Richard Henry Brunton

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Richard Henry Brunton
Richard Henry Brunton.jpg
Born (1841-12-26)December 26, 1841
Muchalls, Kincardineshire, Scotland
Died April 23, 1901(1901-04-23) (aged 59)
London, England
Nationality Scottish
Occupation Civil engineer, railway engineer, foreign advisor to Japan
Known for Lighthouses

Richard Henry Brunton FRGS MICE (26 December 1841 – 24 April 1901) was the so-called "Father of Japanese lighthouses". Brunton was born in Muchalls, Kincardineshire, Scotland.[1] He was employed by the government of Meiji period Japan as a foreign advisor (o-yatoi gaikokujin), primarily to build lighthouses.

Early life[edit]

Brunton was born in the Coastguard House (now 11 Marine Terrace) at Muchalls, Fetteresso in The Mearns. After training as a railway engineer he joined the Stevenson brothers (David and Thomas Stevenson) who were engaged by the British government to build lighthouses.

The last of Brunton's 26 "children" - the lighthouse at Tsunoshima island, Hohoku, Shimonoseki, Yamaguchi prefecture

Career[edit]

Life in Japan[edit]

Under pressure from British minister Sir Harry Parkes to fulfil its obligations to make the waters and harbors of Japan safe for shipping, the Tokugawa shogunate hired the Edinburgh-based firm of D. and T. Stevenson to chart coastal waters and to build lighthouses where appropriate. The project had already begun under French foreign advisor Léonce Verny, but was not proceeding fast enough for the British.

Brunton was sent from Edinburgh in August 1868 to head the project after being recommended to the Japanese government by the Stevensons, despite the fact that he had no experience in lighthouse building at all. He was accompanied by his wife, sister-in-law and two assistants. The party received word while docked at Aden of the fall of the Tokugawa shogunate and its replacement by the Meiji government, and decided to continue on to Japan, reasoning that the new government was still bound by the international commitments of its predecessor. [2] Over the next seven and a half years designed and supervised the building of 26 Japanese lighthouses in the Western style, along with two lightvessels. (There had been Japanese lighthouses before then, but they were short and squat buildings, such as the old Shirasu lighthouse now in the grounds of Kokura castle in Kitakyushu.) Brunton was accompanied by his wife and two assistants.

The old pre-Brunton Shirasu lighthouse in the grounds of Kokura Castle

Brunton also established a system of lighthouse keepers, modeled on the Northern Lighthouse Board in Scotland.

Aside from his work on lighthouses around Japan, Brunton also surveyed and drew the first detailed maps of Yokohama, planned its sewage system, street paving and gas lights, established a telegraph system, and designed and built the settlement's first iron bridge. He also helped found Japan's first school of civil engineering. In recognition of his efforts, he was received by Emperor Meiji in an audience in 1871.[2]

Brunton returned to London on a leave of absence in July 1872, and was enlisted to assist the Iwakura Mission during its visit. In September, Brunton took Ito Hirobumi and a group of his assistants to visit 28 factories around London making a variety of manufactured goods, and continued on to Birmingham, Manchester and Liverpool before rejoining the main group of the Iwakura Mission in Edinburgh in early October. [3]

Brunton and Yokohama - the plaque next to his statue in Yokohama records all he did for the city.

Return to Britain[edit]

After disgreeing with Japanese officials he left Japan in March, 1876, later receiving a prize for his paper "Japan Lights".

On his return he first set up in Glasgow for Young's Paraffin Oil, before moving to South London in 1881 making architectural plasterwork, where he remained until his death. He is buried in West Norwood Cemetery, where his marble memorial there was restored by Yokohama Chamber of Commerce in 1991.

List of Brunton's Japanese Lighthouses[edit]

The names of the 26 lighthouses (Brunton's "children") constructed by Brunton, in order of north to south, and the names of their present locations after mergers of towns etc.

Omaezaki lighthouse
English Japanese Location Illuminated
Nosappuzaki Lighthouse 納沙布岬灯台 Nemuro, Hokkaidō August 15, 1872
Shiriyazaki Lighthouse 尻屋埼灯台 Higashidori, Aomori October 20, 1876
Kinkasan Lighthouse 金華山灯台 Ishinomaki, Miyagi November 1, 1876
Inubōsaki Lighthouse 犬吠埼燈台 Chōshi, Chiba November 15, 1874
Haneda Lighthouse 羽田灯台 Ōta, Tokyo March 15, 1875 (now extinguished)
Tsurugisaki Lighthouse 剱埼灯台 Miura, Kanagawa March 1, 1871
Mikomotoshima Lighthouse 神子元島灯台 Shimoda, Shizuoka January 1, 1870
Irōzaki Lighthouse 石廊埼灯台 Minamiizu, Shizuoka October 5, 1871
Omaezaki Lighthouse 御前埼灯台 Omaezaki, Shizuoka May 1, 1874
Sugashima Lighthouse 菅島灯台 Toba, Mie July 1, 1873
Anorisaki Lighthouse 安乗埼灯台 Ago, Mie April 1, 1873
Tenpōzan Lighthouse 天保山灯台 Minato-ku, Osaka October 1, 1872 (now extinguished)
Wadamisaki Lighthouse 和田岬灯台 Suma-ku, Kobe October 1, 1872 (now extinguished)
Esaki Lighthouse 江埼燈台 Awaji, Hyōgo April 27, 1871
Kashinozaki Lighthouse 樫野埼灯台 Kushimoto, Wakayama July 8, 1870
Shionomisaki Lighthouse 潮岬灯台 Kushimoto, Wakayama September 15, 1873
Tomogashima Lighthouse 友ヶ島灯台 Wakayama, Wakayama August 1, 1872
Mutsurejima Lighthouse 六連島灯台 Shimonoseki, Yamaguchi January 1, 1872
Tsunoshima Lighthouse 角島灯台 Shimonoseki, Yamaguchi March 1, 1876
Tsurishima Lighthouse 釣島灯台 Matsuyama, Ehime June 15, 1873
Nabeshima Lighthouse 鍋島灯台 Sakaide, Kagawa December 15, 1872 (now extinguished)
Hesaki Lighthouse 部埼灯台 Kitakyūshū, Fukuoka March 1, 1872
Shirasu Lighthouse 白州灯台 Kitakyūshū, Fukuoka September 1, 1873
Eboshijima Lighthouse 烏帽子島灯台 Shima, Fukuoka August 1, 1875
Iojimazaki Lighthouse 伊王島灯台 Nagasaki, Nagasaki September 14, 1871
Satamizaki Lighthouse 佐多岬灯台 Minamiosumi, Kagoshima November 20, 1871

Memoir[edit]

Brunton wrote a memoir of his time in Japan, titled Pioneer Engineering in Japan: A Record of Work in helping to Re-Lay the Foundations of Japanese Empire (1868-1876). However, it was not published until the 1990s, when it was printed by separate publishers under two different names: Building Japan 1868-1876 and Schoolmaster to an Empire: Richard Henry Brunton in Meiji Japan, 1868-1876. (See below.)

The former, containing the text (with some modified spellings) as edited by William Elliot Griffis at the turn of the twentieth century, contains plates with photos and illustrations. The latter however, purports to be based on a manuscript predating the heavy editing of Griffis, while retaining updated versions of Griffis's footnotes.

  • Schoolmaster to an Empire by R. Henry Brunton, edited by Edward R. Beauchamp, Greenwood Press, 1991, ISBN 0-313-27795-8

In his memoir, Brunton describes in some detail the burial of Frank Toovey Lake, a midshipman who was sailing with him on HMS Manilla when he was making his first survey of locations to site lighthouses. His high regard for the care that the islanders gave to the grave was, as he himself admitted in his book, in contrast to his general impression of the Japanese.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Centenary memorial service for Richard Henry Brunton
  2. ^ a b McKay, Alexander (2012). Scottish Samurai: Thomas Blake Glover, 1838-1911. ISBN 085786730X: Canongate Books. .
  3. ^ Nish, Ian (2008). The Iwakura Mission to America and Europe: A New Assessment. ISBN 020398563X: Routledge.  page 37

External links[edit]