July 9, 1930|
|Field||Performance art, Installation art, Painting|
|Training||Edinburgh College of Art|
Richard Demarco Gallery
Demarco was a co-founder of the Traverse Theatre in Edinburgh in 1963. Three years later he and other organisers of the theatre's gallery space left the Traverse to establish what became the Richard Demarco Gallery. The gallery, which doubled as a performance venue during the Edinburgh Fringe, ran from 1966 to 1992.
For many years, the Demarco Gallery promoted cultural links with Eastern Europe, both in terms of presenting artists such as Paul Neagu from 1969, Marina Abramović from 1973 and Neue Slowenische Kunst from 1986 within Scotland, organising exhibitions of contemporary Polish, Romanian and Yugoslav art and in establishing outgoing connections for Scottish artists across Europe.
Also particularly notable were the presentations by Tadeusz Kantor's Cricot 2 group during the 1970s and 1980s, including a celebrated unofficial performance of The Water Hen at the former Edinburgh poorhouse during the 1972 Edinburgh Festival. Cricot 2 returned to Edinburgh in later years. Demarco introduced Beuys and Kantor to one another and in one performance of Lovelies and Dowdies Beuys performed under Kantor's direction.
For many years, after the Scottish Arts Council withdrew its annual grant in 1980 following controversy associated with Joseph Beuys' support for Jimmy Boyle, the Demarco Gallery led a financially straitened existence. Since the early 1990s, Richard Demarco's activity has continued under the auspices of the Demarco European Art Foundation.
In November 2008 a substantial selection from Demarco's archives, covering the period 1963-1980, was made available on-line by the University of Dundee [see below for direct link to online archive]. Images of Demarco's activities during this period, in particular collaborations with Joseph Beuys, Tadeusz Kantor, Paul Neagu and Marina Abramović are available in the selection from the Demarco archives. Detailed documentation of the Edinburgh Arts journeys from 1972 to 1980 are also available in this selection.
Countless exhibitions, plays, music, conferences, and 'Edinburgh Arts' journeys organised by Demarco across all of Europe, always including artists and academics from other countries alongside those of Scotland, as well as his consistent internationalism. led to his being successfully nominated as Scotland's European of the Year 2013. This follows his exhibition "Scotland in Europe: Europe in Scotland" in Brussels in 2011. His own artworks were in included in the Italian pavilion of the 2011 Venice Biennale. In 2013 Demarco organized an Italo-Scottish pavilion in Venice.
Richard Demarco has attended every Edinburgh Festival and mounted arts programmes in most of them including major art exhibitions for the Edinburgh International Festival, also called the 'official festival'. He has been extensively involved with the Edinburgh Festival Fringe since its inception, while also being highly critical of it for delivering too much shallow entertainment, the largest arts festival in the world with over 3,000 productions and 40,000 performances each August. Over the years he has put on a wide variety of challenging theatre productions, art exhibitions and other cultural events. Many of the artists, actors, directors, musicians, film makers appearing at his venues have gone on to become world-renowned figures in the arts.
The gallery venue was never run for profit; many performers were allowed to put on productions or exhibit at little or no cost. And Demarco himself has been no stranger to artistic and commercial risks. For instance, in 1995, his venue hosted a group of artists flown out from the then besieged city of Sarajevo alongside an opera installation by the young Damien Hirst. During the Cold War Demarco crossed the Iron Curtain 100 times bringing hundreds of artists and arts groups out of Central and Eastern Europe to perform at the Edinburgh Festival. His programs of more than 1,000 art exhibitions and several thousand performing arts productions, and have included artists from more than 60countries. His ethos is to remain faithful to the founding principle of the Edinburgh Festival, which is to heal the wounds of war through the languages of the arts. Demarco is one of the most widely recognized and best loved arts figures in Scotland and far beyond.
No stranger to media controversy, Demarco has challenged successive Fringe organisers' boundaries by staging festival productions outside Edinburgh. These have included a full costume, full length production of Shakespeare's Macbeth staged on Inchcolm Island in the Firth of Forth.
Always a controversial figure, not least in constantly emphasizing the importance of recalling festival history and high art values however avant-garde, his approach has not always sat easily with the Scottish arts establishment as the Fringe has become increasingly driven by commercial considerations that led to over-dominance of the Comedy Festival in the Edinburgh fringe.
From 1999, Demarco's involvement at the Fringe was in collaboration with Rocket Venues founder Xela Batchelder, as Demarco-Rocket Productions. In 2003, Rocket Venues took over the Roxy (also sometimes known as the Demarco Roxy) Art House, a converted church on the corner of Roxburgh Place and Drummond Street on the South Side of Edinburgh, previously used by the Pleasance Theatre (Pleasance Over-the-Road). In 2008 the building was sold to another organization, who doubled the rent and subsequently left Rocket Venues without a home. Richard Demarco and Xela Batchelder (now a full-time Associate Professor) still collaborate on educational and festival type projects, but on a smaller scale.
Since the 2011 festival, moving from Craigcrook Castle, Demarco's new home for his archives, exhibitions, theatre and other events is Summerhall at the East end of The Meadows, Edinburgh Southside, with hundreds of rooms, Europe's largest private multi-arts centre where 500 productions including over 100 art shows are staged annually. Summerhall was for a century the Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies until purchased from Edinburgh University in November 2011 by buyers closely associated with Demarco over many years. The veterinary school moved to a new campus out side the city at Easter Bush.
Honours and awards
Previously appointed as an OBE, he was raised to a CBE in the New Year Honours List in December 2006. In 1976, Richard Demarco received a Gold Medal from the Polish government and in 1986, he was made a Cavaliere of the Italian Republic. In 2012 he received gold medals simultaneously from both Germany and Poland following a major retrospective entitled Ten Dialogues at the Royal Scottish Academy. Later in the same year he received a gold medal from Romania and another from the Culture Minister of Poland in Warsaw. He has been awarded honorary doctorates by universities in Europe and North America and, from 1993 to 2000, he was Professor of European Culture at the University of Kingston. In 2013, Demarco was featured in an episode of the BBC's The Culture Show hosted by Sue Perkins. The episode celebrated the 50th anniversary of the Traverse Theatre.
- "Focus on Demarco"
- Senay Boztas, Demarco to get a gallery for his 75th, The Sunday Herald, March 6, 2005.
- Palermo Restore, Strategy: Get Arts, Edinburgh College of Art.
- The Top 20 ...Scottish theatre events of all time, The Scotsman, March 13, 2007.
- Ellis, Samantha (13 August 2003). "Water Hen, Edinburgh, August 1972". The Guardian. Retrieved 31 December 2011.
- Shows that put fringe on cultural map of Britain, Times Online, June 12, 2005 .
- "Demarco made CBE in honours list". BBC News. 30 December 2006. Retrieved 1 January 2012.
- "The Culture Show at Edinburgh: Happy Birthday Traverse". BBC News. 28 August 2013. Retrieved 29 August 2013.
- Studio International articles by Demarco
- Demarco activities in the Edinburgh Festival
- Demarco activities in the Edinburgh Festival
- Demarco European Foundation Website
- Demarco Archive