Richmond Park

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This article is about the Royal Park in London. For all other uses, see Richmond Park (disambiguation).
Richmond Park
Isabella Plantation, Richmond Park, London - April 2011.jpg
Isabella Plantation, Richmond Park
Type Urban park
Location London
Coordinates 51°26′58″N 0°16′26″W / 51.449444°N 0.273889°W / 51.449444; -0.273889
Area 955 ha (2,360 acres)[1]
Created 1634[2]
Operated by The Royal Parks
Status Open all year

Richmond Park is a park, a national nature reserve,[3] a Site of Special Scientific Interest[4][5] and a Special Area of Conservation[6] in south-west London. The largest of London's Royal Parks,[7] it is included, at Grade I,[8] on English Heritage's Register of Historic Parks and Gardens of special historic interest in England.[9] It was created by Charles I in 1634[2] as a deer park and now has 630 red and fallow deer.[10]

Fallow deer in Richmond Park

Size[edit]

Richmond Park is the second largest park in London (after the 10,000 acre Lee Valley Park, whose area extends beyond the M25 into Hertfordshire and Essex) and is Britain's second largest urban walled park after Sutton Park,[1] Birmingham. Measuring 3.69 square miles (955 hectares or 2,360 acres),[1] it is comparable in size to Paris's Bois de Vincennes (995 ha or 2,458 ac) and Bois de Boulogne (846 ha or 2,090 ac). It is almost half the size of Casa de Campo (Madrid) (1750 hectares)[11] and is around three times the size of Central Park in New York (843 acres).

Geography[edit]

Richmond Park is located in the London Boroughs of Richmond, Kingston and Wandsworth.[8] It is close to Richmond, Ham, Kingston upon Thames, Wimbledon, Roehampton and East Sheen.[1]

Governance[edit]

The Secretary of State for Culture, Media and Sport manages Richmond Park and the other Royal Parks of London under powers set out in The Crown Lands 1851 Act, which transferred management of the parks from the monarch to the government. Day-to-day management of the Royal Parks has been delegated to The Royal Parks, an executive agency of the Department for Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS). The Royal Parks' Board sets the strategic direction for the agency. Appointments to the Board are made by the Mayor of London.[12]

The Friends of Richmond Park and the Friends of Bushy Park co-chair the Richmond and Bushy Parks Forum, comprising 38 local groups of local stakeholder organisations.[13] The forum was formed in September 2010 to consider proposals to bring Richmond Park and Bushy Park – and London's other royal parks – under the control of the Mayor of London through a new Royal Parks Board[13][14] and to make a joint response. Although welcoming the principles of the new governance arrangements, the forum expressed concerns about the composition of the new board.[13][15] According to the Friends of Richmond Park, little ecological expertise is apparent in the board's membership.[16]

Access[edit]

Richmond Park is enclosed by a high wall with several gates. The gates either allow pedestrian and bicycle access only, or allow bicycle, pedestrian and other vehicle access. The gates for motor vehicle access are open only during daylight hours, and the speed limit is 20 mph. Apart from taxis, no commercial vehicles are allowed unless they are being used to transact business with residents of the park.[17]

The shared use cycle/footpath, between Roehampton Gate and Sheen Gate, crosses Beverley Brook amid willows

The gates open to motor traffic are: Sheen Gate, Richmond Gate, Ham Gate, Kingston Gate, and Roehampton Gate.

There is pedestrian and bicycle access to the park 24 hours a day except when there is a deer cull. During the deer cull the majority of the gates are locked and warning signs are displayed forbidding access to the park under the orders of The Secretary of State. Warning signs are normally displayed a month before the deer cull occurs.

The park has designated bridleways and cycle paths. These are shown on maps and noticeboards displayed near the main entrances, along with other regulations that govern use of the park. The bridleways are special in that they are for horses (and their riders) only and not open to other users like normal bridleways. Cycling is allowed only on main roads and on the Tamsin Trail (the shared-use pedestrian cycle path that runs close to the park's perimeter).

As the park is a national nature reserve and a Site of Special Scientific Interest, all dog owners are required to keep their dogs under control while in the park. This includes not allowing their dog to disturb other park users or disrupt wildlife. In 2009, after some incidents leading to the death of wildfowl, the park's dogs on leads policy was extended. Park users are said to believe that the deer are feeling increasingly threatened by the growing number of dogs using the park[18] and Royal Parks advises against walking dogs in the park during the deer's birthing season.[19][20]

Law enforcement[edit]

A mugging at gunpoint in 1854 reputedly led to the establishment of a park police force.[21] Until 2005 the park was policed by the separate Royal Parks Constabulary but that has now been subsumed into the Royal Parks Operational Command Unit of the Metropolitan Police.[22] In recent years the mounted police have been replaced by a patrol team in a four-wheel drive vehicle.

In July 2012 it was reported that police have been given the power to issue £50 on-the-spot fines for littering, cycling outside designated areas and for dog fouling offences.[23]

In August 2012 a dog owner was ordered to pay £315 after allowing five dogs to chase ducks in the park.[24] From April 2013 commercial dog-walkers have been required to apply for licences to walk dogs in the park and are allowed to walk only four dogs at a time.[25]

In September 2013 a cyclist was successfully prosecuted for speeding at 37 mph in the park.[26]

History[edit]

In 1625 Charles I brought his court to Richmond Palace to escape the plague in London[27] and turned the area on the hill above Richmond into a park for the hunting of red and fallow deer.[27][28] It was originally referred to as the king's "New Park"[29] to distinguish it from the existing park in Richmond, which is now known as Old Deer Park. In 1637 he appointed Jerome Weston, Earl of Portland as keeper of the new park, for life, with a fee of 12 (old) pence a day, pasture for four horses, and the use of the brushwood.[30] Charles's decision, also in 1637, to enclose the land[31] was not popular with the local residents, but he did allow pedestrians the right of way.[32] To this day the walls remain, although they have been partially rebuilt and reinforced.

Following Charles I's execution, custodianship of the park passed to the Corporation of the City of London but it was returned to the restored monarch, Charles II, on his return to London in 1660.[33]

In 1736 the Queen's Ride was cut through existing woodland to create a grand avenue through the park.[34]

In 1751, Princess Amelia became ranger of Richmond Park after the death of Robert Walpole. Immediately afterwards, the Princess caused major public uproar by closing the park to the public, only allowing few close friends and those with special permits to enter.[35] This continued until 1758, when a local brewer, John Lewis, took the gatekeeper, who stopped him from entering the park, to court.[36] The court ruled in favour of Lewis, citing the fact that, when Charles I enclosed the park in the 17th century, he allowed the public right of way in the park. Princess Amelia was forced to lift the restrictions.[37][38]

Full right of public access to the park was confirmed by Act of Parliament in 1872.[39] However, people were no longer given the right to remove firewood; this is still the case and helps in preserving the park.[27]

White Lodge from the air

Pen Ponds, a lake divided in two by a causeway, was dug in 1746 and is now a good place to see water birds.[27] John Rocque's Map of London, 1746 shows Pen Ponds for the first time, named as The Canals.[40] Between 1855 and 1861, new drainage improvements were constructed, including drinking points for deer.[41]

Between 1833 and 1842 the Petersham Lodge estate, and then part of Sudbrook Park, were incorporated into Richmond Park. Terrace Walk was created from Richmond Gate to Pembroke Lodge.[42]

Edward VII developed the park as a public amenity by opening up almost all the previously fenced woods and making public those gates that were previously private.[43] From 1915 level areas of the park were marked out for football and cricket pitches.[43] A golf course was developed on the former "Great Paddock" of Richmond Park, an area used for feeding deer for the royal hunt. The tree belt in this part of the park was supplemented by additional planting in 1936.[44] The golf course was opened in 1923 by Edward, Prince of Wales[45] (who was to become King Edward VIII and, after his abdication, Duke of Windsor). The future king had been born in the park, at White Lodge, in 1894.[46]

The park in wartime[edit]

In or around 1870, the Inns of Court Rifle Volunteers were using an area near Bog Gate as a drill ground.[41]

On 7 December 1915 English inventor Harry Grindell Matthews demonstrated, in a secret test on Pen Ponds, how selenium cells would work in a remotely controlled prototype weapon for use against German Zeppelins.[47] Reporting on this story several years later, in April 1924, The Daily Chronicle reported that the test had been carried out in the presence of Lord Balfour, Lord Fisher and a staff of experts. Its success led to Matthews receiving a payment of £25,000 from the Government the very next morning. Despite this large sum changing hands, the Admiralty never used the invention.[48]

Between 1916 and 1925 the park housed a South African war hospital, which was built between Bishop's Pond and Conduit Wood.[49][50] The hospital closed in 1921 and was demolished in 1925.[51]

In 1938, an army camp was set up near Dann's Pond.[52] During World War II Pembroke Lodge was used as the base for "Phantom" (the GHQ Liaison Regiment).[52] The Pen Ponds were drained, in order to disguise them as a landmark.[53] The Russell School, which had been built near Petersham Gate in 1851,[54] was destroyed by enemy action in 1943[55] and Sheen Cottage a year later.[56]

Picture Post, on 13 December 1941, featured a photograph of an anti-aircraft gun site inside Sheen Gate.[57]

The Petersham Hole[edit]

The Petersham Hole was a sink hole caused by subsidence of a sewer which forced the total closure of the A307 road in Petersham in 1979–80. The hole and subsequent repair work forced a total road closure of the main arterial route between Richmond and Kingston. To help relieve the pressure on local transport pressure, Richmond Park remained open to vehicular traffic overnight between Richmond, Ham, and Kingston gates. The park road was widened at Ham Cross near Ham Gate to accommodate temporary traffic lights to facilitate the additional traffic flow. This additional and unusual traffic resulted in the deaths of 84 deer in the park whilst the diversion was in operation.[58]

The park during the Olympics[edit]

For the 1948 Summer Olympics, an Olympic village was built near Dann's Pond.[59]

In the 2012 Summer Olympics the men's and the women's cycling road races went through the park.[60][61]

Gates[edit]

In 1736 Bog Gate (also then known as Queen's Gate) was opened as a private entrance by which Queen Caroline could enter the park on her journeys between White Lodge and Richmond Lodge, a royal residence in Old Deer Park. Public access, 24 hours a day, was granted in 1894 and the present "cradle" gate installed.[62] The gate connects the park with East Sheen Common.

Kitchen Garden Gate, hidden behind Teck Plantation, is probably a nineteenth-century gate. It has never been open to the public.[62]

Sheen Gate (one of the original six gates in the boundary wall when the park was enclosed in 1637) was where the brewer John Lewis asserted pedestrian right of entry in 1755 after Princess Amelia had denied it.The present double gates date from 1926.[63]

Roehampton Gate is also one of the six original gates. The present wrought iron gates were installed in 1899.[63]

Chohole Gate served the farm that stood within the park on the site of the present Kings Farm Plantation. It is first mentioned in 1680.[63] The gate now provides access to Richmond Park Golf Course.

Robin Hood Gate, another of the six original gates, takes its name from the nearby Robin Hood Inn (demolished in 2001) and is close to what is called[64] the Robin Hood roundabout on the A3. Widened in 1907,[63] it has been closed to motorised vehicles since a 2003 traffic reduction trial.[65] Alterations commenced in March 2013 to make the gates more suitable for pedestrian use and return some of the hard surface to parkland.[66]

Ladderstile Gate, also one of the six original gates, was known as Coombe Gate and provided access to the park for the parishioners of Coombe, with both a gate and a step ladder. The gate was locked in the early 1700s and bricked up in about 1735. The stepladder was reinstated after John Lewis's case in 1758 and remained in place until about 1884. The present gate dates from 1901.[63]

Kingston Gate dates from about 1750. The existing gates date from 1898.[63]

Ham Gate is one of the six original gates. It was widened in 1921, when the present wrought iron gates were installed. The chinoiserie lantern lights over the gate were installed in 1825.[63]

Petersham Gate served the Russell School, replacing the more ornate gates to Petersham Lodge. A disused carriage gate further up the hill was probably a tradesman's entrance to the school or to the Lodge stables.[63]

Richmond Gate, designed by Sir John Soane,[67][68] is one of the original six gates and has the heaviest traffic. The gates were widened in 1896.[63]

Bishop's Gate in Chisholm Road, previously known as the Cattle Gate, was for use by livestock allowed to pasture in the nineteenth century. It was opened for public use in 1896.[63]

Cambrian Gate or Cambrian Road Gate[63] was constructed during World War I for access to the newly built South Africa Military Hospital.[51][69] When the hospital was demolished in 1925, the entrance was made permanent and public as a pedestrian gate.[63]

Buildings[edit]

Holly Lodge
Holly Lodge Centre
Holly Lodge Centre.png
Motto A special place for learning
Formation 1994[70]
Legal status Registered charity[71]
Headquarters Holly Lodge
Location
Region served Greater London and Surrey[71]
Staff Anna King (Centre Manager);[72] Dr Pat Ealey MBE (Community Engagement Manager)[72]
Main organ Stepping Stones
Budget [£]75,000[71]
Staff 2
Volunteers 90[73]
Website www.thehollylodgecentre.org.uk

The Park contains notable buildings. Ten of these buildings, and the whole boundary wall of the park, are Grade II listed buildings.[74]

Ham Gate Lodge (listed Grade II)[74] was built in 1742.[75]

Richmond Gate and Richmond Gate Lodge were both listed Grade II in 2010.[76] Dated 1798, they were designed by Sir John Soane.[36][77]

There are also gate lodges at Bishops Gate, Chohole Gate, Kingston Gate, Robin Hood Gate, Roehampton Gate[78] and at Sheen Gate, which also has a bungalow (Sheen Gate Bungalow).[79] Ladderstile Cottage, at Ladderstile Gate, was built in the 1780s.[80]

There are six other houses, apart from the gate-houses: Holly Lodge, Oak Lodge, Pembroke Lodge, Thatched House Lodge, White Ash Lodge and White Lodge.

All houses backing on to the park pay a feudal fee known euphemistically as "Richmond Park Freebord" ranging from about £2 to £200 per annum.

Holly Lodge[edit]

In 1735, a new lodge, Cooper's Lodge, was built on the site of Hill Farm.[81] It was later known as Lucas's Lodge and Bog Lodge.[81] Bog Lodge was renamed Holly Lodge in 1993[36] and now contains a visitors' centre (bookings only), the Park's administrative headquarters and a base for the Metropolitan Police's Royal Parks Operational Command Unit.

Holly Lodge and the game larder in its courtyard are both Grade II listed.[74]

Holly Lodge also includes the Holly Lodge Centre [2], which provides an opportunity for people of all ages and abilities to enjoy and learn from a series of hands-on experiences, focusing particularly on the environment and in the Victorian history and heritage of Richmond Park. The Centre, which is wheelchair-accessible throughout,[82] was opened in 1994.[70] It was founded by Mike Fitt OBE,[70] who was then The Royal Parks' Superintendent of Richmond Park and later became Deputy Chief Executive of London's Royal Parks.

In 2007 Princess Alexandra agreed to become the Royal Patron.[83] In 2011 she opened the Centre's Victorian-themed pharmacy, Mr Palmer's Chymist. This includes the original interior, artefacts and dispensing records dating from 1865, from a chemist's shop in Mortlake,[84][85] and is used for educational activities. The Centre also includes a replica Victorian kitchen, Mrs Sawyer's Victorian Kitchen, and a kitchen garden planted with varieties of vegetables used in Victorian times and herbs cultivated for their medicinal properties.[86][87]

A registered charity,[71] the Holly Lodge Centre received the Queen's Award for Voluntary Service in 2005.[86]

Oak Lodge[edit]

Oak Lodge, near Sidmouth Wood, was built in about 1852 as a home for the park bailiff, who was responsible for repair and maintenance in the park.[88] It is used by The Royal Parks as its base for a similar function today.[88]

Pembroke Lodge[edit]

Main article: Pembroke Lodge

Pembroke Lodge and some associated houses stand in their own garden within the park. In 1847 Pembroke Lodge became the home of the then Prime Minister, Lord John Russell and was later the childhood home of his grandson, Bertrand Russell. It is now a popular restaurant with views across the Thames Valley. Pembroke Lodge is Grade II listed.[74]

Thatched House Lodge[edit]

Main article: Thatched House Lodge

Thatched House Lodge, which is Grade II listed,[74] was the London home of U.S. General Dwight D. Eisenhower during the Second World War. Since 1963 it has been the residence of Princess Alexandra, The Honourable Lady Ogilvy. The residence was originally built as two houses in 1673 for two Richmond Park Keepers, as Aldridge Lodge. Enlarged in 1727, the two houses were joined and renamed Thatched House Lodge in 1771 by Sir John Soane. The gardens include an 18th-century two-room thatched summer house which gave the main house its name.

White Ash Lodge[edit]

White Ash Lodge was built in the 1730s or 1740s.[89] The house is Grade II listed, and its barn and stables also.[74][90]

White Lodge[edit]

Main article: White Lodge

Built as a hunting lodge for George II by the architect Roger Morris, and completed in 1730, White Lodge is Grade II listed.[74] Its many famous residents have included members of the Royal Family. The future Edward VIII was born at White Lodge in 1894 and his brother Prince Albert, Duke of York (the future George VI), and the Duchess of York (later Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother), lived there in the 1920s. The Royal Ballet School (formerly Sadler's Wells Ballet) has been based since 1955[59] at White Lodge where younger ballet students continue to be trained.

Former buildings[edit]

Sir Richard Owen and Sheen Lodge

A map by John Eyre, "Plan of His Majesty's New Park", shows a summerhouse near Richmond Gate.[29]

Several buildings already existed within the park when it was created. One of these was a manor house at Petersham which was renamed Petersham Lodge. During the Commonwealth period it became accommodation for one of the park's deputy keepers, Lodowick Carlell (or Carlile), who was also a renowned playwright in his day,[91] and his wife, Joan Carlile, one of the very first women to practise painting professionally.[92]

Elizabeth, Countess of Dysart, and her husband Sir Lionel Tollemache, took over Petersham Lodge when they became joint keepers of Richmond Park. After Tollemache's death the Lodge and its surrounding land were leased in 1686 to Lawrence Hyde, Earl of Rochester, whose sister Anne was married to the new king, James II. It became a private park and was subsequently landscaped. By 1692 Rochester had demolished the Lodge and replaced it with a splendid new mansion in his "New Park". In 1732, a new Petersham Lodge was built to replace it after a fire.[93] This Petersham Lodge was demolished in 1835.[42]

Professor Sir Richard Owen, the first Director of the Natural History Museum, lived at Sheen Cottage until his death in 1892. The cottage was destroyed by enemy action in 1944.[94] The remains of the cottage can be seen in patches and irregularities in the wall 220 metres from Sheen Gate.[80]

A bandstand, similar to one in Kensington Gardens, was erected near Richmond Gate in 1931. In 1975, after many years of disuse, it was moved to Regent's Park.[95]

Viewpoints[edit]

St Paul's from King Henry's Mound

There is a protected view of St Paul's Cathedral from King Henry's Mound, and also from Sawyer's Hill a view of central London in which the London Eye, Natwest Tower and "The Gherkin" appear to be close to one another.

King Henry's Mound[edit]

King Henry's Mound is the highest point within the park and is located within the public gardens of Pembroke Lodge. It is named after Henry VIII of England. It was traditionally thought to be the spot where King Henry VIII stood on 19 May 1536 to watch a rocket fired from the Tower of London. This was the signal that his wife Anne Boleyn had been executed for treason and he would be able to marry Jane Seymour. The story is unlikely to be true because Henry spent that evening in Wiltshire.[96]

It was probably a prehistoric burial chamber, possibly dating from the Bronze age, and was later used as a viewpoint for hunting and falconry.[96]

From the Mound there is a protected view of St Paul's Cathedral in the City of London, over 10 miles (16 km) to the east, which was established in 1710. (A telescope is installed on the mound, for a better viewing experience.) This vista is protected by a "dome and a half" width of sky on either side. In 2005 the then Mayor of London, Ken Livingstone, sought to overturn this protection and reduce it to "half a dome". In 2009 his successor, Boris Johnson, promised to reinstate the wider view, though also approving a development at Victoria Station which will obscure its right-hand corner.[97]

To the west is a panorama of the Thames Valley.

New gates − "The Way" − which can be viewed through the King Henry's Mound telescope, were installed in 2012 on the edge of Sidmouth Wood to mark the 300th anniversary of St Paul's Cathedral.[98]

Plantings and memorials[edit]

Isabella Plantation
"Handkerchief" tree (Davidia involucrata) in Prince Charles' Spinney

The park's open slopes and woods are based on lowland acid soils. The grassland is mostly managed by grazing. The park contains numerous woods and copses, some created with donations from members of the public.

Between 1819 and 1835, Lord Sidmouth, Deputy Ranger, established several new plantations and enclosures, including Sidmouth Wood and the ornamental Isabella Plantation, both of which are fenced to keep the deer out.[27][41] After World War II the existing woodland at the Isabella Plantation was transformed into a stunning woodland garden, and is organically run, resulting in a rich flora and fauna. Opened to the public in 1953,[99] it is now a major visitor attraction in its own right. In October 2012 it was reported that about 40 per cent of the Isabella Plantation is covered with Rhododendron ponticum, a non-native and invasive variety of rhododendron introduced by the Victorians, and that this will be removed over the next five years.[100]

The Jubilee Plantation, created to commemorate the Golden Jubilee of Queen Victoria, was established in 1887.

Prince Charles' Spinney was planted out in 1951[101] with trees protected from the deer by fences, to preserve a natural habitat. The bluebell glade is managed to encourage native British bluebells.

Teck Plantation, established in 1905,[102] commemorates the Duke and Duchess of Teck, who lived at White Lodge. Their daughter Mary married George V.[62]

Tercentenary Plantation, in 1937,[102] marked the 300th anniversary of the enclosure of the park.

Victory Plantation was established in 1946[102] to mark the end of the Second World War.

Queen Mother's Copse, a small triangular enclosure on the woodland hill halfway between Robin Hood Gate and Ham Gate, was established in 1980[102] to commemorate the 80th birthday of Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother.

The park lost over 1000 mature trees during the storms of 1987 and 1990.[8] The subsequent replanting included a new plantation, Two Storms Wood,[8] a short distance into the park from Sheen Gate. Some extremely old trees can also be seen inside this enclosure.[8]

Bone Copse, which was named in 2005, was started by the Bone family in 1988 by purchasing and planting a tree from the Park authorities in memory of Bessie Bone who died in that year. Trees have been added annually, and in 1994 her husband Frederick Bone also died. The annual planting has been continued by their children.

James Thomson[edit]

In 1994 a curved metal bench, known as "Poet's seat", [3] was installed at the north end of Pembroke Lodge Gardens, at a viewpoint overlooking Petersham Park in the area known as Poet's Corner. Sculpted by Richard Farringdon,[103] it is based on an idea by Jane Fowles who worked with LUC (Land Use Consultants). The seat is inscribed with lines by James Thomson, the 18th century Scottish poet best known for writing the words to "Rule Britannia!" who, towards the end of his life, lived in Richmond.[96]

At the north eastern end of Pembroke Lodge Gardens there is another memorial to Thomson, who died at Richmond in 1748. This is a black wooden board, originally installed in 1851 as two boards attached to trees near Pembroke Lodge stables. A version of the present board was erected in 1895 by the Selbourne Society. The board has a poem about Thomson by the writer and historian John Heneage Jesse.[96]

Lines from Thomson's best-known poem, "The Seasons", are inscribed on King Henry's Mound.[96]

Ian Dury[edit]

In 2002, a "musical bench", designed by Mil Stricevic [4] was placed in a favoured viewing spot of rock-and-roll singer and lyricist Ian Dury (1942–2000) at Poet's Corner. The back of the bench is inscribed with the words "Reasons to be cheerful", the title of one of Dury's songs.[96] The solar powered seat was intended to allow visitors to plug in and listen to eight of his songs as well as an interview,[104] but has been subjected to repeated vandalism.[105]

Wildlife[edit]

A female Rose-ringed Parakeet in the park
Red deer in the park
Adams Pond
Pen Ponds. This is the southern of the two large ponds
A stream flows through the Isabella Plantation
Beverley Brook in the park

Herds of red and fallow deer roam freely within much of the park. A cull takes place each November and February to ensure numbers can be sustained.[106] Some deer are also killed in road accidents, through the discarding of litter such as small items of plastic, or by dogs.[107]

Many of the deer in Richmond Park are infected with a bacterium called Borrelia burgdorferi which can be transmitted to humans through a tick bite causing Lyme disease. Borrelia belong to a group of bacteria known as spirochetes which cause a number of diseases worldwide, including syphilis, leptospirosis, relapsing fever and Lyme disease.

It is an important refuge for other wildlife, including woodpeckers, squirrels, rabbits, snakes, frogs, toads, stag beetles and many other insects plus numerous ancient trees and varieties of fungi. It is particularly notable for its rare beetles.[3]

Richmond Park supports a large population of what are believed to be Ring-necked (or Rose-ringed) Parakeets. These bred from birds that escaped or were freed from captivity.

Ponds and streams[edit]

There are about 30 ponds in the park. Some – including Barn Wood Pond, Bishop's Pond, Gallows Pond, Leg of Mutton Pond, Martin's Pond and White Ash Pond – have been created to drain the land or to provide water for livestock. The Pen Ponds (which in the past were used to rear carp for food)[108] date from 1746.[27] They were formed when a trench was dug in the early 17th century to drain a boggy area; later in that century this was widened and deepened by the extraction of gravel for local building. The Ponds now take in water from streams flowing from the higher ground around them and release it to Beverley Brook. Beverley Brook and the two Pen Ponds are most visible areas of water in the park.[109]

Beverley Brook rises at Cuddington Recreation Park in Worcester Park[110] and enters the park (where it is followed by the Tamsin Trail and Beverley Walk) at Robin Hood Gate, creating a water feature used by deer, smaller animals and water grasses and some water lilies. Its name is derived from the former presence in the river of the European beaver (Castor fiber),[111] a species extinct in Britain since the sixteenth century.[112]

Most of the streams in the park drain into Beverley Brook but a spring above Dann's Pond flows to join Sudbrook (from "South brook") on the park boundary. Sudbrook flows through a small valley known as Ham Dip and has been dammed and enlarged in two places to form Ham Dip Pond and Ham Gate Pond, first mapped in 1861 and 1754 respectively. These were created for the watering of deer.[113] Both ponds underwent restoration work including de-silting, which was completed in 2013.[114] Sudbrook drains the western escarpment of the hill that, to the east, forms part of the catchment of Beverley Brook and, to the south, the Hogsmill River. Sudbrook is joined by the Latchmere Stream just beyond Ham Gate Pond. Sudbrook then flows into Sudbrook Park, Petersham.

Another stream rises north of Sidmouth Wood and goes through Conduit Wood towards the park boundary near Bog Gate.[109]

A separate water system for Isabella Plantation was developed in the 1950s. Water from the upper Pen Pond is pumped to Still Pond, Thomson's Pond and Peg's Pond.[109]

The park's newest pond is Attenborough Pond, opened by and named after the broadcaster and naturalist Sir David Attenborough in July 2014. It was created as part of the park's Ponds and Streams Conservation Programme.[115]

Sport and recreation[edit]

Cycling: Cycles are available for hire near Roehampton Gate and, at peak times, near Pembroke Lodge.[116] The Tamsin Trail (shared between pedestrians and cyclists) provides a circuit of the park and is almost entirely car-free.[117]

Fishing is allowed, by paid permit, on Pen Ponds from mid-June to mid-March.[116]

Golf is played at Richmond Park Golf Course, accessed from Chohole Gate.

Horse riding: Horses from several local stables are ridden in the park.[116]

Rugby: A section of the grassland to the north of the Roehampton Gate is maintained and laid out during the winter months for rugby; there are three pitches. At weekends, this area is hired extensively to Rosslyn Park Rugby Football Club. The club buses visiting teams to and from the park pitches from its nearby clubhouse and changing rooms.[116]

Running: The Tamsin Trail is a 7.2 mile trail around the park which is popular with runners. The Richmond Park parkrun, a 5 km organised run, takes place every Saturday at 9:00 a.m.[118] from a starting point close to Bishop's Gate.[119]

There are children's playgrounds at Kingston Gate and Petersham Gate.[82]

Friends of Richmond Park[edit]

Mandarin duck in the park
Friends of Richmond Park
Friends of Richmond Park logo.jpg
Abbreviation FRP
Formation 1961
Legal status charity and membership organisation
Headquarters Richmond, London
Location
Membership 2200
Key people Ron Crompton, Chair
Main organ Friends of Richmond Park newsletter (quarterly)
Volunteers 150
Website www.frp.org.uk

The Friends of Richmond Park (FRP) [5] was founded in 1961 to protect the park. In 1960 the speed limit in the park had been raised from 20 to 30 miles an hour and there were concerns that the roads in the park would be assigned to the main highway system as had recently happened in parts of Hyde Park.[120] In 1969, plans by the then Greater London Council to assign the park's roads to the national highway were revealed by the Friends and subsequently withdrawn.[121] The speed limit was reduced to 20 miles an hour in the summer of 2004.[122]

In 2011, the Friends successfully campaigned for the withdrawal of plans for open air screenings of films in the park.[123][124] In 2012, the Friends contributed towards the cost of a new Jubilee Pond, and launched a public appeal for a Ponds and Streams Conservation Programme in which the Friends, the Richmond Park Wildlife Group and Healthy Planet have been working with staff from The Royal Parks to restore some of the streams and ponds in the park.[125][126][127]

The Friends run a visitor centre near Pembroke Lodge, organise a programme of walks[128] and education activities for young people, and produce a quarterly newsletter. The Friends have published two books, A Guide to Richmond Park and Family Trails in Richmond Park; profits from the books' sales contribute towards the Friends' conservation work.[129][130]

The Friends of Richmond Park has been a charitable organisation since 2009.[131] It has 2200 members, is run by approximately 150 volunteers and has no staff.[131][132] Broadcaster and naturalist Sir David Attenborough, former Richmond Park MP Baroness Susan Kramer and children's author Dame Jacqueline Wilson are patrons of FRP.[133] The chair is Ron Crompton, who also chairs the Royal Parks Friends Forum.[134] The Friends Forum enables the chairs of all the Royal Parks Friends groups to meet regularly to discuss common issues and to make their views known to the chief executive of the Royal Parks, the Royal Parks Advisory Group and the Department of Culture, Media and Sport.[135]

Richmond Park in literature[edit]

19th century[edit]

Chapter 22 of George McDonald's novel The Marquis of Lossie (published in London in 1877 by Hurst and Blackett)[136] is entitled "Richmond Park".[137]

20th century[edit]

A Hind in Richmond Park by William Henry Hudson, published in 1922 and republished in 2006, is an extended natural history essay. It includes an account of his visits to Richmond Park and a particular occasion when a young girl was struck by a red deer when she tried to feed it an acorn.[138]

In Georgette Heyer's Regency romance Sylvester, or the Wicked Uncle (1957) there is an expedition to Richmond Park.[139]

21st century[edit]

Richmond Park features in Jacqueline Wilson's novel Lily Alone (2010) and in the poetry anthology she edited, Green Glass Beads (2011).[140]

Richmond Park in art[edit]

Paintings, drawings and sculptures[edit]

17th century[edit]

The oil painting The Carlile Family with Sir Justinian Isham in Richmond Park by Joan Carlile (1600–1679) (who lived at Petersham Lodge)[92] is held at Lamport Hall in Northamptonshire.[141]

18th and 19th centuries[edit]

Peter Tillemans' View of Richmond Park from Twickenham Park, painted in about 1720, is in the British Government Art Collection.[142]

A portrait by T Stewart (a pupil of Sir Joshua Reynolds)[143] in 1758 of John Lewis, Brewer of Richmond, Surrey, [6] whose legal action forced Princess Amelia to reinstate pedestrian access to the park, is in the Richmond upon Thames Borough Art Collection and is on display in Richmond Reference Library.[144]

Joseph Allen's Sir Robert Walpole (1676–1745), 1st Earl of Orford, KG, as Ranger of Richmond Park (after Jonathan Richardson the Elder) is in the collection of the National Trust, and is held at Erddig, Wrexham.[145] The painting is based on a portrait with a similar title, by Jonathan Richardson the Elder and John Wootton, which is held at Norwich Castle Museum and Art Gallery.[146]

Richmond Park by Thomas Rowlandson

Artist and caricaturist Thomas Rowlandson (1756–1827)'s drawing Richmond Park is at the Yale Center for British Art. [7]

The Earl of Dysart's Family in Richmond Park by William Frederick Witherington (1785–1865) is in the Hearsum Collection at Pembroke Lodge.[147]

Landscape: View in Richmond Park, painted in 1850 by the English Romantic painter John Martin is at the Fitzwilliam Museum in Cambridge.[148]

William Bennett's watercolour In Richmond Park, painted in 1852, is held by Tate Britain and can be viewed, by appointment, at its Prints and Drawings Rooms.[149]

Landscape with Deer, Richmond Park (1875) by Alfred Dawson is in the Reading Museum's collection.[150]

John Buxton Knight's White Lodge, Richmond Park, painted in 1898, is in the collection of Leeds Museums and Galleries.[151]

20th century[edit]

The oil painting Richmond Park (1913) by Arthur George Bell is in the collection of the London Transport Museum.[152]

Spencer Gore's painting Richmond Park, thought to have been painted in the autumn of 1913 or shortly before the artist's death in March 1914, was exhibited at the Paterson and Carfax Gallery[153] in 1920. In 1939 it was exhibited in Warsaw, Helsingfors and Stockholm by the British Council as Group of Trees.[154] It is now in the collection of the Tate Gallery under its original title but is not currently on display.[154] The painting is one of a series of landscapes painted in Richmond Park during the last months of Gore's life.[155] According to Tate curator Helena Bonett, Gore's early death from pneumonia, two months before what would have been his 36th birthday, was brought on by his painting outdoors in Richmond Park in the cold and wet winter months.[156] It is not certain where in the park the picture was made but a row of trees close to the pond near Cambrian Gate has a very close resemblance to those in the painting.[157] Another Gore painting, with the same title (Richmond Park), painted in 1914, is at the Ashmolean Museum. His painting Wood in Richmond Park is in the Birmingham Art Gallery's collection.[158]

The oil painting Autumn, Richmond Park by Alfred James Munnings is at the Sir Alfred Munnings Art Museum in Colchester.[159]

Chinese artist Chiang Yee wrote and illustrated several books while living in Britain. Deer in Richmond Park is Plate V in his book The Silent Traveller in London, published in 1938.[160]

Trees, Richmond Park, Surrey, painted in 1938 by Francis Ferdinand Maurice Cook, is in the Manchester City Galleries' collection.[161]

Henry Moore's oil painting In Richmond Park is in the collection of the York Museums Trust.[162]

Richmond Park No 2 by the English Impressionist painter Laura Knight is at the Royal Academy of Arts.[163]

In Richmond Park (1962) by James Andrew Wykeham Simons is at the UCL Art Museum.[164]

Kenneth Armitage (1916–2002) made a series of sculptures and drawings of oak trees in Richmond Park between 1975 and 1986.[165] His collage and etching Richmond Park: Tall Figure with Jerky Arms (1981) is in the British Government Art Collection and is on display at the British Embassy in Prague. [8] The Government Art Collection also holds his Richmond Park: Two Trees with White Trunks (1975), [9] Richmond Park: Five Trees, Grey Sky (1979) [10] and his sculpture Richmond Oak (1985–86). [11]

Richmond Park Morning, London (2004) by Bob Rankin is at Queen Mary's Hospital, Roehampton.[166]

Queen Mary's Hospital, Roehampton also holds a panel of five oil paintings by Yvonne Fletcher entitled Richmond Park, London (2005–06).[167]

Historic posters[edit]

The Underground Electric Railways Company published, in 1911, a poster, Richmond Park, designed by Charles Sharland. This is at the London Transport Museum [12] which also has: a District line poster from 1908, Richmond Park for pleasure and fresh air, by an unknown artist; [13] Richmond Park by Charles Paine (1921); [14] Richmond Park; humours no. 10 by German American puppeteer and illustrator Tony Sarg (1913); [15] Richmond Park by Emilio Camilio Leopoldo Tafani (1920); [16] and Richmond Park, a poster commissioned by London Transport in 1938 and illustrated by the artist Dame Laura Knight.[17]

Richmond Park on film[edit]

Richmond Park has been a location for several films and TV series.

A locomotive runs through the park and crashes into a tree in the film The Titfield Thunderbolt (1955).[168]

In the 1968 film Performance, James Fox crosses Richmond Park in a Rolls Royce car.[168]

The park was the backdrop for the classic historical film Anne of the Thousand Days (1969),[169] with Richard Burton and Genevieve Bujold, which looks back to Richmond Park in the 16th century. The film tells the story of King Henry VIII's courtship and brief marriage to Anne Boleyn.

An Indian dust storm was filmed in the park for the film Heat and Dust (1983).[168]

The Royal Ballet School in Richmond Park featured in the film Billy Elliot (2000).[168][170]

In 2011, director Guy Ritchie filmed parts of Sherlock Holmes 2 in the park with Robert Downey, Jr. and Jude Law.[171]

Some of the scenes from Into the Woods (2014), the forthcoming Disney fantasy film featuring Meryl Streep,[172] were filmed in the park.[173][174]

As well as a location for films, Richmond Park is regularly featured in television programmes, corporate videos and fashion shoots. It has made an appearance on Blue Peter, Inside Out (the BBC regional current affairs programme) and BBC Springwatch.[169]

International connections[edit]

Salim Ali Salam and King Faisal I of Iraq in the park in 1925, with Salim's son Saeb and daughters Anbara and Rasha

Germany[edit]

There is a "Richmond Park" in Germany. The name is no coincidence. It was created in 1768 in Brunswick for Princess Augusta, sister of George III. She was married to the Duke of Brunswick and was feeling homesick, so an English-style park was laid out and a palace built for her, both with the name "Richmond".[175][176]

In 1935, the palace including the entire estate was purchased by the City of Braunschweig. One condition for the purchase was that no structural changes ever be made and the park not be built on. The palace, which was rebuilt after the war, is now used for representational purposes.[176]

Iran[edit]

In 1873 the Shah of Persia, Naser al-Din Shah Qajar, the first modern Iranian monarch to visit Europe, visited Lord John Russell at Pembroke Lodge.[177]

Iraq and Lebanon[edit]

Faisal I of Iraq and Lebanese politician Salim Ali Salam were photographed visiting the park in 1925.

Italy[edit]

In 1864 Giuseppe Garibaldi, general and politician, visited Lord John Russell at Pembroke Lodge.[177]

New Zealand[edit]

The first fallow deer introduced to New Zealand came from Richmond Park.[178] In 1867 and 1876 fallow deer from the park were sent there to help build up stocks.[179]

Yugoslavia[edit]

In 1953 President Tito stayed at White Lodge during a state visit to Britain.[180]

See also[edit]

References and footnotes[edit]

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  176. ^ a b Peter Bessin (2001). Der Regent als Architekt. Schloß Richmond und die Lustschloßbauten Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttels zwischen 1680 und 1780 als Paradigma fürstlicher Selbstdarstellung. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. ISBN 3-525-47904-2. 
  177. ^ a b Cloake, p.192
  178. ^ A. H. C. Christie and J. R. H. Andrews (July 1966). "Introduced ungulates in New Zealand – (D) Fallow deer". Tuatara (Victoria University of Wellington) 14 (2): 84. Retrieved 5 August 2013. 
  179. ^ Baxter Brown, p.118
  180. ^ Guide to Richmond Park. Friends of Richmond Park. 2011. p. 130. ISBN 978-0-9567469-0-0. 

Sources[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Rabbitts, Paul A (2014). Richmond Park: From mediaeval pasture to Royal park. Amberley Publishing Local. ISBN 9781445618562. 

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 51°26′58″N 0°16′26″W / 51.44944°N 0.27389°W / 51.44944; -0.27389