icar..196..135S. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2008.01.019. Retrieved 18 April 2013.
- Elenin's perihelion was on 10 September 2011 at 17:15:51.8 UT (Julian Date: 2455815.219354417315) at a distance from the Sun of 0.48243 AU, according to JPL's Small-Body Database Browser. 2005 YU55's perihelion was on 9 September 2011 at 19:31:44.5 UT (Julian Date: 2455814.313707203) at a distance from the Sun of 0.652495 AU, according to JPL's HORIZONS ephemerides generator for asteroid 308635.
- In a 11 November 2011 bulletin posted on his Facebook page, Hoagland described 2005 YU55 as a spaceship: "Here (below) is an Enterprise Mission processed frame from this JPL radar animation. It presents a striking view of YU55, revealing that the 'asteroid' appears MUCH more like 'a badly-eroded ancient spaceship' -- an ancient derelict -- which, indeed, has startling and amazing 'structures' visible across its remarkably symmetrical surface ...."
- "rich-ang.jpg". The Enterprise Mission. Retrieved 18 April 2013. Image of an Anders Jonas Ångström memorial medal of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences and Lars-Jonas Ångström with Richard C. Hoagland in Washington, D.C.
- "The 1997 Ig Nobel Prize Winners". Improbable Research, Inc. Retrieved 18 April 2013.
- "Mars Pathfinder Conspiracy". Coast to Coast AM. 17 June 1997. Retrieved 16 November 2012. Art Bell confirms that Hoagland's middle name is Charles.
- Richard C. Hoagland on Facebook
- Grossinger, Richard, ed. (1986). "The 'Face' on Mars". Planetary Mysteries: Megaliths, Glaciers, the Face on Mars, and Aboriginal Dreamtime. Berkeley: North Atlantic Books. ISBN 978-0-938-19090-5.
- Hoagland, Richard (December 2007). Dark Mission: Richard Hoagland. Interview with Kerry Cassidy. http://projectcamelot.org/richard_hoagland.html. Retrieved 16 November 2012.
- "NASA Cover-Ups Continue". National Press Club. The news conference was sponsored by the Enterprise Mission. 30 October 2007. Archived from the original on 3 November 2007. Retrieved 2 November 2012. Two press releases were issued by The Enterprise Mission website announcing the 30 October 2007 National Press Club new conference, dated 22 October 2007 and 30 October 2007. Video excerpt: "Richard C. Hoagland Press Conference - October 30, 2007". YouTube. Uploaded by user aparfrey on 16 February 2009.
- Teague, Bill. "Media Coverage of Richard Hoagland's Press Conference of March 21st (-- From Various Sources -- )". V J Enterprises. Retrieved 16 November 2012. Information concerning the National Press Club press conference held in Washington, D.C., 21 March 1996.
- Knize, Francis C. P. (28 May 2004). "OMB Peer Review: Public Comment Concerning NASA" (PDF). Washington, D.C.: The White House. p. 12. Retrieved 16 November 2012. "Efrain Palermo and Richard Hoagland for their previous research which was submitted as peer reviewed material concerning the feature of water streaks on Mars and the possibility of water actually being able to collect on the surface." Efrain Palermo writes on his personal website: "I am not a scientist or a geologist. I am a layman astronomer and an artist."
- Oberg, James (21 January 2008). "The dark side of space disaster theories". The Space Review. Retrieved 16 November 2012.
- Plait, Phil (2008). "Richard Hoagland's Nonsense". Bad Astronomy (Blog). badastronomy.com. Retrieved 16 November 2012.
- Library of Congress. Copyright Office (July–December 1968). Dramas and Works Prepared for Oral Delivery. Catalog of Copyright Entries: Third Series. Volume 22, Parts 3–4, Number 2. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. p. 108. 0 026 718 105 6. Retrieved 9 November 2012.
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- "The Night of the Encounter". Goldenage-WTIC.org. Retrieved 17 November 2012. Page includes a half-hour of excerpts from the 1965 WTIC radio program in the MP3 format.
- Deming, Joan; Slovinac, Patricia et al. (February 2008, revised July 2008). "NASA-wide Survey and Evaluation of Historic Facilities in the Context of the U.S. Space Shuttle Program: Roll-Up Report" (PDF). Washington, D.C.: Prepared by Archaeological Consultants, Inc. for NASA. p. 36. Retrieved 17 November 2012. Report cites Heppenheimer, Tom A. (2002). Development of the Space Shuttle, 1972–1981. History of the Space Shuttle. Vol. 2. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press. pp. 100–101. ISBN 978-1-588-34009-2.
- "November 18, 2007: Paperback Nonfiction". The New York Times. Retrieved 22 November 2012. "Rankings reflect sales, for the week ended Nov. 3..."
- "The Enterprise Mission" (Official website). The Enterprise Mission. Retrieved 10 April 2013.
- Hoagland, Richard C.; Bara, Mike (2007). Dark Mission: The Secret History of NASA. Port Townsend: Feral House. p. I. ISBN 978-1-932-59526-0.; Ibid., 2009, p. 57.
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- "Richard C. Hoagland: Biographical Information". The Enterprise Mission. Retrieved 19 April 2013.
- Plait, Phil (2008). "Richard Hoagland's Credentials". Bad Astronomy (Blog). badastronomy.com. Retrieved April 19, 2013.
- "The Enterprise Mission - Physics Lab". The Enterprise Mission. Retrieved 11 April 2013. An online repository of "hyperdimensional physics"-related papers.
- Hoagland, Richard C.; Wilcock, David (15 May 2004). Hoagland & Wilcock on Coast to Coast. Interview with Art Bell. Coast to Coast AM. http://www.enterprisemission.com/_articles/05-22-2004_Bell_Interviews_123/Bell-InterviewPartOne.htm. Retrieved 6 December 2007. Transcript courtesy of The Enterprise Mission.
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- "Planetary Names: Mons, montes: Olympus Mons on Mars". Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature. USGS Astrogeology Research Program. Retrieved 11 April 2013.
- Hoagland, Richard C.; Torun, Erol O. (1989). "The 'Message of Cydonia': First Communication from an Extraterrestrial Civilization?". The Enterprise Mission. Retrieved 11 April 2013. See Table 1.
- Hoagland, Richard C.; Bara, Mike (2009). Dark Mission: The Secret History of NASA, Revised and Expanded Edition. Port Townsend: Feral House. pp. 115–116. ISBN 978-1-932-59548-2.
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- Hoagland & Torun 1989. This number is close to e, the base of natural logarithms (≈2.71828). Hoagland therefore calls it e' and uses it in calculations as though it were actually e.
- "The 'Brookings Report'". The Enterprise Mission. c. 1996. Retrieved 11 April 2013.
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- "Mars Orbiter Camera Views the 'Face on Mars'". Malin Space Science Systems. Retrieved 11 April 2013.
- Hoagland, Richard C. (1998). "Honey, I Shrunk the Face". The Enterprise Mission. Retrieved 11 April 2013.
- "Cydonia - The face on Mars". ESA. 21 September 2006. Retrieved 11 April 2013.
- "Mars Face". Coast to Coast AM. 21 September 2006. Retrieved 11 April 2013.
- Robbins, Stuart (1 January 2013). "Episode 59: The Face on Mars, Part 1". Exposing PseudoAstronomy Podcast (Podcast). sjrdesign.net. http://podcast.sjrdesign.net/shownotes_059.php. Retrieved 2 January 2013.
- Bara, Mike. "Face it; it’s a Face – (The Sequel)". darkmission.net. Archived from the original on 23 July 2011. Retrieved 16 November 2012.
- Dark Mission, 2007, p. 526; Ibid., 2009, p. 596
- "Phobos flyby images". ESA. 15 March 2010. Retrieved 12 April 2013.
- "Mars Express heading for closest flyby of Phobos". ESA. 1 March 2010. Retrieved 12 April 2010.
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- "CO Meeting Organizer EPSC2010". Copernicus.org. Retrieved 12 April 2013.
- Atkinson, Nancy (20 September 2010). "New Theory Says Phobos Formed From Re-Accretion of Impact Debris". Universe Today. Retrieved 12 April 2013.
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- Erard, Stéphane; Calvin, Wendy (December 1997). "New Composite Spectra of Mars, 0.4–5.7 μm". Icarus 130 (2): 449–460. Bibcode:1997Icar..130..449E. doi:10.1006/icar.1997.5830.
- Hoagland, Richard C.; Bara, Michael (2001). "A New Model of Mars as a Former Captured Satellite: Bi-Modal Distribution of Key Features Due to Ancient Tidal Stress?"". The Enterprise Mission. Retrieved 12 April 2013.
- "The Importance of Mars". Coast to Coast AM. 26 December 2003. Retrieved 12 April 2013.
- "Machinery Found at Spirit Landing Site". The Enterprise Mission. 2004. Retrieved 12 April 2013.
- "Europa". The Enterprise Mission. 1996. Retrieved 10 April 2013. Provides scanned images of pages from the January 1980 issue of Star & Sky, including the article, "The Europa Enigma," by Richard C. Hoagland
- Greenberg, Ralph (1999 (revised 3 February 2002)). "An Ocean on Europa?". University of Washington. Retrieved 12 April 2013..
- "europa14.jpg". The Enterprise Mission. Retrieved 14 April 2013. Reproduction of age 28 from article, "The Europa Enigma," Star & Sky, January 1980.
- Cassen, P.; Reynolds, R. T.; Peale, S. J. (Accepted 16 July 1979). "Is There Liquid Water on Europa?". Geophysical Research Letters 6 (9): 731–734. doi:10.1029/GL006i009p00731.
- Bara, Michael. "Apollo 12 70mm Hasselblad frame # AS12-46-6807". darkmission.net. Archived from the original on 23 July 2011. Retrieved 16 November 2012.
- Bara, Mike. "Ancient Aliens on the Moon - Chapter 4". Google+. Retrieved 12 April 2013. "Skyscrapers on the Moon over Sinus Medii and “Los Angeles” - AS10-32-4862" Apollo 10 photo of Sinus Medii, scanned on Hoagland's office scanner from a print provided by Ken Johnston.
- "Earth Rising over the Moon: For Art Bell Show 8/20/97". The Enterprise Mission. Retrieved 12 April 2013.
- Hoagland, Richard C.; Bara, Michael. "Data's Head". The Enterprise Mission. Retrieved 12 April 2013.
- Dark Mission, 2009, pp. 246–248
- Dark Mission, 2009, pp. 68–70, 242–243
- Moskowitz, Clara (25 September 2009). "Water Makes Moon Suddenly a More Attractive Destination". SPACE.com (TechMediaNetwork, Inc.). Retrieved 12 April 2013.
- "Water on the Moon". Coast to Coast AM. 24 September 2009. Retrieved 12 April 2013.
- "Lunar Impact Mission". Coast to Coast AM. 6 October 2009. Retrieved 12 April 2013.
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- "Will Mars Odyssey Finally Let The 'Cat Out of The Bag?'". The Enterprise Mission. Retrieved 14 April 2013.
- "JFK & Comet Holmes". Coast to Coast AM. 23 November 2007. Retrieved 14 April 2013.
- "Address at 18th U.N. General Assembly, 20 September 1963" (84 digital pages dated between 16–20 September 1963). Speech Files 03. John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum: Boston, MA: National Archives and Records Administration. 20 September 1963. JFKPOF-046-041. Retrieved 14 April 2013.
- "Table of 'Coincidence': A Guide to the Improbable at NASA and in History". The Enterprise Mission. Retrieved 14 April 2013.
- "A Hoax is a Hoax, of Course, of Course ... Unless its a Hoax of a Different Color". The Enterprise Mission. Retrieved 14 April 2013.
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- Dark Mission, 2009, pp. 62–63, 271–289, Figs. 5-10, 5-11, 5-12, 5-13
- Hoagland, Richard C. and Mars Mission (1992) (VHS video). Hoagland's Mars: Vol. II, The U.N. Briefing, The Terrestrial Connection (VHS tape). New York: BC Video Inc. OCLC 42504936. Video concerns Hoagland's briefing to United Nations staff on 28 February 1992.
- Dark Mission, 2009, caption to Fig. 5-10
- Dark Mission, 2009, p. 286
- "Elenin: A Project Camelot Roundtable Video Conference." 24 June 2011.
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- "Awake & Aware 2011". Project Camelot. Archived from the original on 7 July 2011. Retrieved 16 November 2012. Awake & Aware 2011 conference website: Hoagland spoke on 24 September 2011.
- "Paranormal Documentaries / Space News". Coast to Coast AM. 20 July 2011. Retrieved 14 April 2013.
- "Richard Hoagland on Coast to Coast AM and The REAL Story of Elenin". Exopolitics Great Britain. 24 July 2011. Retrieved 14 April 2013. Page includes two excerpts from the 20 July 2011 Coast to Coast AM program in the MP3 format. See "Coast To Coast AM - Jul 20 2011 - Hour 4.mp3," time index 14:18 - 16:34.
- Robbins, Stuart (30 August 2010). "Richard Hoagland’s Selective Numerology of Comet Elenin". Exposing PseudoAstronomy (Blog). WordPress.com. Retrieved 10 April 2012.
- Atkinson, Nancy (29 August 2011). "Comet Elenin Could Be Disintegrating". Universe Today. Retrieved 14 April 2013.
- "Timeline Photos". Facebook. 29 August 2011. Retrieved 14 April 2013. Hoagland's composite image depicting Elenin's "tetrahedral shield."
- "Related Articles: Enterprise Images of Elenin Hoagland". Coast to Coast AM. 29 August 2011. Retrieved 15 April 2013.
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- "Collision Course -Francis Walsh & Special Guest Richard Hoagland with YU55 News (11-4-2011) Pt.1" on YouTube. Interview continues in part 2.
- "Statement by the Press Secretary on the 2011 APEC Leaders Meeting in Honolulu" (Press release). Washington, D.C.: The White House. 3 June 2010. Retrieved 16 April 2013.
- "Remarks by President Obama and President Medvedev of Russia After Bilateral Meeting" (Press release). Washington, D.C.: The White House. 12 November 2011. Retrieved 16 April 2013.
- "News segment guests: Douglas Hagmann, Richard C. Hoagland, Stephen Bassett". Coast to Coast AM. 7 November 2011. Retrieved 17 April 2013.
- "Mars, Ancient Life, & 'John Carter'". Coast to Coast AM. 2 April 2012. Retrieved 17 April 2013.
- andros (15 April 2005). "Bruce DePalma - Inertial Field Experiment". OverUnity Forum. Hartmann Multimedia Service. Retrieved 10 April 2013. Undated letter by Andrew Mount to Stefan Marinov, et al.
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- "MicroSet Precision Timer". Retrieved 17 April 2013. Mumford Micro Systems' MicroSet webpage.
- "Accutron-Coral-4-Tower-June8.jpg". The Enterprise Mission. Retrieved 17 April 2013. Report by Hoagland.
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- "Mayan Galactic Cruise - Richard Hoagland Expedition Gets Kicked Out of Chichen Itza" on YouTube.
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- "Ken Johnston - Guests - Coast to Coast AM". Coast to Coast AM. Retrieved 18 April 2013. Ken Johnston's biography and list of guest appearances on Coast to Coast AM.
- Dark Mission, 2009, p. 215
- Dark Mission, 2009, "The Ken Johnston Collection," pp. 214–234
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- Official website
- Richard C. Hoagland - Guests - Coast to Coast AM Richard C. Hoagland's biography and list of guest appearances on Coast to Coast AM.
- Richard C. Hoagland at the Internet Movie Database
- Richard C. Hoagland at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database
- Richard C. Hoagland on Facebook