|17th Surgeon General of the United States|
August 5, 2002 – July 31, 2006
|President||George W. Bush|
|Preceded by||Kenneth Moritsugu (Acting)|
|Succeeded by||Kenneth Moritsugu (Acting)|
November 22, 1949 |
New York City, New York, U.S.
|Political party||Independent (Before 2011)
|Alma mater||City University of New York, Bronx
University of California, San Francisco
University of Arizona
Richard Henry Carmona (born November 22, 1949) is an American nurse, physician, police officer, public health administrator, and politician. He was a vice admiral in the Public Health Service Commissioned Corps and served as the seventeenth Surgeon General of the United States. Appointed by President George W. Bush in 2002, Carmona left office at the end of July 2006 upon the expiration of his term. After leaving office, Carmona was highly critical of the Bush administration for suppressing scientific findings which conflicted with the Administration's ideological agenda.
In August 2006, Carmona returned home to Tucson, Arizona. In November 2011, he announced he would seek the Democratic Party's nomination for United States Senate in the hopes of succeeding outgoing Republican Senator Jon Kyl, despite being registered as a political Independent. He lost to Republican challenger Congressman Jeff Flake.
- 1 Early life, education, and early career
- 2 Medical career
- 3 Law enforcement career
- 4 Surgeon General
- 5 Post-Surgeon General career
- 6 2012 U.S. Senate election
- 7 Electoral history
- 8 Personal life
- 9 Awards and decorations
- 10 See also
- 11 References
- 12 External links
Early life, education, and early career
Carmona was born in New York City, of Puerto Rican descent, and raised in Harlem. After dropping out of DeWitt Clinton High School at age 16, he enlisted in the U.S. Army in 1967. While enlisted, he received his General Educational Development (GED), joined the United States Army Special Forces, became a combat-decorated Vietnam veteran, and began his career in medicine as a Special Forces Aidman, at the time the only medics in the world recognized under the Geneva Convention as armed combatants.
After leaving active duty, Carmona attended the Bronx Community College of the City University of New York, where he earned his associate of arts degree in nursing. In 1977, he graduated from the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), with a bachelor of science degree in biology and chemistry; in 1979, he received his medical degree from UCSF, where he was awarded the prestigious gold headed cane as the top graduate. In 1998, he earned a Master's degree in Public Health (M.P.H.) from the University of Arizona.
Carmona worked in various positions in the medical field including paramedic, registered nurse, and physician. He completed a surgical residency at UCSF and a National Institutes of Health-sponsored fellowship in trauma, burns, and critical care. Carmona is a Fellow of the American College of Surgeons and certified in correctional health care and in quality assurance. Carmona has been Chairman of the Arizona Southern Regional Emergency Medical System, Chief Medical Officer, hospital CEO, public health officer, and chief executive officer of the Pima County health care system. In 1997, the Pima County system, which was in financial trouble before he was appointed, continued to lose millions of dollars and he resigned. Carmona was not in control of the assets of the system but was held responsible for them. Carmona was also a professor of medicine at the University of Arizona.
Law enforcement career
He worked for the Pima County Sheriff's Department since 1986. He eventually worked his way up to deputy sheriff. He served as medical director of the county's police and fire departments. He was a peace officer leader of the SWAT division, with expertise in special operations and emergency preparedness, including weapons of mass destruction.
In 1999, he confronted a mentally-ill person who was assaulting someone else at a car accident. After the person would not step out of his car, he shot at Carmona, grazing his head, and the Deputy Sheriff shot back seven times, killing him. The deceased was an ex-convict who had shot and killed his own father that day. In 2000, Carmona was honored at the National Association of Police Organizations TOP COPS award ceremony.
President Bush nominated Carmona to become the 17th Surgeon General of the United States in March 2002. During the nomination process, Carmona was questioned about his management style and the amount of time it took him to become board-certified in his field. Carmona described himself as an "agent of change" willing to question the status quo, but that he always treated "patients, staff, and co-workers with respect." Senators on both sides of the aisle praised Carmona's qualifications and supported his nomination; he was confirmed by the U.S. Senate on July 23, 2002 by a vote of 98-0.
In 2006, Carmona released a landmark Surgeon General's report on the health effects of secondhand smoke. Carmona's report underlined the risks of secondhand smoke exposure, stating: "The debate is over. The science is clear: Secondhand smoke is not a mere annoyance, but a serious health hazard." The report encouraged the adoption of indoor smoking bans and noted that such bans did not appear to have a harmful economic effect on bars and restaurants. After leaving office, Carmona testified before Congress that the Bush Administration had tried for years to "water down" his findings on the dangers of secondhand smoke, and had pressured him not to testify in the tobacco industry's racketeering trial.
In earlier testimony before the U.S. Congress, Carmona stated that he would not object to a ban on all tobacco products "if Congress chose to go that way." The Bush Administration distanced itself from this statement.
Post-Surgeon General career
Carmona is currently vice chairman of the Canyon Ranch resort and spa company, president of the non-profit Canyon Ranch Institute, and a professor at the Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health at the University of Arizona. On June 16, 2010, Ross University School of Medicine named Carmona to its Board of Trustees.
Criticism of Bush administration
On July 10, 2007, Carmona, along with former Surgeons General C. Everett Koop and David Satcher, testified before the United States House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform about political and ideological interference with the Surgeon General's mission. Carmona accused the Bush Administration of preventing him from speaking out on certain public health issues such as embryonic stem cell research, global climate change, emergency contraception, and abstinence-only sex education, where the Administration's political stance conflicted with scientific and medical opinion.
Carmona also testified that the Bush Administration had attempted for years to "water down" his report on the dangers of secondhand smoke and pressured him not to testify in the tobacco industry's racketeering trial: "Anything that doesn't fit into the political appointees' ideological, theological or political agenda is ignored, marginalized or simply buried." According to Carmona, he was even ordered not to attend the Special Olympics because the event was sponsored by the Kennedy family, and was told to mention President Bush three times on every page of his speeches. The Washington Post subsequently identified William R. Steiger as the Bush Administration official who had blocked release of Carmona's report on global health because it conflicted with the Administration's political priorities.
Reuters reported that Carmona's predecessors as Surgeon General had acknowledged the high level of political interference he experienced, saying: "We have never seen it as partisan, as malicious, as vindictive, as mean-spirited as it is today, and you clearly have worse than anyone's had."
2012 U.S. Senate election
Carmona was the Democratic nominee for U.S. Senate in Arizona in the race to replace retiring Republican Senator Jon Kyl. Carmona said that he would bring his experience in science and medicine to the Senate, which will inform his analytical approach to the issues. He has been critical of politicians like Todd Akin and said that health issues should not be politicized.
|United States Senate election in Arizona, 2012|
|Independent||Michael F. Meyer|
Awards and decorations
Badges and insignia
Personal awards and decorations
- "Phoenix Arizona Election Questionnaire for Congress, Richard Carmona". AZ Central. Retrieved 24 October 2012.
- Allen, Paul L. (August 3, 2006). "Tucson proud Richard Carmona one of its own". Tucson Citizen. Retrieved 5-3-2013.
- "Former surgeon general in Bush administration will run as a Democratic in Senate race". The Washington Post. 10 November 2011. Retrieved 13 November 2011.[dead link]
- Phillip, Abby (6 November 2012). "Jeff Flake Wins Arizona Senate Race". OTUS. ABC News. Retrieved 14 November 2012.
- Burger, Timothy J. "PREZ TAPS MAVERICK FOR SURGEON GENERAL", Daily News, March 27, 2002. Accessed September 14, 2009. "Carmona, 52, who dropped out of Dewitt Clinton High School in Harlem at 16 and later joined the Army, got a GED and was a Green Beret in Vietnam, where he was wounded twice."
- Frank, Mitch (March 31, 2002). "The Doctor Is Armed". Time.
- "Who is Dr. Richard Carmona?". Time. 17 July 2002.
- Pear, Robert (March 27, 2002). "Man in the News; A Man of Many Professions -- Richard Henry Carmona". The New York Times.
- "Nominee for surgeon general criticized". The Vindicator. July 9, 2002.
- Kranish, Michael (July 10, 2002). "Bush Nominee Defends Past Carmona Expected To Get Health Post". Boston Globe.
- Meckler, Laura (July 9, 2002). "Surgeon general nominee defends record". Milwaukee Journal Sentinel.
- "Motion to Invoke Cloture on the Nomination of Richard H. Carmona, to be Surgeon General". U.S. Senate: Legislation & Records. July 23, 2002. Retrieved March 30, 2012.
- The Health Consequences of Involuntary Exposure to Tobacco Smoke: A Report of the Surgeon General. Issued June 27, 2006; accessed March 21, 2008.
- Neergaard, Lauran (2006-06-28). "Surgeon General: Beware Secondhand Smoke". Associated Press.
- Doyle, Leonard (2007-07-13). "White House 'gagged' Surgeon General". Politics (New Zealand Herald). Retrieved 2007-07-13.
- Kaufman, Marc (2003-06-04). "Surgeon General Favors Tobacco Ban". Nation (Washington Post). "Surgeon General Richard Carmona said yesterday that he supports the banning of tobacco products -- the first time that the government's top doctor and public health advocate has made such a strong statement about the historically contentious subject."
- "Ross University Names 17th Surgeon General to its Board of Trustees". Ross University. June 16, 2010. Retrieved March 30, 2012.
- Gonzales, Nathan L. (February 7, 2006). "Candidates Battle for Cash in House Open Seats". The Rothenberg Political Report. Retrieved 2012-03-30.
- Rovner, Julie (2007-07-10). "Ex-Surgeon General Says Administration Interfered". Politics (NPR). Retrieved 2007-07-12. "He recalled a meeting where senior White House officials talked about global warming as a liberal cause with no merit."
- Harris, Gardiner (July 10, 2007). "White House Is Accused of Putting Politics Over Science". New York Times.
- Dunham, Will (2007-07-10). "Former Bush surgeon general says he was muzzled". Reuters. "‘Anything that doesn't fit into the political appointees' ideological, theological or political agenda is ignored, marginalized or simply buried’"
- Beckerman, Gal (2007-07-11). "Surgeon General's Warning: Politics always trumps science in the Bush White House". The Kicker (Columbia Journalism Review). Retrieved 2007-07-11. "‘The problem with this approach is that in public health, as in a democracy, there is nothing worse than ignoring science or marginalizing the voice of science for reasons driven by changing political winds.’"
- Bush Aide Blocked Report, Christopher Lee and Marc Kaufman, The Washington Post, July 29, 2007.
- Sullivan, Sean (November 10, 2011). "Carmona Will Run in Arizona". National Journal. Retrieved November 10, 2011.
- Nowicki, Dan (March 28, 2012). "Rival out, path clear for Carmona in Democrat race". The Arizona Republic.
- "Meet Our Candidates: Dr. Richard Carmona for U.S. Senator". October 4, 2012. Retrieved October 7, 2012.
- Richard Carmona for U.S. Senate official campaign web site
- Profile at Project Vote Smart
- Financial information (federal office) at the Federal Election Commission
- Campaign contributions at OpenSecrets.org
- Office of the Surgeon General Richard H. Carmona (2002-2006), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, January 4, 2007
- Hispanic Americans in the U.S. Army
- Dr. Richard Carmona: Nonpartisan Solutions Needed in Wake of Tucson Tragedy - video report by Democracy Now!
- Meet Our Candidates: Dr. Richard Carmona for U.S. Senator - exclusive interview with Planned Parenthood Advocates of Arizona
|Surgeon General of the United States
|Party political offices|
|Democratic nominee for U.S. Senator from Arizona