Vose served as a member of the Maine House of Representatives in 1824, 1835, 1838 and 1839. He was a member of the Maine State Senate from 1840 to 1841. In 1841, he was Senate President. John Fairfield, Governor of Maine at the time, resigned on January 12, 1841 after having been elected to the United States Senate to fill the term of Sen. Reuel Williams who had also resigned. As Senate President, Vose filled Fairfield's unexpired term. He served as Governor of Maine from January 12, 1841 to January 13, 1841. Edward Kent became the governor on January 13, 1841. He returned to his original position and finished his term.