Richmond (Yorks) (UK Parliament constituency)

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Coordinates: 54°24′18″N 1°39′11″W / 54.405°N 1.653°W / 54.405; -1.653

Richmond (Yorks)
County constituency
for the House of Commons
Outline map
Boundary of Richmond (Yorks) in North Yorkshire.
Outline map
Location of North Yorkshire within England.
County 1585–1974 North Riding of Yorkshire
1974– North Yorkshire
Electorate 78,902 (December 2010)[1]
Major settlements Catterick, Catterick Garrison, Hawes, Leyburn, Middleham, Northallerton, Richmond
Current constituency
Created 1885
Member of Parliament William Hague (Conservative)
Number of members One
1585–1885
Number of members 1585–1868: Two
1868–1885: One
Type of constituency Borough constituency
Overlaps
European Parliament constituency Yorkshire and the Humber

Richmond (Yorks) is a constituency[n 1] in North Yorkshire represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament since 1989 by William Hague, a Conservative.[n 2]

Constituency profile[edit]

The constituency presents itself as a safe seat for the Conservative Party, having held it continuously since 1910 (if including the 11 years by the allied Unionist Party from 1918), and in the 2010 general election, Richmond produced the largest numerical and percentage majority for a Conservative, 62.8% of the vote. The current MP William Hague, has held the seat since a by-election in 1989 and has held the posts of Leader of the Opposition (1997–2001), Foreign Secretary (2010–2014) and Leader of the House of Commons (2014-).

The constituency consists of in the west the entire Richmondshire district and in the east the northern part of Hambleton District. A mostly rural seat, the population is almost wholly self-supportive[n 3] and in national terms affluent. Leyburn has a monthly farmers' market and is the location for the traditional Wensleydale Railway.

History[edit]

Richmond was one of the parliamentary boroughs in the Unreformed House of Commons that dates to the middle of its long existence, first being represented in 1585. In modern times it has been an ultra-safe seat for the Conservative Party.

From 1983, the seat was represented by the cabinet minister Leon Brittan, after boundary changes saw his Cleveland and Whitby seat abolished; however he resigned from the Commons in December 1988 in order to take up the position of Vice-President of the European Commission.

1989 by-election[edit]

The ensuing by-election, held in February 1989, was won by William Hague, this was the last by-election won by a Conservative candidate during the Conservative Government 1979-1997. Before this, remnants of the Social Democratic Party and their majority breakaway faction who formed the newly merged Social and Liberal Democrats decided to contest the seat which led to vote splitting and from the perspective of both a spoiler effect. The SDP candidate, local farmer Mike Potter, came second, and Hague's majority of 2,634 was considerably smaller than the number of votes for the Social and Liberal Democrat candidate Barbara Peace which arguably could have been combined in one candidate instead (11,589 votes in third place). Hague has retained the seat at every general election since then and significantly built up the Conservative majority to 23,336.

1992 Change in main opposition candidate[edit]

In 1992 the Labour candidate until a few weeks before the election, David Abrahams was deselected after a series of rows within the local party over his personal life and business interests. It emerged in 2007 that he used the name "David Martin" when dealing with tenants in his various rental properties in the Newcastle area;[2] and that he had claimed that he lived with his wife and son, though he had never been married. Divorcee Anthea Bailey later told a local newspaper she and her 11-year old son had posed as Mr Abrahams' family as part of a business arrangement so that Abrahams could create "the right impression".[3][4] The Daily Mail posited this was because the constituency in North Yorkshire would be averse to "a confirmed bachelor who enjoys musical theatre".[5]

Since 2001[edit]

At the 2001 general election, Richmond became the Conservatives' safest seat in the UK, both in terms of the actual numerical majority and by percentage. Although the numerical majority was surpassed by Buckingham at the 2005 election, Richmond has a smaller electorate and had a greater proportion of Conservative voters so retained the second largest percentage majority. Again from 2010, Richmond is the safest Conservative seat in the country, in terms of numerical and percentage majority.

Boundaries[edit]

The Richmond constituency covers the Richmondshire district and the northern part of the Hambleton district. It is an affluent rural area with a significant commuter population, covering parts of the North York Moors and Yorkshire Dales National Parks, including Wensleydale and Swaledale. It contains the market towns of Northallerton, Richmond, Stokesley and Great Ayton as well as surrounding villages. It also includes the large army base, Catterick Garrison.

Boundary review[edit]

Following their review of parliamentary representation in York and North Yorkshire, the Boundary Commission for England recommended minor changes to the Richmond constituency, which come into effect at the 2010 general election.

The revised constituency comprises the following:

Members of Parliament[edit]

MPs 1585-1640[edit]

Parliament First member Second member
1584 John Pepper Marmaduke Wyvill[6]
1586 Robert Bowes Samuel Coxe[6]
1588 James Dale John Smythe[6]
1593 Talbot Bowes John Pepper[6]
1597 Marmaduke Wyvill Cuthbert Pepper[6]
1601 Cuthbert Pepper Talbot Bowes[6]
1604 Sir John Savile Richard Percevall
1614 Sir Talbot Bowes Sir William Richardson
1621 Sir Talbot Bowes William Bowes
1624 Thomas Wandesford Christopher Pepper
1625 Christopher Wandesford Sir Talbot Bowes
1626 Christopher Wandesford Matthew Hutton
1628 Sir Talbot Bowes James Howell
1629–1640 No Parliaments summoned

MPs 1640-1868[edit]

Year First member[7] First party Second member[7] Second party
April 1640 Sir William Pennyman, Bt. Royalist Maulger Norton
November 1640 Sir Thomas Danby Royalist
August 1642 Pennyman disabled to sit - seat vacant
(Pennyman died August 1643)
September 1642 Danby disabled to sit - seat vacant
1645 Thomas Chaloner Francis Thorpe
1653 Richmond was unrepresented in Barebone's Parliament
1654 John Wastal Richmond had only one seat in the First and
Second Parliaments of the Protectorate
1656 John Bathurst
January 1659 Sir Christopher Wyvill, Bt. John Bathurst
May 1659 Thomas Chaloner Francis Thorpe
April 1660 James Darcy Sir Christopher Wyvill, Bt.
1661 Sir John Yorke Joseph Cradock
1662 John Wandesford
1664 Sir William Killigrew
1665 Marmaduke Darcy
1679 Humphrey Wharton Thomas Cradock
1681 John Darcy, Lord Conyers
1685 Thomas Cradock
January 1689 Thomas Yorke
February 1689 Philip Darcy
1690 Sir Mark Milbanke, Bt Theodore Bathurst
1695 Thomas Yorke Sir Marmaduke Wyvill, Bt.
1698 James Darcy
1701 John Hutton
1702 James Darcy
May 1705 Wharton Dunch
December 1705 William Walsh
1708 Harry Mordaunt
1710 John Yorke
1713 Thomas Yorke
1717 John Yorke
1720 Richard Abell
1722 Conyers Darcy
1727 Charles Bathurst Sir Marmaduke Wyvill, Bt.
1728[8] John Yorke Sir Conyers Darcy[9]
1747 Earl of Ancram
1757 Thomas Yorke
1761 Sir Ralph Milbanke
1763 Thomas Dundas
March 1768 Alexander Wedderburn Sir Lawrence Dundas, Bt[10]
November 1768 William Norton
1769 Charles John Crowle
1774 Thomas Dundas[11] Sir Lawrence Dundas, Bt[10]
January 1775 Charles Dundas
December 1775 William Norton
1780 Marquess of Graham Sir Lawrence Dundas, Bt
1781 George Fitzwilliam
1784 The Earl of Inchiquin Charles Dundas
1786 Sir Grey Cooper
1790 Lawrence Dundas Whig
1796 Charles George Beauclerk
1798 Arthur Shakespeare Whig
1802 George Heneage Lawrence Dundas Whig
1806 Charles Lawrence Dundas Whig
1808 Lawrence Dundas Whig
1810 Robert Chaloner Whig
January 1812 George Heneage Lawrence Dundas Whig
October 1812 Dudley Long North Whig
1818 Thomas Dundas Whig Viscount Maitland Whig
1820 Samuel Barrett Moulton Barrett Whig
1828 Hon. Sir Robert Dundas Whig
1830 Hon. John Dundas Whig
1835 Alexander Speirs Whig Hon. Thomas Dundas[12] Whig
1839 Hon. Sir Robert Dundas Whig
February 1841 Hon. George Wentworth-FitzWilliam Whig
June 1841 Hon. John Dundas Whig Hon. William Colborne Whig
1846 Henry Rich Whig, later Liberal
1847 Marmaduke Wyvill Whig, later Liberal
1861 Sir Roundell Palmer Liberal
1865 Hon. John Dundas Liberal
1866 Marmaduke Wyvill Liberal

MPs since 1868[edit]

Richmond, 1918-1948

The seat has been represented since a by-election in 1989 by William Hague, former Leader of the Opposition and current Foreign Secretary.

Election Member[7] Party
1868 Sir Roundell Palmer Liberal
1872 by-election Lawrence Dundas Liberal
1873 by-election Hon. John Dundas Liberal
1885 Sir Frederick Milbank, Bt Liberal
1886 George Elliot[13] Conservative
1895 John Hutton Conservative
1906 Francis Dyke Acland Liberal
Jan 1910 Hon. William Orde-Powlett Conservative
1918 Sir Murrough John Wilson Unionist
1929 Thomas Dugdale Conservative
1959 Timothy Kitson Conservative
1983 Leon Brittan Conservative
1989 by-election Rt Hon William Hague Conservative

Elections[edit]

Elections in the 2010s[edit]

General Election 2010: Richmond (Yorks)[14]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative William Hague 33,541[15] 62.8 +3.5
Liberal Democrat Lawrence Meredith 10,205 19.1 +2.2
Labour Eileen Driver 8,150 15.3 −5.3
Green Leslie Rowe 1,516 2.8 −0.3
Majority 23,336 43.7 +4.1
Turnout 53,412 67.2 +2.6
Conservative hold Swing +4.4

Elections in the 2000s[edit]

General Election 2005: Richmond (Yorks)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative William Hague 26,722 59.1 +0.2
Labour Neil Foster 8,915 19.7 −2.2
Liberal Democrat Jacquie Bell 7,982 17.7 −0.2
Green Leslie Rowe 1,581 3.5 N/A
Majority 17,807 39.4 +2.4
Turnout 45,200 65.0 −2.5
Conservative hold Swing +1.2
General Election 2001: Richmond (Yorks)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative William Hague 25,951 58.9 +10.1
Labour Co-op Fay Tinnion 9,632 21.9 −5.9
Liberal Democrat Edward Forth 7,890 17.9 −0.5
Monster Raving Loony Boney Maronie Steniforth 561 1.3 N/A
Majority 16,319 37.0 +15.9
Turnout 44,034 67.4 −6.0
Conservative hold Swing +8.0

Elections in the 1990s[edit]

General Election 1997: Richmond (Yorks)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative William Hague 23,326 48.9 −13.0
Labour Co-op Steven Merritt 13,275 27.8 +16.2
Liberal Democrat Jane Harvey 8,773 18.4 -7.3
Referendum Party Alex Bentley 2,367 5.0 N/A
Majority 10,051 21.1 −15.1
Turnout 47,741 73.4 −5.0
Conservative hold Swing −13.9
General Election 1992: Richmond (Yorkshire)[16]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative William Hague 40,202 61.9 +0.6
Liberal Democrat George Irwin 16,698 25.7 −1.3
Labour Ross Cranston 7,523 11.6 −0.2
Independent A. Michael Barr 570 0.9 N/A
Majority 23,504 36.2 +1.9
Turnout 64,993 78.4 +6.3
Conservative hold Swing +1.0

Elections in the 1980s[edit]

Richmond by-election, 1989
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative William Hague 19,543 37.2 -24.0
Social Democrat Mike Potter 16,909 32.2
Social and Liberal Democrats Barbara Pearce 11,589 22.1 -4.9
Labour Frank Robson 2,591 4.9 -6.9
Green Dr Robert Upshall 1,473 2.8
Monster Raving Loony Screaming Lord Sutch 167 0.3
Independent Anthony Millns1 113 0.2
Corrective Party Lindi St Clair 106 0.2
Liberal Nicholas Watkins 70 0.1
Majority 2,634 5.0
Turnout 52,561 64.4
Conservative hold Swing
General Election 1987: Richmond (Yorks)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Leon Brittan 34,995 61.23
Liberal D. Lloyd-Williams 15,419 26.98
Labour F. Robson 6,737 11.79
Majority 19,576 34.25
Turnout 72.09
Conservative hold Swing
General Election 1983: Richmond (Yorks)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Leon Brittan 32,373 62.64
Liberal D. Raw 14,307 27.69
Labour B. Hawkins 4,997 9.67
Majority 18,066 34.96
Turnout 68.72
Conservative hold Swing

Elections in the 1970s[edit]

General Election 1979: Richmond (Yorks)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Timothy Peter Geoffrey Kitson 28,958 61.49
Liberal G. Hodgson 9,964 21.16
Labour K.R. Bratton 8,173 17.35
Majority 18,994 40.33
Turnout 72.10
Conservative hold Swing
General Election October 1974: Richmond (Yorks)

Electorate 61,986

Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Timothy Peter Geoffrey Kitson 23,156 56.9
Liberal Mrs. P. Waudby 9,528 23.4
Labour I.A. Wilkie 8,025 19.7
Majority 13,628 33.5
Turnout 65.7
Conservative hold Swing
General Election February 1974: Richmond (Yorks)

Electorate 61,473

Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Timothy Peter Geoffrey Kitson 26,994 58.2
Liberal Miss Beth Graham 11,727 25.3
Labour E.R. Pearce 7,659 16.5
Majority 15,267 32.9
Turnout 75.5
Conservative hold Swing
General Election 1970: Richmond (Yorks)

Electorate 70,908

Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Timothy Peter Geoffrey Kitson 30,471 62.8
Labour Michael John Aldrich 12,702 26.2
Liberal John R. Smithson 5,354 11.0
Majority 17,769 36.6
Turnout 68.4
Conservative hold Swing

Elections in the 1960s[edit]

General Election 1966: Richmond (Yorks)

Electorate 58,315

Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Timothy Peter Geoffrey Kitson 23,541 56.6
Labour W. Patrick Lisle 10,210 24.6
Liberal C. Keith W. Schellenberg 7,824 18.8
Majority 13,331 32.1
Turnout 41,575 71.3
Conservative hold Swing
General Election 1964: Richmond (Yorks)

Electorate 56,926

Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Timothy Peter Geoffrey Kitson 25,345 58.9
Labour Gordon A. Knott 8,908 20.7
Liberal C. Keith W. Schellenberg 8,787 20.4
Majority 16,437 38.2
Turnout 43,040 75.6
Conservative hold Swing

Elections in the 1950s[edit]

General Election 1959: Richmond (Yorks)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Timothy Kitson 28,270 75.44
Labour M. McMillan 9,203 24.56
Majority 19,067 50.88
Turnout 71.49
Conservative hold Swing
General Election 1955: Richmond (Yorks)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Thomas Dugdale 24,979 73.57
Labour R. Hoyle 8,974 26.43
Majority 16,005 47.14
Turnout 67.25
Conservative hold Swing
General Election 1951: Richmond (Yorks)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Thomas Dugdale 26,231 70.62
Labour R. Hoyle 10,915 29.38
Majority 15,316 41.23
Turnout 74.36
Conservative hold Swing
General Election 1950: Richmond (Yorks)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Thomas Dugdale 22,999 59.20
Labour F.W. Beaton 8,694 22.38
Liberal Douglas Eugene Moore 7,157 18.42
Majority 14,305 36.82
Turnout 74.36
Conservative hold Swing

Elections in the 1940s[edit]

General Election 1945: Richmond (Yorks)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Thomas Dugdale 18,332 52.87
Liberal M.W. Darwin 9,427 27.19
Labour G.H. Metcalfe 6,104 17.60
Common Wealth R.N. Chesterton 813 2.34
Majority 8,905 25.68
Turnout 68.38
Conservative hold Swing

Elections in the 1930s[edit]

General Election 1935: Richmond (Yorks)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Thomas Dugdale 25,088 77.03
Labour A.J. Best 7,369 22.70
Majority 17,719 54.59
Turnout 68.10
Conservative hold Swing
General Election 1931: Richmond (Yorks)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Thomas Dugdale Unopposed
Conservative hold Swing

Elections in the 1900s[edit]

Francis Acland
1906 General Election: Richmond (Yorks)

Electorate

Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Liberal Francis Dyke Acland 4,470 50.58 +10.05
Conservative Lord Ronaldshay 4,368 49.42 -10.05
Majority 102 1.16
Turnout
Liberal gain from Conservative Swing 5.02

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ A county constituency (for the purposes of election expenses and type of returning officer)
  2. ^ As with all constituencies, the constituency elects one Member of Parliament (MP) by the first past the post system of election at least every five years.
  3. ^ The latest 2011 census statistics include minimal percentages of social housing and welfare dependency.
References
  1. ^ "Electorate Figures - Boundary Commission for England". 2011 Electorate Figures. Boundary Commission for England. 4 March 2011. Retrieved 13 March 2011. 
  2. ^ Profile: reclusive Labour donor David Abrahams The Times - 26 November 2007
  3. ^ Colin Patterson (2 December 2007). "How Sunday Sun broke first David Abrahams story". Sunday Sun. Retrieved 2 December 2007. 
  4. ^ Profile of David Abrahams BBC News - 27 November 2007
  5. ^ The fantasy world of Labour's dodgy donor, by Richard Pendlebury, Daily Mail, 27 November 2007
  6. ^ a b c d e f "History of Parliament". History of Parliament trust. Retrieved 16 October 2011. 
  7. ^ a b c Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs – Constituencies beginning with "R" (part 1)[self-published source][better source needed]
  8. ^ At the general election of 1727, Wyvill and Bathurst were returned as elected, but on petition they were unseated in favour of Yorke and Darcy, the dispute turning on who had the right to vote
  9. ^ Sir Conyers Darcy was re-elected in 1747 but had also been elected for Yorkshire, which he chose to represent, and did not sit again for Richmond
  10. ^ a b Sir Lawrence Dundas was also elected for Edinburgh, which he chose to represent, and did not sit for Richmond
  11. ^ Thomas Dundas was also elected for Stirlingshire, which he chose to represent, and did not sit for Richmond in this parliament
  12. ^ Styled Lord Dundas after his father was created an Earl in 1838
  13. ^ Later Sir George Elliott
  14. ^ "Richmond [Yorks]". BBC News. Retrieved 7 May 2010. 
  15. ^ This was the Conservative Party's highest vote share in the general election.
  16. ^ "Politics Resources". Election 1992. Politics Resources. 9 April 1992. Retrieved 6 December 2010. 

Sources[edit]

  • D Brunton & D H Pennington, Members of the Long Parliament (London: George Allen & Unwin, 1954)
  • Cobbett's Parliamentary history of England, from the Norman Conquest in 1066 to the year 1803 (London: Thomas Hansard, 1808) [1]
  • F W S Craig, British Parliamentary Election Results 1832-1885 (2nd edition, Aldershot: Parliamentary Research Services, 1989)
  • J Holladay Philbin, Parliamentary Representation 1832 - England and Wales (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1965)
  • Henry Stooks Smith, The Parliaments of England from 1715 to 1847 (2nd edition, edited by FWS Craig - Chichester: Parliamentary Reference Publications, 1973)
  • The Constitutional Yearbook for 1913 (London: National Unionist Association, 1913)
Parliament of the United Kingdom
Preceded by
Huntingdon
Constituency represented by the Leader of the Opposition
1997–2001
Succeeded by
Chingford and Woodford Green