Richter magnitude scale

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The Richter magnitude scale (also Richter scale) assigns a magnitude number to quantify the energy released by an earthquake. The Richter scale is a base-10 logarithmic scale, which defines magnitude as the logarithm of the ratio of the amplitude of the seismic waves to an arbitrary, minor amplitude.

As measured with a seismometer, an earthquake that registers 5.0 on the Richter scale has a shaking amplitude 10 times that of an earthquake that registered 4.0, and thus corresponds to a release of energy 31.6 times that released by the lesser earthquake.[1]

Development[edit]

Charles Richter, c. 1970

In 1935, the seismologists Charles Francis Richter and Beno Gutenberg, of the California Institute of Technology, developed the (future) Richter magnitude scale, specifically for measuring earthquakes in a given area of study in California, as recorded and measured with the Wood-Anderson torsion seismograph. Originally, Richter reported mathematical values to the nearest quarter of a unit, but the values later were reported with one decimal place; the local magnitude scale compared the magnitudes of different earthquakes.[1] Richter derived his earthquake-magnitude scale from the apparent magnitude scale used to measure the brightness of stars.[2]

Richter established a magnitude 0 event to be an earthquake that would show a maximum, combined horizontal displacement of 1.0 µm (0.00004 in.) on a seismogram recorded with a Wood-Anderson torsion seismograph 100 km (62 mi.) from the earthquake epicenter. That fixed measure was chosen to avoid negative values for magnitude, given that the slightest earthquakes that could be recorded and located at the time were around magnitude 3.0. However, the Richter magnitude scale itself has no lower limit, and contemporary seismometers can register, record, and measure earthquakes with negative magnitudes.

M_\text{L} (local magnitude) was not designed to be applied to data with distances to the hypocenter of the earthquake greater than 600 km (373 mi.).[3] For national and local seismological observatories the standard magnitude scale is today still M_\text{L}. Unfortunately this scale saturates[clarification needed] at around M_\text{L} = 7,[4] because the high frequency waves recorded locally have wavelengths shorter than the rupture lengths[clarification needed] of large earthquakes.

Later, to express the size of earthquakes around the planet, Gutenberg and Richter developed a surface wave magnitude scale (M_\text{s}) and a body wave magnitude scale (M_\text{b}).[5] These are types of waves that are recorded at teleseismic distances. The two scales were adjusted such that they were consistent with the M_\text{L} scale. That adjustment succeeded better with the M_\text{s} scale than with the M_\text{b} scale. Each scale saturates when the earthquake is greater than magnitude 8.0, and, therefore, the moment magnitude scale (M_\text{w}) was invented.

The older magnitude-scales were superseded, by methods for calculating the seismic moment, from which derived the moment magnitude scale. About the origins of the Richter magnitude scale, C.F. Richter said:

I found a [1928] paper by Professor K. Wadati of Japan in which he compared large earthquakes by plotting the maximum ground motion against [the] distance to the epicenter. I tried a similar procedure for our stations, but the range between the largest and smallest magnitudes seemed unmanageably large. Dr. Beno Gutenberg then made the natural suggestion to plot the amplitudes logarithmically. I was lucky, because logarithmic plots are a device of the devil.

Details[edit]

The Richter scale was defined in 1935 for particular circumstances and instruments; the particular circumstances refer to it being defined for Southern California and "implicitly incorporates the attenuative properties of Southern California crust and mantle,"[6] and the particular instrument used would became saturated by strong earthquakes and unable to record high values. The scale was replaced by the moment magnitude scale (MMS); for earthquakes adequately measured by the Richter scale, numerical values are approximately the same. Although values measured for earthquakes now are actually M_w (MMS), they are frequently reported as Richter values, even for earthquakes of magnitude over 8, where the Richter scale becomes meaningless. Anything above 5 is classified as a risk by the USGS.[citation needed]

The Richter and MMS scales measure the energy released by an earthquake; another scale, the Mercalli intensity scale, classifies earthquakes by their effects, from detectable by instruments but not noticeable to catastrophic. The energy and effects are not necessarily strongly correlated; a shallow earthquake in a populated area with soil of certain types can be far more intense than a much more energetic deep earthquake in an isolated area.

There are several scales which have historically been described as the "Richter scale", especially the local magnitude M_\text{L} and the surface wave M_\text{s} scale. In addition, the body wave magnitude, m_\text{b}, and the moment magnitude, M_\text{w}, abbreviated MMS, have been widely used for decades, and a couple of new techniques to measure magnitude are in the development stage.

All magnitude scales have been designed to give numerically similar results. This goal has been achieved well for M_\text{L}, M_\text{s}, and M_\text{w}.[7][8] The m_\text{b} scale gives somewhat different values than the other scales. The reason for so many different ways to measure the same thing is that at different distances, for different hypocentral depths, and for different earthquake sizes, the amplitudes of different types of elastic waves must be measured.

M_\text{L} is the scale used for the majority of earthquakes reported (tens of thousands) by local and regional seismological observatories. For large earthquakes worldwide, the moment magnitude scale is most common, although M_\text{s} is also reported frequently.

The seismic moment, M_o, is proportional to the area of the rupture times the average slip that took place in the earthquake, thus it measures the physical size of the event. M_\text{w} is derived from it empirically as a quantity without units, just a number designed to conform to the M_\text{s} scale.[9] A spectral analysis is required to obtain M_o, whereas the other magnitudes are derived from a simple measurement of the amplitude of a specifically defined wave.

All scales, except M_\text{w}, saturate for large earthquakes, meaning they are based on the amplitudes of waves which have a wavelength shorter than the rupture length of the earthquakes. These short waves (high frequency waves) are too short a yardstick to measure the extent of the event. The resulting effective upper limit of measurement for M_L is about 7[4] and about 8.5[4] for M_\text{s}.[10]

New techniques to avoid the saturation problem and to measure magnitudes rapidly for very large earthquakes are being developed. One of these is based on the long period P-wave,[11] the other is based on a recently discovered channel wave.[12]

The energy release of an earthquake,[13] which closely correlates to its destructive power, scales with the 32 power of the shaking amplitude. Thus, a difference in magnitude of 1.0 is equivalent to a factor of 31.6 (=({10^{1.0}})^{(3/2)}) in the energy released; a difference in magnitude of 2.0 is equivalent to a factor of 1000 (=({10^{2.0}})^{(3/2)} ) in the energy released.[14] The elastic energy radiated is best derived from an integration of the radiated spectrum, but one can base an estimate on m_\text{b} because most energy is carried by the high frequency waves.

Richter magnitudes[edit]

The Richter magnitude of an earthquake is determined from the logarithm of the amplitude of waves recorded by seismographs (adjustments are included to compensate for the variation in the distance between the various seismographs and the epicenter of the earthquake). The original formula is:[15]

M_\mathrm{L} = \log_{10} A - \log_{10} A_\mathrm{0}(\delta) = \log_{10} [A / A_\mathrm{0}(\delta)],\

where A is the maximum excursion of the Wood-Anderson seismograph, the empirical function A0 depends only on the epicentral distance of the station, \delta. In practice, readings from all observing stations are averaged after adjustment with station-specific corrections to obtain the M_\text{L} value.

Because of the logarithmic basis of the scale, each whole number increase in magnitude represents a tenfold increase in measured amplitude; in terms of energy, each whole number increase corresponds to an increase of about 31.6 times the amount of energy released, and each increase of 0.2 corresponds to a doubling of the energy released.

Events with magnitudes greater than 4.5 are strong enough to be recorded by a seismograph anywhere in the world, so long as its sensors are not located in the earthquake's shadow.

The following describes the typical effects of earthquakes of various magnitudes near the epicenter. The values are typical only and should be taken with extreme caution, since intensity and thus ground effects depend not only on the magnitude, but also on the distance to the epicenter, the depth of the earthquake's focus beneath the epicenter, the location of the epicenter and geological conditions (certain terrains can amplify seismic signals).

Magnitude Description Mercalli intensity Average earthquake effects Average frequency of occurrence (estimated)
Less than 2.0 Micro I Microearthquakes, not felt, or felt rarely by sensitive people. Recorded by seismographs.[16] Continual/several million per year
2.0–2.9 Minor I to II Felt slightly by some people. No damage to buildings. Over one million per year
3.0–3.9 II to IV Often felt by people, but very rarely causes damage. Shaking of indoor objects can be noticeable. Over 100,000 per year
4.0–4.9 Light IV to VI Noticeable shaking of indoor objects and rattling noises. Felt by most people in the affected area. Slightly felt outside. Generally causes none to minimal damage. Moderate to significant damage very unlikely. Some objects may fall off shelves or be knocked over. 10,000 to 15,000 per year
5.0–5.9 Moderate VI to VIII Can cause damage of varying severity to poorly constructed buildings. At most, none to slight damage to all other buildings. Felt by everyone. Casualties range from none to a few. 1,000 to 1,500 per year
6.0–6.9 Strong VII to X Damage to a moderate number of well-built structures in populated areas. Earthquake-resistant structures survive with slight to moderate damage. Poorly designed structures receive moderate to severe damage. Felt in wider areas; up to hundreds of miles/kilometers from the epicenter. Strong to violent shaking in epicentral area. Death toll ranges from none to 25,000. 100 to 150 per year
7.0–7.9 Major VIII or greater[17] Causes damage to most buildings, some to partially or completely collapse or receive severe damage. Well-designed structures are likely to receive damage. Felt across great distances with major damage mostly limited to 250 km from epicenter. Death toll ranges from none to 250,000. 10 to 20 per year
8.0–8.9 Great Major damage to buildings, structures likely to be destroyed. Will cause moderate to heavy damage to sturdy or earthquake-resistant buildings. Damaging in large areas. Felt in extremely large regions. Death toll ranges from 1,000 to 1 million. One per year
9.0 and greater Near or at total destruction - severe damage or collapse to all buildings. Heavy damage and shaking extends to distant locations. Permanent changes in ground topography. Death toll usually over 50,000. One per 10 to 50 years

(Based on U.S. Geological Survey documents.)[18]

The intensity and death toll depend on several factors (earthquake depth, epicenter location, population density, to name a few) and can vary widely.

Minor earthquakes occur every day and hour. On the other hand, great earthquakes occur once a year, on average. The largest recorded earthquake was the Great Chilean Earthquake of May 22, 1960, which had a magnitude of 9.5 on the moment magnitude scale.[19] The larger the magnitude, the less frequent the earthquake happens.

Examples[edit]

The following table lists the approximate energy equivalents in terms of TNT explosive force – though note that the earthquake energy is released underground rather than overground.[20] Most energy from an earthquake is not transmitted to and through the surface; instead, it dissipates into the crust and other subsurface structures. In contrast, a small atomic bomb blast (see nuclear weapon yield) will not, it will simply cause light shaking of indoor items, since its energy is released above ground.

31.6227 to the power of 0 equals 1, 31.6227 to the power of 1 equals 31.6227 and 31.6227 to the power of 2 equals 1000. Therefore, an 8.0 on the Richter scale releases 31.6227 times more energy than a 7.0 and a 9.0 on the Richter scale releases 1000 times more energy than a 7.0. Thus, E \approx 6.3\times 10^4\times 10^{3M/2}\,

Approximate Magnitude Approximate TNT for
Seismic Energy Yield
Joule equivalent Example
-0.2 7.5 g 31.5 kJ Energy released by lighting 30 typical matches
0.0 15 g 63 kJ
0.2 30 g 130 kJ Large hand grenade
0.5 85 g 360 kJ
1.0 480 g 2.0 MJ
1.2 1.1 kg 4.9 MJ Single stick of dynamite [DynoMax Pro]
1.4 2.2 kg 9.8 MJ Seismic impact of typical small construction blast
1.5 2.7 kg 11 MJ
2.0 15 kg 63 MJ
2.1 21 kg 89 MJ West fertilizer plant explosion[21]
2.5 85 kg 360 MJ
3.0 480 kg 2.0 GJ Oklahoma City bombing, 1995
3.5 2.7 metric tons 11 GJ PEPCON fuel plant explosion, Henderson, Nevada, 1988

Dallas, Texas earthquake, September 30, 2012

3.87 9.5 metric tons 40 GJ Explosion at Chernobyl nuclear power plant, 1986
3.91 11 metric tons 46 GJ Massive Ordnance Air Blast bomb

St. Patrick's Day earthquake, Auckland, New Zealand, 2013 [22][23]

4.0 15 metric tons 63 GJ Johannesburg/South Africa, November 18, 2013
4.3 43 metric tons 180 GJ Kent Earthquake (Britain), 2007

Eastern Kentucky earthquake, November 2012

5.0 480 metric tons 2.0 TJ Lincolnshire earthquake (UK), 2008

M_\text{w} Ontario-Quebec earthquake (Canada), 2010[24][25]

5.5 2.7 kilotons 11 TJ Little Skull Mtn. earthquake (Nevada, USA), 1992

M_\text{w} Alum Rock earthquake (California), 2007
M_\text{w} Chino Hills earthquake (Southern California), 2008

5.6 3.8 kilotons 16 TJ Newcastle, Australia, 1989

Oklahoma, 2011
Pernik, Bulgaria, 2012

6.0 15 kilotons 63 TJ Double Spring Flat earthquake (Nevada, USA), 1994

Approximate yield of the Little Boy Atomic Bomb dropped on Hiroshima (~16 kt)

6.3 43 kilotons 180 TJ M_\text{w} Rhodes earthquake (Greece), 2008

Jericho earthquake (British Palestine), 1927
Christchurch earthquake (New Zealand), 2011

6.4 60 kilotons 250 TJ Kaohsiung earthquake (Taiwan), 2010

Vancouver earthquake (Canada), 2011

6.5 85 kilotons 360 TJ M_\text{s} Caracas earthquake (Venezuela), 1967

Irpinia earthquake (Italy), 1980
M_\text{w} Eureka earthquake (California, USA), 2010
Zumpango del Rio earthquake (Guerrero, Mexico), 2011[26]

6.6 120 kilotons 500 TJ M_\text{w} San Fernando earthquake (California, USA), 1971
6.7 170 kilotons 710 TJ M_\text{w} Northridge earthquake (California, USA), 1994
6.8 240 kilotons 1.0 PJ M_\text{w} Nisqually earthquake (Anderson Island, WA), 2001

M_\text{w} Great Hanshin earthquake (Kobe, Japan), 1995
Gisborne earthquake (Gisborne, NZ), 2007

6.9 340 kilotons 1.4 PJ M_\text{w} San Francisco Bay Area earthquake (California, USA), 1989

M_\text{w} Pichilemu earthquake (Chile), 2010
M_\text{w} Sikkim earthquake (Nepal-India Border), 2011

7.0 480 kilotons 2.0 PJ M_\text{w} Java earthquake (Indonesia), 2009

M_\text{w} Haiti earthquake, 2010

7.1 680 kilotons 2.8 PJ M_\text{w} Messina earthquake (Italy), 1908

M_\text{w} San Juan earthquake (Argentina), 1944
M_\text{w} Canterbury earthquake (New Zealand), 2010

7.2 950 kilotons 4.0 PJ Vrancea earthquake (Romania), 1977

M_\text{w} 1980 Azores Islands Earthquake
M_\text{w} Baja California earthquake (Mexico), 2010

7.5 2.7 megatons 11 PJ M_\text{w} Kashmir earthquake (Pakistan), 2005

M_\text{w} Antofagasta earthquake (Chile), 2007

7.6 3.8 megatons 16 PJ M_\text{w} Nicoya earthquake (Costa Rica), 2012

M_\text{w} Oaxaca earthquake (Mexico), 2012
M_\text{w} Gujarat earthquake (India), 2001
M_\text{w} İzmit earthquake (Turkey), 1999
M_\text{w} Jiji earthquake (Taiwan), 1999

7.7 5.4 megatons 22 PJ M_\text{w} Sumatra earthquake (Indonesia), 2010

M_\text{w} Haida Gwaii earthquake (Canada), 2012

7.8 7.6 megatons 32 PJ M_\text{w} Tangshan earthquake (China), 1976

M_\text{s} Hawke's Bay earthquake (New Zealand), 1931
M_\text{s} Luzon earthquake (Philippines), 1990

7.9 10-15 megatons 42-63 PJ Tunguska event
1802 Vrancea earthquake

M_\text{w} Great Kanto earthquake (Japan), 1923

8.0 15 megatons 63 PJ M_\text{s} Mino-Owari earthquake (Japan), 1891

San Juan earthquake (Argentina), 1894
San Francisco earthquake (California, USA), 1906
M_\text{s} Queen Charlotte Islands earthquake (B.C., Canada), 1949
M_\text{w} Chincha Alta earthquake (Peru), 2007
M_\text{s} Sichuan earthquake (China), 2008
Kangra earthquake, 1905

8.1 21 megatons 89 PJ México City earthquake (Mexico), 1985

Guam earthquake, August 8, 1993[27]

8.35 50 megatons 210 PJ Tsar Bomba - Largest thermonuclear weapon ever tested. Most of the energy was dissipated in the atmosphere. The seismic shock was estimated at 5.0-5.2[28]
8.5 85 megatons 360 PJ M_\text{w} Sumatra earthquake (Indonesia), 2007
8.6 120 megatons 500 PJ M_\text{w} Sumatra earthquake (Indonesia), 2012
8.7 170 megatons 710 PJ M_\text{w} Sumatra earthquake (Indonesia), 2005
8.75 200 megatons 840 PJ Krakatoa 1883
8.8 240 megatons 1.0 EJ M_\text{w} Chile earthquake, 2010,
9.0 480 megatons 2.0 EJ M_\text{w} Lisbon earthquake (Portugal), All Saints Day, 1755
M_\text{w} The Great East Japan earthquake, March 2011
9.15 800 megatons 3.3 EJ Toba eruption 75,000 years ago; among the largest known volcanic events.[29]
9.2 950 megatons 4.0 EJ M_\text{w} Anchorage earthquake (Alaska, USA), 1964
M_\text{w} Sumatra-Andaman earthquake and tsunami (Indonesia), 2004
9.5 2.7 gigatons 11 EJ M_\text{w} Valdivia earthquake (Chile), 1960
13.00 100 teratons 420 ZJ Yucatán Peninsula impact (creating Chicxulub crater) 65 Ma ago (108 megatons; over 4x1029 ergs = 400 ZJ).[30][31][32][33][34]
22.88 or 32 310 yottatons 1.3×1039 J Approximate magnitude of the starquake on the magnetar SGR 1806-20, registered on December 27, 2004.[clarification needed]
  • Quakes using the more modern magnitude scales will denote their abbreviations: M_\text{w} and M_\text{s}. Those that have no denoted prefix are M_\text{L}. Please be advised that the magnitude "number" (example 7.0) displayed for those quakes on this table may represent a significantly greater or lesser release in energy than by the correctly given magnitude (example M_\text{w}).

Magnitude empirical formulae[edit]

These formulae are an alternative method to calculate Richter magnitude instead of using Richter correlation tables based on Richter standard seismic event (M_\mathrm{L}=0, A=0.001mm, D=100 km).

The Lillie empirical formula:

M_\mathrm{L} = \log_{10}A - 2.48+ 2.76\log_{10}\Delta

Where:

  • A is the amplitude (maximum ground displacement) of the P-wave, in micrometers, measured at 0.8 Hz.
  • \Delta is the epicentral distance, in km.

For distance less than 200 km:

M_\mathrm{L} = \log_{10} A + 1.6\log_{10} D - 0.15

For distance between 200 km and 600 km:

M_\mathrm{L} = \log_{10} A + 3.0\log_{10} D - 3.38

where A is seismograph signal amplitude in mm, D distance in km.

The Bisztricsany (1958) empirical formula for epicentral distances between 4˚ to 160˚:

M_\mathrm{L} = 2.92 + 2.25 \log_{10} (\tau) - 0.001 \Delta^{\circ}

Where:

  • M_\mathrm{L} is magnitude (mainly in the range of 5 to 8)
  • \tau is the duration of the surface wave in seconds
  • \Delta is the epicentral distance in degrees.

The Tsumura empirical formula:

M_\mathrm{L} = -2.53 + 2.85 \log_{10} (F-P) + 0.0014 \Delta^{\circ}

Where:

  • M_\mathrm{L} is the magnitude (mainly in the range of 3 to 5).
  • F-P is the total duration of oscillation in seconds.
  • \Delta is the epicentral distance in kilometers.

The Tsuboi, University of Tokyo, empirical formula:

M_\mathrm{L} = \log_{10}A + 1.73\log_{10}\Delta - 0.83

Where:

  • M_\mathrm{L} is the magnitude.
  • A is the amplitude in um.
  • \Delta is the epicentral distance in kilometers.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b The Richter Magnitude Scale
  2. ^ Reitherman, Robert (2012). Earthquakes and Engineers: An International History. Reston, VA: ASCE Press. pp. 208–209. ISBN 9780784410714. 
  3. ^ "USGS Earthquake Magnitude Policy". USGS. March 29, 2010. 
  4. ^ a b c Woo, Wang-chun (September 2012). "On Earthquake Magnitudes". Hong Kong Observatory. Retrieved 18 December 2013. 
  5. ^ William L. Ellsworth (1991). "SURFACE-WAVE MAGNITUDE (M_\text{s}) AND BODY-WAVE MAGNITUDE (mb)". USGS. Retrieved 2008-09-14. 
  6. ^ "Explanation of Bulletin Listings, USGS". 
  7. ^ Richter, C.F. (1935). "An instrumental earthquake magnitude scale". Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 25 (1-2): 1–32. 
  8. ^ Richter, C.F., "Elementary Seismology", edn, Vol., W. H. Freeman and Co., San Francisco, 1956.
  9. ^ Hanks, T. C. and H. Kanamori, 1979, "Moment magnitude scale", Journal of Geophysical Research, 84, B5, 2348.
  10. ^ "Richter scale". Glossary. USGS. March 31, 2010. 
  11. ^ Di Giacomo, D., Parolai, S., Saul, J., Grosser, H., Bormann, P., Wang, R. & Zschau, J., 2008. Rapid determination of the enrgy magnitude Me, in European Seismological Commission 31st General Assembly, Hersonissos.
  12. ^ Rivera, L. & Kanamori, H., 2008. Rapid source inversion of W phase for tsunami warning, in European Geophysical Union General Assembly, pp. A-06228, Vienna.
  13. ^ Marius Vassiliou and Hiroo Kanamori (1982): "The Energy Release in Earthquakes," Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 72, 371-387.
  14. ^ William Spence, Stuart A. Sipkin, and George L. Choy (1989). "Measuring the Size of an Earthquake". Earthquakes and Volcanoes 21 (1). 
  15. ^ Ellsworth, William L. (1991). "The Richter Scale M_\text{L}, from The San Andreas Fault System, California (Professional Paper 1515)". USGS. pp. c6, p177. Retrieved 2008-09-14. 
  16. ^ This is what Richter wrote in his Elementary Seismology (1958), an opinion copiously reproduced afterwards in Earth's science primers. Recent evidence shows that earthquakes with negative magnitudes (down to −0.7) can also be felt in exceptional cases, especially when the focus is very shallow (a few hundred metres). See: Thouvenot, F.; Bouchon, M. (2008). What is the lowest magnitude threshold at which an earthquake can be felt or heard, or objects thrown into the air?, in Fréchet, J., Meghraoui, M. & Stucchi, M. (eds), Modern Approaches in Solid Earth Sciences (vol. 2), Historical Seismology: Interdisciplinary Studies of Past and Recent Earthquakes, Springer, Dordrecht, 313–326.
  17. ^ "Anchorage, Alaska (AK) profile: population, maps, real estate, averages, homes, statistics, relocation, travel, jobs, hospitals, schools, crime, moving, houses, news". City-Data.com. Retrieved 2012-10-12. 
  18. ^ "Earthquake Facts and Statistics". United States Geological Survey. 29 November 2012. Retrieved 18 December 2013. 
  19. ^ "Largest Earthquakes in the World Since 1900". 30 November 2012. Retrieved 18 December 2013. 
  20. ^ Usgs Faqs (2014-01-15). "FAQs – Measuring Earthquakes". Earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved 2014-02-16. 
  21. ^ "2.1 Explosion - 1km NNE of West, Texas (BETA)". United States Geological Survey. 19 June 2013. Retrieved 18 December 2013. 
  22. ^ "New Zealand Earthquake Report: Magnitude 3.9, Sunday, March 17, 2013 at 4:05:42 pm (NZDT)". GeoNet. Retrieved 18 December 2013. 
  23. ^ Backhouse, Matthew; Theunissen, Matthew (17 March 2013). "Quake rattles Auckland". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 18 December 2013. 
  24. ^ "Magnitude 5.0 – Ontario-Quebec border region, Canada". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved 2010-06-23. 
  25. ^ "Moderate 5.0 earthquake shakes Toronto, Eastern Canada and U.S.". nationalpost.com. Retrieved 2010-06-23. 
  26. ^ "Past Earthquakes" (in Spanish). Servicio Sismologico Nacional. Retrieved 2 March 2013. 
  27. ^ "M8.1 South End of Island August 8, 1993.". eeri.org. Retrieved 2011-03-11. 
  28. ^ "The Tsar Bomba ("King of Bombs")". Retrieved 2014-07-06. 
  29. ^ Petraglia, M.; R. Korisettar, N. Boivin, C. Clarkson,4 P. Ditchfield,5 S. Jones,6 J. Koshy,7 M.M. Lahr,8 C. Oppenheimer,9 D. Pyle,10 R. Roberts,11 J.-C. Schwenninger,12 L. Arnold,13 K. White. (6 July 2007). "Middle Paleolithic Assemblages from the Indian Subcontinent Before and After the Toba Super-eruption". Science 317 (5834): 114–116. doi:10.1126/science.1141564. PMID 17615356.
  30. ^ Bralower, Timothy J.; Charles K. Paull; R. Mark Leckie (1998). "The Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary cocktail: Chicxulub impact triggers margin collapse and extensive sediment gravity flows". Geology 26: 331–334. Bibcode:1998Geo....26..331B. doi:10.1130/0091-7613(1998)026<0331:TCTBCC>2.3.CO;2. ISSN 0091-7613. Retrieved 2009-09-03. 
  31. ^ Klaus, Adam; Norris, Richard D.; Kroon, Dick; Smit, Jan (2000). "Impact-induced mass wasting at the K-T boundary: Blake Nose, western North Atlantic". Geology 28: 319–322. Bibcode:2000Geo....28..319K. doi:10.1130/0091-7613(2000)28<319:IMWATK>2.0.CO;2. ISSN 0091-7613. 
  32. ^ Busby, Cathy J.; Grant Yip; Lars Blikra; Paul Renne (2002). "Coastal landsliding and catastrophic sedimentation triggered by Cretaceous-Tertiary bolide impact: A Pacific margin example?". Geology 30: 687–690. Bibcode:2002Geo....30..687B. doi:10.1130/0091-7613(2002)030<0687:CLACST>2.0.CO;2. ISSN 0091-7613. 
  33. ^ Simms, Michael J. (2003). "Uniquely extensive seismite from the latest Triassic of the United Kingdom: Evidence for bolide impact?". Geology 31: 557–560. Bibcode:2003Geo....31..557S. doi:10.1130/0091-7613(2003)031<0557:UESFTL>2.0.CO;2. ISSN 0091-7613. 
  34. ^ Simkin, Tom; Robert I. Tilling; Peter R. Vogt; Stephen H. Kirby; Paul Kimberly; David B. Stewart (2006). "This dynamic planet. World map of volcanoes, earthquakes, impact craters, and plate tectonics. Inset VI. Impacting extraterrestrials scar planetary surfaces". U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved 2009-09-03. 

External links[edit]