Richard Ramirez

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This article is about the serial killer. For the noise musician, see Richard Ramirez (musician).
Richard Ramirez
Richard Ramirez 2007.jpg
2007 mugshot of Ramirez
Born (1960-02-29)February 29, 1960
El Paso, Texas
Died June 7, 2013(2013-06-07) (aged 53)
Greenbrae, California
Cause of death
B-cell lymphoma
Other names The Night Stalker
The Walk-In Killer
The Valley Intruder
Criminal penalty
Death penalty
Spouse(s) Doreen Lioy (m. 1996div. 2013)
Conviction(s)
Killings
Victims 14
Span of killings
April 10, 1984–August 24, 1985
Country United States
State(s) California
Date apprehended
August 31, 1985

Ricardo Leyva "Richard" Muñoz Ramírez (February 29, 1960 – June 7, 2013) was an American serial killer, rapist, and burglar. His highly publicized home invasion crime spree terrorized the residents of the greater Los Angeles area, and later the residents of the San Francisco area, from June 1984 until August 1985. Prior to his capture, Ramirez was dubbed the "Night Stalker" by the news media. He used a wide variety of weapons, including handguns, knives, a machete, a tire iron, and a hammer. Ramirez, who was an avowed Satanist, never expressed any remorse for his crimes. The judge who upheld his thirteen death sentences remarked that Ramirez's deeds exhibited "cruelty, callousness, and viciousness beyond any human understanding".[1] Ramirez died of complications from B-cell lymphoma while awaiting execution on California's death row.

Early life[edit]

Ramirez was born in El Paso, Texas, on February 28, 1960, the youngest of Julian and Mercedes Ramirez's five children.[2] His father, a Mexican national and former Juarez policeman who later became a laborer on the Santa Fe railroad,[3] was a hard-working man prone to fits of anger that often resulted in physical abuse.[4] As a child, Ramirez sustained two serious head injuries. When he was two years old a dresser fell on top of him, causing a forehead laceration requiring thirty stitches to close.[5] When he was five years old he was knocked unconscious by a swing at a park,[6] after which he experienced frequent epileptic seizures that persisted into his early teens.[7] As a twelve-year-old he was strongly influenced by his older cousin, Miguel ("Mike") Ramirez,[8] a decorated US Army Green Beret combat veteran who often boasted of his gruesome exploits during the Vietnam War. He shared Polaroid photos of his victims, including Vietnamese women he had raped.[9] In some of the photos Mike posed with the severed head of a woman he had abused.[10] Ramirez, who had smoked marijuana since the age of ten, bonded with Mike over many joints and gory war stories.[11] Mike taught his young cousin some of his military skills, such as killing with stealth and surety.[12] Around this time, Ramirez began to seek escape from his father's violent temper by sleeping in a local cemetery.[12]

"Richie", as he was known to his family, was present when Mike shot his wife, Jessie, in the face with a .38 caliber revolver during a domestic argument on May 4, 1973.[13] After the murder Richie became sullen and withdrawn from his family and peers. Later that year, he moved in with his older sister Ruth and her husband, Roberto, an obsessive "peeping Tom" who took Richie along on his nocturnal missions.[14] He began experimenting with LSD and cultivated an interest in Satanism.[15] Mike Ramirez was found not guilty of Jessie's murder by reason of insanity (with his combat record as a mitigating factor), and was released after four years of incarceration at the Texas State Mental Hospital in 1977. His influence over Richard continued.[16][17]

The adolescent Ramirez began to meld his burgeoning sexual fantasies with violence, including forced bondage and rape.[18] While still in school, he took a job at a local Holiday Inn, where he used his passkey to rob sleeping patrons.[19] His employment ended abruptly after a hotel guest returned to his room to find Ramirez attempting to rape his wife.[20] Though the husband beat Ramirez senseless at the scene, criminal charges were dropped when the couple, who lived out of state, declined to return to testify against him.[21]

Ramirez dropped out of Jefferson High School in the ninth grade and adopted odd sleeping habits.[22][23] At the age of 22 he moved to California, where he settled permanently.[24]

Murders[edit]

On April 10, 1984, 9-year old Mei Leung was found murdered in a hotel basement where Ramirez was living in the Tenderloin district of San Francisco. The girl had been raped, beaten and stabbed to death, and her body was found hanging from a pipe.[25] This, his first known killing, was not initially identified as being connected to the crime spree. In 2009, Ramirez's DNA was matched to DNA obtained at the crime scene.[26]

"Night Stalker" crimes[edit]

On June 28, 1984, 79-year-old Jennie Vincow was found brutally murdered in her apartment in Glassell Park.[27] She had been stabbed repeatedly while asleep in her bed, and her throat was slashed so deeply that she was nearly decapitated.[28]

On March 17, 1985, Ramirez attacked 22-year-old Maria Hernandez outside her home in Rosemead, shooting her in the face with a .22 caliber handgun after she pulled into her garage.[29] Inside the house was her roommate Dayle Okazaki, age 34. She had heard the gunshot and ducked behind a counter to hide when she saw Ramirez enter the kitchen. He was waiting when she checked to see if he was gone, and he shot her once in the forehead, killing her.[30] Hernandez survived her attack because the bullet fired at her ricocheted off the keys she held in her hands as she lifted them to protect herself.[31]

Within an hour of the Rosemead home invasion, Ramirez struck again in Monterey Park. He attacked 30-year-old Tsai-Lian "Veronica" Yu and pulled her out of her car onto the road. He shot her twice with a .22 caliber handgun and fled.[32] A police officer found her still breathing, but she was pronounced dead on arrival at the hospital.[33] The two attacks occurring on the same day bolstered media attention, and in turn caused panic and fear among the public. The news media dubbed the attacker, who was described as having long curly hair, bulging eyes and wide-spaced rotting teeth, "The Walk-in Killer" and "The Valley Intruder".

On March 27, 1985, Ramirez entered a home that he had burglarized a year earlier in Whittier at approximately 2 a.m. and killed the sleeping Vincent Zazzara, age 64, with a gunshot to his head from a .22 caliber handgun.[34] Zazzara's wife Maxine, age 44, was awakened by her husband's murder, and Ramirez beat her and bound her hands while demanding to know where her valuables were.[35] While he ransacked the room, Maxine escaped her bonds and retrieved a shotgun from under the bed, which was not loaded.[36] An infuriated Ramirez shot her three times with the .22, then fetched a large carving knife from the kitchen.[37] Her body was mutilated with multiple stab wounds, and her eyes were gouged out and placed in a jewelry box, which Ramirez left with.[37] The autopsy determined that the mutilations were post-mortem. Ramirez left footprints from a pair of Avia sneakers in the flower beds, which the police photographed and cast. This was virtually the only evidence that the police had at the time. Bullets found at the scene were matched to those found at previous attacks, and the police realized a serial killer was at large. Vincent and Maxine's bodies were discovered by their son, Peter.[38]

On May 14, 1985, Ramirez returned to Monterey Park in search of another random victim and entered the home of Bill Doi, 66, and his disabled wife Lillian, 56.[39] Surprising Doi in his bedroom, he shot him in the face with a .22 semi-automatic pistol as Doi went for his own handgun.[40] After beating the mortally wounded man into unconsciousness, Ramirez entered Lillian's bedroom, bound her with thumbcuffs, then raped her after he had ransacked the home for valuables.[41] Bill Doi died of his injuries while in the hospital.[42]

On the night of May 29, 1985, Ramirez drove a stolen Mercedes-Benz to Monrovia and stopped at the house of Mabel "Ma" Bell, 83, and her sister Florence "Nettie" Lang, 81.[43] Finding a hammer in the kitchen, he bludgeoned and bound the invalid Lang in her bedroom, then bound and bludgeoned Bell before using an electrical cord to electrically shock the woman.[44] After raping Lang, he used Mabel Bell's lipstick to draw a pentagram on her thigh, as well as one on the wall of both bedrooms.[44] Discovered two days later, both women were found alive but comatose; Bell later died of her injuries.[45][46]

The next day, he drove the same car to Burbank and sneaked into the home of Carol Kyle, 42.[47] At gunpoint, he bound Kyle and her 11-year-old son with handcuffs and ransacked the house.[48] He released Kyle to direct him to where the family's valuables were; he then sodomized her repeatedly.[49] He repeatedly ordered her not to look at him, telling her at one point that he would "cut her eyes out". He fled the scene after retrieving the child from the closet and binding the two together again with the handcuffs.[50]

On the night of July 2, 1985, he drove a stolen Toyota to Arcadia, randomly selecting the house of Mary Louise Cannon, 75.[51] After quietly entering the widowed grandmother's home, he found her asleep in her bedroom. He bludgeoned her into unconsciousness with a lamp and then repeatedly stabbed her using a 10-inch butcher knife from her kitchen. She was found dead at the crime scene.[51]

On July 5, 1985, Ramirez broke into a home in Sierra Madre and bludgeoned sixteen-year-old Whitney Bennett with a tire iron as she slept in her bedroom. After searching in vain for a knife in the kitchen, Ramirez attempted to strangle the girl with a telephone cord. He was startled to see sparks emanate from the cord, and when his victim began to breathe, he fled the house believing that Jesus Christ had intervened and saved her.[52] She survived the savage beating, which required 478 stitches to close the lacerations to her scalp.[53]

On July 7, 1985, Ramirez burglarized the home of Joyce Lucille Nelson, 61, again in Monterey Park. Finding her asleep on her living room couch, he beat her to death using his fists and kicking her head. A shoe print from an Avia sneaker was left imprinted on her face.[54] After cruising two other neighborhoods, he returned to Monterey Park and chose the home of Sophie Dickman, 63.[55] Ramirez assaulted and handcuffed Dickman at gunpoint, attempted to rape her, and stole her jewelry; when she swore to him that he had taken everything of value, he told her to "swear on Satan".[56]

On July 20, 1985, Ramirez purchased a machete before driving a stolen Toyota to Glendale.[57] He chose the home of Maxon Kneiding, 68, and his wife Lela, 66.[58] He burst into the sleeping couple's bedroom and hacked them with the machete, then killed them with shots to the head from a .22 caliber handgun.[59] He further mutilated their bodies with the machete before robbing the house of valuables.[59]

After quickly fencing the stolen items from the Kneidling residence, he drove to Sun Valley. At approximately 4:15 am, he broke into the home of the Khovananth family.[60] He murdered the household patriarch, Chainarong Khovananth, by shooting the sleeping man in the head with a .25 caliber handgun, killing him instantly.[61] He then repeatedly raped the man's wife, Somkid Khovananth, beating and sodomizing her. He bound the couple's terrified eight-year-old son before dragging Somkid around the house to reveal the location of any valuable items, which he stole. During his assault he demanded that she "swear to Satan" that she was not hiding any money from him.[62]

On August 6, 1985, Ramirez drove to Northridge and broke into the home of Chris Peterson, 38.[63][64] Ramirez crept into the bedroom and startled Peterson's wife Virginia, 27; he shot her in the face with a .25 caliber semi-automatic handgun.[65] He shot Chris Peterson in the temple and attempted to flee, but Peterson fought back and avoided being hit by two more shots during the struggle before Ramirez escaped.[66] The couple survived their injuries.[67]

On August 8, 1985, Ramirez drove a stolen car to Diamond Bar and chose the home of Elyas Abowath, 31, and his wife Sakina, 27.[68] Sometime after 2:30 am he entered the house and went into the master bedroom. He instantly killed the sleeping Elyas with a shot to the head from a .25 caliber handgun.[69] He handcuffed and beat Sakina while forcing her to reveal the locations of the family's jewelry, and then brutally raped and sodomized her. He repeatedly demanded that she "swore on Satan" that she wouldn't scream during his assaults.[70][71] When the couple's three-year-old son entered the bedroom, Ramirez tied the child up and then continued to rape Sakina.[72] After Ramirez left the home, Sakina untied her son and sent him to the neighbors for help.[73]

Ramirez, who had been following the media coverage of his crimes, left the Los Angeles area and headed to the San Francisco Bay area.[74] On August 18, 1985, Ramirez entered the home of Peter Pan, aged sixty-six, and killed the sleeping man with a gunshot to his temple from a .25 caliber handgun.[75] Pan's wife, Barbara, 62, was beaten and sexually violated before being shot in the head and left for dead.[76] At the crime scene Ramirez used lipstick to scrawl a pentagram and the phrase "Jack the Knife" on the bedroom wall.[76]

When it was discovered that the ballistic and shoe print evidence from the Night Stalker crime scenes matched the Pan crime scene, then-mayor of San Francisco Dianne Feinstein divulged the information in a televised press conference.[77] This leak infuriated the detectives in the case, as they knew that the killer would be following media coverage and have an opportunity to destroy crucial forensic evidence.[77] Ramirez, who had indeed been watching the press, dropped his size 11 1/2 Avia sneakers over the side of the Golden Gate Bridge that night.[78] He remained in the area for a few more days before heading back to the L.A. area.[78]

On August 24, 1985, Ramirez traveled 76 miles south of Los Angeles in a stolen orange Toyota to Mission Viejo, and broke into the house of Bill Carns, 29, and his fiancée, Carole Smith, 27, through a back door.[79] Ramirez entered the bedroom of the sleeping couple and awakened Carns when he cocked his .25 caliber handgun. He shot Carns three times in the head before turning his attention to Smith. Ramirez told the terrified woman that he was "The Night Stalker" and forced her to swear she loved Satan as he beat her with his fists and bound her with neckties from the closet.[80] After stealing what he could find, he dragged Smith to another room to rape and sodomize her. He then demanded cash and more jewelry, making Smith "swear on Satan" there was no more. Before leaving the home Ramirez told Smith, "Tell them the Night Stalker was here."[81] As he left in the Toyota, thirteen-year-old neighbor James Romero III noticed the same "weird-looking guy in black" that he had seen earlier in the night and thought suspicious, and he decided to write down as much of the license plate as he could.[82] Carole Smith untied herself and went to a neighbor's house to get help for her severely injured fiancé. Surgeons were able to remove two of the bullets from his head, and he survived his injuries.[83]

When news of the attack broke, Romero told his parents about the strange man in the orange Toyota, and they immediately contacted the police and provided the partial license plate number.[83] Carole Smith was able to give a detailed description of the assailant to investigators.[84] The stolen car was found on August 28 in Wilshire, and police were able to obtain a single fingerprint from the rear view mirror despite Ramirez's careful efforts to wipe the car clean of his prints.[83] The print was positively identified as belonging to Richard Muñoz Ramirez, who was described as a 25-year-old drifter from Texas with a long rap sheet that included many arrests for traffic and illegal drug violations.[85] Law enforcement officials decided to release a mug shot of Ramirez from a December 12, 1984 arrest (photo, below right) for car theft to the media, and "The Night Stalker" finally had a face.[86] At the police press conference it was announced: "We know who you are now, and soon everyone else will. There will be no place you can hide."[87]

Capture[edit]

Ramirez was 24 years old when he began his serial murders. This mugshot of Ramirez, taken on December 12, 1984 after an arrest for car theft, directly led to his apprehension.[86]

On August 30, 1985, Ramirez took a bus to Tucson, Arizona to visit his brother, unaware that he had become the lead story in virtually every major newspaper and television news program across the state of California.[88][89] After failing to meet his brother, he returned to Los Angeles early on the morning of August 31. He walked past officers who were staking out the bus terminal in hopes of catching the killer should he attempt to flee on an outbound bus. He walked a few blocks to a convenience store in East Los Angeles. After noticing a group of elderly Mexican women fearfully identifying him as "El Matador" (or "The Killer"), Ramirez saw his face on the covers on the newspaper rack and fled the store in a panic.[90] After running across the Santa Ana Freeway, he attempted to carjack a woman, but was chased away by bystanders, who pursued him.[91] After hopping over several fences and attempting two more carjackings, he was eventually subdued by a group of residents, one of whom had struck him over the head with a metal bar in the pursuit. The group held him until police arrived and took Ramirez into custody.[92]

Trial and conviction[edit]

Jury selection for the case started on July 22, 1988. At his first court appearance, Ramirez raised a hand with a pentagram drawn on it and yelled, "Hail, Satan."[93] On August 3, 1988, the Los Angeles Times reported that some jail employees overheard Ramirez planning to shoot the prosecutor with a gun, which Ramirez intended to have smuggled into the courtroom.[94] Consequently, a metal detector was installed outside the courtroom and intensive searches were conducted on people entering. On August 14, the trial was interrupted because one of the jurors, Phyllis Singletary, did not arrive at the courtroom. Later that day, she was found shot to death in her apartment. The jury was terrified; they could not help wondering if Ramirez had somehow directed this event from inside his prison cell, and if he could reach other jury members. However, Ramirez was not responsible for Singletary's death; she had been shot and killed by her boyfriend, who later committed suicide with the same weapon in a hotel.[95] The alternate juror who replaced Singletary was too frightened to return to her home.

On September 20, 1989, Ramirez was found guilty of all charges: 13 counts of murder, 5 attempted murders, 11 sexual assaults and 14 burglaries.[96] During the penalty phase of the trial on November 7, 1989, he was sentenced to die in California's gas chamber.[97] He stated to reporters after the death sentences, "Big deal. Death always went with the territory. See you in Disneyland."[98]

The trial cost $1.8 million, which at the time made it the most expensive in the history of California, until surpassed by the O. J. Simpson murder case in 1994.[99]

By the time of the trial, Ramirez had fans who were writing him letters and paying him visits.[100] Beginning in 1985, freelance magazine editor Doreen Lioy[101] wrote him nearly 75 letters during his incarceration. In 1988, he proposed to her, and on October 3, 1996, they were married in California's San Quentin State Prison.[102] For many years before Ramirez's death, Lioy stated that she would commit suicide when Ramirez was executed. However, Doreen Lioy and Richard Ramirez eventually separated and at the time of his death, Richard Ramirez was engaged to a twenty-three year old writer who was residing between Los Angeles and New York City. By some estimates, he would have been in his early seventies before his execution was carried out, due to the lengthy California appeals process.[103]

Appeals[edit]

On August 7, 2006, his first round of state appeals ended unsuccessfully when the California Supreme Court upheld his convictions and death sentence. On September 7, 2006, the California Supreme Court denied his request for a rehearing.[104] Ramirez had appeals pending until the time of his death.[105]

Death[edit]

Ramirez died of complications secondary to B-cell lymphoma at Marin General Hospital in Greenbrae, California, at 9:10 a.m. on June 7, 2013.[106][93][107] Ramirez had also been suffering from the effects of "chronic substance abuse and chronic hepatitis C viral infection."[106] At 53 years old, Ramirez had been on death row for more than 23 years awaiting execution by the state of California.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Botelho, Greg (7 June 2013). ""Night Stalker", mass murderer, dies". CNN. p. 3. Retrieved 8 June 2013. 
  2. ^ Carlo 1996, p. 191.
  3. ^ "Biography". Crime and investigation network UK. AETN UK. Retrieved 22 May 2012. 
  4. ^ Carlo 1996, p. 186.
  5. ^ Carlo 1996, p. 195.
  6. ^ Carlo 1996, p. 200.
  7. ^ Carlo 1996, p. 202.
  8. ^ Martin, Douglas (7 June 2013). "Richard Ramirez, the ‘Night Stalker’ Killer, Dies at 53". New York Times. Retrieved 10 June 2013. 
  9. ^ Carlo 1996, p. 207.
  10. ^ Carlo 1996, p. 208.
  11. ^ Carlo 1996, pp. 208–209.
  12. ^ a b Carlo 1996, p. 209.
  13. ^ Carlo 1996, pp. 210–211.
  14. ^ Carlo 1996, pp. 219–220.
  15. ^ Carlo 1996, p. 220.
  16. ^ Carlo 1996, p. 213.
  17. ^ Carlo 1996, p. 227.
  18. ^ Carlo 1996, pp. 218–219.
  19. ^ Carlo 1996, pp. 223–224.
  20. ^ Carlo 1996, pp. 224–225.
  21. ^ Carlo 1996, p. 226.
  22. ^ Valdez, Diana Washington (2013-06-08). "El Paso relatives of 'Night Stalker' Richard Ramirez react to his death". El Paso Times. Retrieved 2013-11-05. 
  23. ^ Richard Ramirez, the Night Stalker — 'A Good Boy' — Crime Library on truTV.com
  24. ^ Foreman 1992, p. 115.
  25. ^ Van Derbeken, Jaxon (October 23, 2009). "'Night Stalker' tied to slaying of S.F. girl". San Francisco Chronicle (SFGate). 
  26. ^ Vives, Ruben (October 23, 2009). "San Francisco police link 'Night Stalker' Richard Ramirez to girl's 1984 slaying". Los Angeles Times. 
  27. ^ Carlo 1996, p. 17.
  28. ^ Carlo 1996, p. 19.
  29. ^ Carlo 1996, pp. 26–27.
  30. ^ Carlo 1996, pp. 27–28.
  31. ^ Carlo 1996, p. 27.
  32. ^ Carlo 1996, p. 30.
  33. ^ Carlo 1996, p. 32.
  34. ^ Carlo 1996, pp. 45–50.
  35. ^ Carlo 1996, p. 50.
  36. ^ Carlo 1996, pp. 50–51.
  37. ^ a b Carlo 1996, p. 51.
  38. ^ Anthony Bruno. "The Night Stalker: Serial Killer Richard Ramirez ("If You Look At Me Again, I'll Shoot You!")". Crime Library. Turner Entertainment Networks, Inc. Retrieved 21 May 2012. 
  39. ^ Carlo 1996, p. 62.
  40. ^ Carlo 1996, pp. 63–64.
  41. ^ Carlo 1996, p. 64.
  42. ^ Carlo 1996, p. 67.
  43. ^ Carlo 1996, pp. 69–70.
  44. ^ a b Carlo 1996, p. 71.
  45. ^ Carlo 1996, pp. 78–79.
  46. ^ "Night Stalker serial killer who terrorized California with a spree of satanic murders dies in hospital after 24 years on death row". Daily Mail. AP. July 7, 2013. Retrieved August 5, 2013. 
  47. ^ Carlo 1996, p. 72.
  48. ^ Carlo 1996, p. 73.
  49. ^ Carlo 1996, p. 74-75.
  50. ^ Carlo 1996, p. 76.
  51. ^ a b Carlo 1996, pp. 90–91.
  52. ^ Carlo 1996, pp. 95–98.
  53. ^ Carlo 1996, p. 101.
  54. ^ Carlo 1996, pp. 105–106.
  55. ^ Carlo 1996, pp. 106–107.
  56. ^ Carlo 1996, pp. 107–108.
  57. ^ Carlo 1996, p. 119.
  58. ^ Carlo 1996, p. 120.
  59. ^ a b Carlo 1996, p. 121.
  60. ^ Carlo 1996, pp. 121–122.
  61. ^ Carlo 1996, p. 123.
  62. ^ Carlo 1996, pp. 123–125.
  63. ^ Carlo 1996, p. 513.
  64. ^ Carlo 1996, p. 135.
  65. ^ Carlo 1996, p. 136.
  66. ^ Carlo 1996, pp. 136–137.
  67. ^ Carlo 1996, p. 137.
  68. ^ Carlo 1996, pp. 139–140.
  69. ^ Carlo 1996, pp. 140–141.
  70. ^ Carlo 1996, pp. 141–142.
  71. ^ Carlo 1996, p. 147.
  72. ^ Carlo 1996, p. 143.
  73. ^ Carlo 1996, p. 145.
  74. ^ Carlo 1996, p. 153.
  75. ^ Carlo 1996, pp. 154–155.
  76. ^ a b Carlo 1996, p. 155.
  77. ^ a b Carlo 1996, p. 157.
  78. ^ a b Carlo 1996, p. 158.
  79. ^ Carlo 1996, pp. 160–162.
  80. ^ Carlo 1996, pp. 162–163.
  81. ^ Carlo 1996, p. 163.
  82. ^ Carlo 1996, p. 161, 164.
  83. ^ a b c Carlo 1996, p. 164.
  84. ^ Anthony Bruno. "The Night Stalker: Serial Killer Richard Ramirez ( "I Love Satan")". Crime Library. Turner Entertainment Networks, Inc. Retrieved 21 May 2012. 
  85. ^ "Crime File – Famous criminal: Richard Ramirez: The Night Stalker". Crime and investigation network UK. AETN UK. Retrieved 22 May 2012. 
  86. ^ a b Carlo 1996, p. 172.
  87. ^ Carlo 1996, p. 173.
  88. ^ Carlo 1996, p. 174.
  89. ^ Carlo 1996, p. 245.
  90. ^ Carlo 1996, pp. 246–247.
  91. ^ Carlo 1996, pp. 247–249.
  92. ^ Carlo 1996, p. 252.
  93. ^ a b Deutsch, Linda; Don Thompson (7 July 2013). "Calif. serial killer Richard Ramirez dies". The Big Story. The Associated Press. Retrieved 2013-06-07. 
  94. ^ Chen, Edwin (August 3, 1988). "Night Stalker Prosecutor Tells of Death Threat". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2007-09-17. 
  95. ^ Katherine Ramsland, PhD. "The Night Stalker: Serial Killer Richard Ramirez (The Los Angeles Trial)". Crime Library. Turner Entertainment Networks. Retrieved 21 May 2012. 
  96. ^ Chen, Edwin (September 21, 1989). "Ramirez Guilty on All Night Stalker Murder Charges". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2007-09-17. 
  97. ^ Charles Montaldo. "The End of the Night Stalker – Richard Ramirez" (Article). About.com. The New York Times Company. Retrieved 21 May 2012. 
  98. ^ "US serial killer Richard Ramirez dies in hospital". The Guardian. Associated Press. 2013-06-07. Retrieved 2013-10-24. 
  99. ^ Greg Botelho (9 June 2013). "Serial killer, rapist Richard Ramirez -- known as 'Night Stalker' -- dead at 53". CNN. Retrieved 29 March 2014. 
  100. ^ Peter Fimrite, Michael Taylor (27 March 2005). "No shortage of women who dream of snaring a husband on Death Row". San Francisco Chronicle. Hearst Communications Inc. Retrieved 22 May 2012. 
  101. ^ "The Night Stalker's wife". CNN. Cable News Network, Inc. Retrieved 22 May 2012. 
  102. ^ Anthony Bruno. "The Night Stalker: "Satanists Don't Wear Gold" (The marriage of Richard Ramirez and Doreen Lioy)". Crime Library. Turner Entertainment Networks, Inc. Retrieved 21 May 2012. 
  103. ^ Barnes, Ed (March 22, 2010). "In California, Killers Sit on 'Symbolic' Death Row for Decades, Costing Billions". Fox News. 
  104. ^ "Supreme Court Minutes Wednesday, September 27, 2006, San Francisco, California". 
  105. ^ "California’s ‘Night Stalker’ serial killer Richard Ramirez dies after decades on death row". The Washington Post. June 7, 2013. 
  106. ^ a b Winton, Richard (June 17, 2013). "'Night Stalker' Richard Ramirez died of complications from lymphoma". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved January 5, 2014. 
  107. ^ Lloyd, Jonathan (7 June 2013). ""Night Stalker" Richard Ramirez Dies". 4 NBC Southern California. Retrieved 2013-06-07. 

Bibliography[edit]

  • Carlo, Philip (1996). The Night Stalker: The Life and Crimes of Richard Ramirez (Paperback ed.). New York, New York: Kensington Publishing Corp. ISBN 978-0-786-00379-2. 
  • Foreman, Laura; The editors of Time-Life Books (1992). Serial Killers – True Crime (Hardcover ed.). Alexandria, Virginia: Time-Life Books. ISBN 978-0-7835-0001-0. 

External links[edit]