Richard FitzAlan, 11th Earl of Arundel
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|The Earl of Arundel|
gules, a lion rampant or
|Died||21 September 1397
|Title||Earl of Arundel, Earl of Surrey|
|Children||Thomas, Elizabeth, Joan, Margaret, Alice|
Eleanor of Lancaster
Richard FitzAlan, 11th Earl of Arundel and 9th Earl of Surrey KG (1346 – 21 September 1397) was an English medieval nobleman and military commander.
In 1377 he was Admiral of the West and South. In this capacity, he attacked Harfleur at Whitsun 1378, but was forced to return to his ships by the defenders. Later, he and John of Gaunt attempted to seize Saint-Malo but were unsuccessful.
Power Struggle 
FitzAlan was closely aligned with Thomas, Duke of Gloucester who was uncle of King Richard II. Thomas was opposed to Richard II's desire for peace with France in the Hundred Years War and a power struggle ensued between him and Gloucester. In late 1386, Gloucester forced Richard II to name himself and Richard FitzAlan to Richard's Council. This Council was to all intents and purposes a Regency Council for Richard II, however Richard limited the duration of the Council's powers to be one year.
Knight of the Garter 
In 1386, Richard II named him Admiral of England, as well as being made a Knight of the Garter. As Admiral of England, he defeated a Franco-Spanish-Flemish fleet off Margate in March 1387, along with Thomas de Mowbray, Earl of Nottingham.
New Favourites 
In August, the King dismissed Gloucester and FitzAlan from the Council and replaced them with his favourites - including the Archbishop of York, Alexander Neville, the Duke of Ireland Robert de Vere, Michael de la Pole the Earl of Suffolk, Sir Robert Tresilian who was the Chief Justice, and the former Mayor of London Nicholas Brembre.
Radcot Bridge 
The King summoned Gloucester and FitzAlan to a meeting, but instead of coming, they raised troops and defeated the new Council at Radcot Bridge, taking the favorites prisoner. The Merciless Parliament the next year condemned the favorites. FitzAlan was one of the Lords Appellant who accused and condemned Richard II's favorites. He made himself particularly odious to the King by refusing, along with Gloucester to spare the life of Sir Simon Burley who had been condemned by the Merciless Parliament, even though the queen, Anne of Bohemia went down on her knees before them to beg for mercy. King Richard never forgave this humiliation and planned and waited for his moment of revenge. In 1394 FitzAlan further antagonized the King by arriving late for the queen's funeral. Richard II in a rage snatched a wand and struck FitzAlan in the face and drew blood. Shortly after that, the King feigned a reconciliation but he was only biding his time for the right moment to strike. Arundel was named Governor of Brest in 1388.
Opposed to Peace 
Peace was concluded with France in 1389, however Richard FitzAlan followed Gloucester's lead and stated that he would never agree with the peace that had been concluded.
Marriage and children 
Arundel married twice.
- Thomas FitzAlan, 12th Earl of Arundel
- Lady Eleanor FitzAlan (c.1365- 1375), on 28 October 1371, at the age of about six, married Robert de Ufford. Died childless.
- Elizabeth FitzAlan
- Joan FitzAlan (1375 - 14 November 1435), who married William Beauchamp, 1st Baron Bergavenny;
- Alice FitzAlan (1378- before October 1415), married before March 1392, John Charleton, 4th Baron Cherleton. (not mentioned as an heir of Thomas in the Complete Peerage). Had an affair with Cardinal Henry Beaufort, by whom she had an illegitimate daughter, Jane Beaufort.
- Margaret FitzAlan, who married Sir Rowland Lenthall; by whom she had two sons.
- William (or Richard) FitzAlan
Arundel then married Philippa Mortimer, daughter of Edmund Mortimer, 3rd Earl of March. Her mother was Philippa Plantagenet, the only daughter of Lionel of Antwerp and thus a granddaughter of Edward III. They had no children.
Death and Succession 
On 12 July 1397 he was arrested for his opposition to Richard II, as well as plotting with Gloucester to imprison the king. He stood trial at Westminster and was attainted. He was beheaded on 21 September 1397 and was buried in the church of the Augustin Friars, Bread Street, London. Tradition holds that his final words were said to the executioner, "Torment me not long, strike off my head in one blow". In October 1400, the attainder was reversed, and Richard's son Thomas succeeded to his father's estates and honors.
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (August 2012)|
|Ancestors of Richard FitzAlan, 11th Earl of Arundel|
- Some Feudal Coats of Arms and Pedigrees. Joseph Foster. 1902. (p.115)
- G. E. C. The Complete Peerage p. 244-245
- Powell, et al. The House of Lords p. 398
- Seward The Hundred Years War p. 124-125
- Seward The Hundred Years War p. 136-139
- Powell et al. The House of Lords p. 400-401
- Powell et al. The House of Lords p. 404
- Charles Cawley, Medieval Lands, Earls of Arundel (Fitzalan)
- Memorials of the Order of the Garter, from Its Foundation to the Present ... By George Frederick p. 298 accessed 1 November 2007
- Seward The Hundred Years War p. 142
- Powell et al. The House of Lords p. 417
- Thomas B. Costain The Last Plantagenets, page 200
- Cokayne, G. E. The Complete Peerage Microprint Edition Gloucester: Sutton Publishing 2000 ISBN 0-904387-82-8
- Some proposed Corrections to the Complete Peerage accessed on 10 July 2007
- Powell, J. Enoch and Wallis, Keith The House of Lords in the Middle Ages: A History of the English House of Lords to 1540 London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson 1968 ISBN 0-297-76105-6
- Seward, Desmond The Hundred Years War: The English in France, 1337-1453 New York: Atheneum ISBN 0-689-70628-6
- FitzAlan Family accessed on 10 July 2007
- Cawley, Charles, Medieval Lands Project - FitzAlan, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy, retrieved July 2007
|Peerage of England|
|Earl of Arundel
|Earl of Surrey