Richard Caldwell or Caldwall M.D. (1505?–1584) was an English physician, known for his part in founding the Lumleian Lectures.
Caldwall was born in Staffordshire about 1505. He was educated at Brasenose College, Oxford, graduating B.A. in 1533, and became a Fellow. Later he moved to Christ Church and there graduated M.D. in 1554.
Caldwall was admitted a Fellow of the College of Physicians in 1559, was made a censor the same day, and was elected president in 1570. With John Lumley, 1st Baron Lumley he founded a surgery lecture in the college.
By 1572 Caldwall was infirm, and was excused from attendance at its meetings by the college. He died in 1584, and was buried in St Benet's, Paul's Wharf. William Camden described his tomb—an elaborate work in later renaissance style, adorned with surgical instruments.
One of Caldwell's works was published, after his death. It was a translation of some Tables of Surgerie, from a Latin work by Horatius Morus of Florence, based on the writings of Jean Tagault. The book had both English and Latin text. Edward Caldwell, son or nephew, presented 500 copies to the College.