Richard Leveridge

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Richard Leveridge
Leveridge composer.jpg
Portrait of Richard Leveridge, Engraved by J. Saunders, After Thomas Frye (circa 1710-1762)
Background information
Born (1670-07-19)19 July 1670
St Martin-in-the-Fields
Died 22 March 1758(1758-03-22) (aged 87)
High Holborn
Genres baroque music
Occupations singer; composer;
coffee shop owner
Instruments bass
Years active 1695–1753

Richard Leveridge (or Leueridge) (19 July 1670 – 22 March 1758) was an English bass singer of the London stage and a composer of baroque music, including many popular songs.


He was born in the parish of St Martin-in-the-Fields, London, in 1670, and in 1695 became the leading bass singer in the company managed by Christopher Rich, with which Henry Purcell worked, playing roles such as the magician Ismeron in The Indian Queen, where he sang the major aria "Ye twice ten hundred deities".[1] [2] After Purcell's death he continued to work for composers Daniel Purcell and Jeremiah Clarke. Leveridge also began to compose music, and in February 1699 all three provided music for an adaptation of Fletcher's The Island Princess, in which Leveridge's performance was widely acclaimed.

Two books of his songs were published in 1697 and 1699, and his popular theatre songs also appeared as single sheet music. After a spell in Dublin he returned to London in 1702 for a revival of The Island Princess and a new production of Macbeth billed as "with music Vocal and Instrumental, all new Composed by Mr Leveridge". He sang the role of Hecate in this work for nearly 50 years, and the music remained popular for more than a century after his death.[3]

Leveridge became involved in the new trend for operas, in the Italian style from 1705, appearing in Arsinoë (1705), Camilla (1706), Rosamond (1707), Thomyris (1707), and Love's Triumph (1708). Some of these productions had mixed English and Italian singers, but when the fashion became entirely Italian Leveridge was replaced in the bass roles by the Italian basso Boschi.[4] He then began a short association with Handel, in 1713 to 1714, and acted in the first performances of Il pastor fido and Teseo and played Argantes in a revival of Rinaldo. Later in his career, in 1731, he is known to have taken the role of Polypheme (who has the aria O ruddier than the cherry) in a performance of Acis and Galatea[5] and several of Handel's Italian arias were published with English translations by Leveridge.

In 1714, he moved to work at the new theatre at Lincoln's Inn Fields, managed by entrepreneur John Rich. Remaining there for most of his career, he returned to his English repertoire and a new form, the musical afterpiece. These lightweight works were often comic, and in 1716 Leveridge produced his own afterpiece, Pyramus and Thisbe. For this comic parody of Italian opera, he wrote the music, adapting the words from Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream, and sang the role of Pyramus.[6] He was apparently absent from the stage around 1720-24, at which time he ran a coffee shop in Tavistock Street near Covent Garden. However Rich tempted him back, and Leveridge scored a success in 1726 in Apollo and Daphne with Silenus's song Tho' envious old age seems in part to impair me, composed by Johann Ernst Galliard. From that time forth he became the leading bass at Lincoln's Inn Fields[7] and then at Covent Garden.

His repertoire exploited his firm and powerful voice, and several of his songs became popular favourites. Although best known for the light-hearted patriotic ballad "The Roast Beef of Old England", others are lover's complaints or addresses, anacreontics, hunting songs, fairy songs, dramatic pieces, and the like, to the number of more than 150. Written no doubt for his own performance, some contain quite elaborate roulades and word-painting (so his voice was evidently not lacking in colour, breath-control, agility or flexibility), and some have recitatives or short sections of part-writing, introducing dramatic structure into the context of concise set-pieces.

Sir John Hawkins (1776) remarked, "Though he had been a performer in the opera at the same time with Nicolino and Valentini" (possibly meaning Roberto Valentini) "he had no notion of grace or elegance in singing; it was all strength and compass..."[8] In 1789 Charles Burney wrote of him: "I remember his singing Ghosts of every occupation, and several of Purcell's base songs, occasionally, in a style which forty years ago seemed antediluvian: but as he generally was the representative of Pluto, Neptune, or some ancient divinity, it corresponded perfectly with his figure and character. He was not only a celebrated singer of convivial songs, but the writer and composer of many that were in great favour with singers and hearers of a certain class, who more piously performed the rites of Comus and Bacchus, than those of Minerva and Apollo."[9]

Leveridge enjoyed good health and reduced his performances only in the last few seasons before retiring in 1751. He died aged 89 at his lodgings in High Holborn, London, in 1758.

Recorded works[edit]

Henry Fielding wrote "The Roast Beef of England", which is used by both the Royal Navy and the United States Marine Corps, in 1731. Leveridge later arranged it. This version is performed by the United States Navy Band.

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Recordings of works by Richard Leveridge include the songs "Black and gloomy as the grave",[10] "When daisies pied and violets blue",[11] and "The Roast Beef of Old England".[12]


  1. ^ The New Grove Dictionary of Opera: "Leveridge, Richard"
  2. ^ See also 'An account of Richard Leveridge (with a portrait)', The European Magazine and London Review October 1793, pp. 243-44, and November 1793, pp. 363-64.
  3. ^ R. E. Moore, 'The Music to Macbeth', Musical Quarterly xlvii (1961), pp. 22–40; R. Fiske: 'The Macbeth Music', Music and Letters xlv (1964), pp. 114–25.
  4. ^ European Magazine and London Review October 1793, p. 243
  5. ^ Presumably this was the London revival performance of the original work which just preceded Handel's reworking of the opera.
  6. ^ Olive Baldwin and Thelma Wilson, "Leveridge, Richard (1670–1758)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, Sept 2004; online edn, Jan 2008 accessed 12 July 2008 See also, O. Baldwin and T. Wilson: ‘Richard Leveridge, 1670–1758’, Musical Times, cxi (1970), 592–4, 891–3, 988–90.
  7. ^ O. Baldwin and T. Wilson, 'Singers and John Rich's Pantomimes at Lincoln's Inn Fields', in B. Joncus and J. Barlow (Eds), The Stage's Glory: John Rich (1692-1761) (University of Delaware 2011), pp. 156-69. See also O. Baldwin and T. Wilson, 'The Music for Durfey’s Cinthia and Endimion', Theatre Notebook xli (1987), pp. 70–74.
  8. ^ Sir John Hawkins, A General History of the Science and Practice of Music, in Five Volumes (T. Payne and Son, London 1776), Vol. 5, Chapter 9, pp. 182-83.
  9. ^ Charles Burney, A General History of Music: From the Earliest Ages to the Present Period Volume 4 (Author, London 1789), p. 215
  10. ^ Sound the Trumpets from Shore to Shore, Musica Oscura.
  11. ^ Orpheus with His Lute: Music for Shakespeare, Hyperion.
  12. ^ English National Songs, Saydisc.

External links[edit]