Rick Snyder

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For other people named Rick Snyder, see Richard Snyder.
Rick Snyder
RickSnyder.jpg
48th Governor of Michigan
Incumbent
Assumed office
January 1, 2011
Lieutenant Brian Calley
Preceded by Jennifer Granholm
Personal details
Born Richard Dale Snyder
(1958-08-19) August 19, 1958 (age 56)
Battle Creek, Michigan, U.S.
Political party Republican
Spouse(s) Sue Snyder
Children Jeff
Melissa
Kelsey
Alma mater University of Michigan, Ann
Arbor
Religion Presbyterianism
Signature
Website Official website

Richard Dale "Rick" Snyder[1] (born August 19, 1958) is an American politician, business executive, venture capitalist, and accountant. He is the 48th and current Governor of Michigan. A member of the Republican Party, he assumed office as governor on January 1, 2011. From 2005 to 2007, Snyder served as the chairman of the board of Gateway, Inc., based in Irvine, California. Prior to his election as governor, he was chairman of the board, chief executive officer, and co-founder of Ardesta LLC, a venture capital firm based out of Ann Arbor, Michigan.[2]

Snyder was considered as a possible Republican Party candidate for Vice President of the United States in 2012, although ultimately Paul Ryan was selected.[3][4][5][6]

On February 3, 2014, Snyder announced his candidacy for re-election as Governor of Michigan in 2014. He was elected to a second term in the November 4, 2014 vote, defeating his major challenger, Democrat Mark Schauer.[7]

Early life, education, and family[edit]

Snyder was born to Dale F. and Helen Louella Snyder in Battle Creek, Michigan, where he was raised.[8] His father owned a small, local window-cleaning company in Battle Creek. He has an elder sister.[9] When he was 16, he took a business class at Kellogg Community College on weekends. By his senior year at Lakeview High School in Calhoun County, Snyder had already earned 23 college credits.[10]

Snyder visited the admissions office of the University of Michigan in November 1975 and spoke with the admissions director, who recommended that Snyder attend Michigan and create his own degree.[11] Snyder earned his B.G.S. (1977), M.B.A. (1979), and J.D. (1982)[12] from the University of Michigan by age 23.[13] Snyder is also a Certified Public Accountant (CPA).[14]

He resides in Ann Arbor with his wife Sue and their three children and has a vacation home near Gun Lake.[15] The couple were married in 1987 at Cherry Hill Presbyterian Church in Dearborn.[16] Snyder has indicated he is a practicing Presbyterian.[16]

Michigan Governor Rick Snyder with First Lady Sue Snyder, at Ford Field in Detroit, January 18, 2013

Business career[edit]

Snyder was employed with Coopers & Lybrand, from 1982 to 1991, beginning in the tax department of the Detroit office. Snyder was named partner in 1988. The next year, Snyder was named partner-in-charge of the mergers and acquisitions practice in the Chicago office.[17]

Snyder joined the computer company Gateway, based in Irvine, California, in 1991 as the executive vice president. He served as president and chief operating officer from 1996 to 1997. He remained on the board of directors until 2007.[18] From 2005 to 2007, Snyder served as the chairman of the board. During 2006, Snyder served as interim chief executive officer while a search for a permanent replacement was made. His tenure on the Gateway board ran from 1991 to 2007 until Gateway was sold to Acer Inc. Snyder stated that he did not vote for outsourcing while he was a Gateway board director and he worked to bring jobs to America as the interim CEO of Gateway.[19]

In 1997, Snyder returned to Ann Arbor to found Avalon Investments Inc., a venture capital company with a $100 million fund, along with the co-founder of Gateway, Ted Waitt. Snyder was president and chief executive officer of Avalon from 1997 to 2000. He then co-founded Ardesta LLC, an investment firm, in 2000 along with three co-founders, which invested in 20 start-up companies through 2011. He was Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of the company. He serves on the boards of the U.S. National Historic Landmark Henry Ford Museum and Greenfield Village, the Michigan chapter of the Nature Conservancy, and several boards associated with the University of Michigan. He was also first chair of the Michigan Economic Development Corporation in 1999 under Republican Governor John Engler. He was also the Chair of Ann Arbor SPARK. In addition, he serves as an adjunct assistant professor of accounting at the University of Michigan.[citation needed]

Gubernatorial elections[edit]

2010[edit]

Snyder decided to run for Governor of Michigan. He joined Oakland County Sheriff Mike Bouchard, state Senator Tom George, U.S. Congressman Peter Hoekstra, and Michigan Attorney General Mike Cox as candidates for the Republican gubernatorial nomination. Bill Ford Jr., Chairman of the Ford Motor Company, endorsed Snyder for the Republican nomination for governor.[20][21] In his first gubernatorial election in 2010, Snyder campaigned as "pro-life, pro-Second Amendment, [and] pro-family," with a focus on the economy.[13] His campaign emphasized his experience in growing business and creating jobs in the private sector, saying that his opponents were mainly career politicians. Snyder favors the standard exceptions on abortion for rape, incest, and saving the life of the mother (he signed legislation banning partial birth abortion in October 2011); he opposes federal funding of abortions; he would not ban embryonic stem cell research; he supports upholding traditional marriage, but would allow civil unions.[22][23]

On August 3, 2010, Snyder won the primary to secure the Republican nomination with a plurality of 36% of the vote. In the general election on November 2, 2010, Snyder faced Democratic gubernatorial nominee Virg Bernero, the mayor of Lansing, and three minor party candidates. In October 2010, Snyder's campaign total exceeded $11.6 million, outpacing his opponent.[24] Snyder released his tax returns for 2007 and 2008.[25] Snyder won with 58 percent of the vote.[26]

With Snyder's election in 2010, Republicans gained a majority in the Michigan House and increased the Republican majority held in the Michigan Senate. Snyder is the first Certified Public Accountant (CPA) to be elected governor of the state and the only CPA serving as a governor in the United States.[27]

2014[edit]

On January 30, 2014, Snyder launched his campaign for a second term as governor.[28][29] He garnered approximately 51% of the vote in the November 4, 2014 election to earn a second term.[7]

Governor of Michigan[edit]

Governor Snyder takes the oath from Michigan Supreme Court Chief Justice Marilyn Kelly
Snyder (far right) with (from left to right) United States Deputy Secretary of State Thomas R. Nides, United States Ambassador to Canada David Jacobson, Canadian Minister of State for Science and Technology Gary Goodyear, Governor General of Canada David Johnston, and Canada 2020 Chair Don Newman at the US-Canada Partnership: Enhancing the Innovation Ecosystem conference at the Château Laurier in Ottawa, Ontario, November 2, 2011.

Snyder was inaugurated as Governor on January 1, 2011 at the Capitol in Lansing. His first executive order as governor was to divide the Department of Natural Resources and Environment into two distinct departments as they were a few years ago: the Department of Natural Resources and the Department of Environmental Quality.[30][31]

On January 7, 2011, Snyder announced he was appointing Michigan Supreme Court Justice Maura D. Corrigan to head the Department of Human Services and appointed Michigan Appeals Court Judge Brian K. Zahra to fill the resulting Supreme Court vacancy. Snyder delivered his first State of the State address on January 19, the earliest Michigan State of the State since Governor Engler's 1996 address on January 17. He endorsed the Detroit River International Crossing for the first time publicly in the address, which was received favorably by Republicans.[32] Snyder appointed Andy Dillon, a pro-life Democrat,[33] and formerly Speaker of the House, to serve as State Treasurer in his administration.

Snyder presented his first budget to the legislature on February 17, 2011,[34] calling it a plan for "Michigan's reinvention," and saying it would end Michigan's deficits. He described the budget as containing "shared sacrifice" but added that his budget plan would create jobs and spur economic growth. The $46 billion budget reduced $1.8 billion in spending, raised taxes by eliminating tax exemptions on pensions, while at the same time abolished the state's complex business tax, replacing it with a significantly reduced flat tax on the profits of C corporations. This shift in tax burden led State Senate Minority Leader Gretchen Whitmer to criticize the budget, saying that it did not involve "shared sacrifice," but instead was balanced "on the backs of our kids, working families, and our seniors" and "picks out who he’s willing to leave behind."[35] Snyder supported the government backed rescue of the American auto industry. This reflected the view of a 56% of Americans in 2012 who supported the 2009 auto bailout according a Pew Research Center poll (63% support in Michigan).[36]

On March 16, 2011, Snyder signed a controversial bill into law that gave increased powers to emergency managers of local municipalities to resolve financial matters.[37] The bill was repealed by voter initiative in November 2012. However, weeks later in December 2012 Snyder signed a revised version of the bill back into law.[38]

On December 22, 2011, Snyder signed into law The Public Employee Domestic Partner Benefit Restriction Act, which prevents the same-sex domestic partners of public employees at both the state and local level from receiving health benefits. In January 2012, the ACLU filed a lawsuit against Snyder and the state of Michigan in federal court on behalf of five Michigan same-sex couples, each with one spouse working for local public schools or municipalities in Michigan. The suit alleges that the law violates the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment of the United States Constitution.[39][40] On June 28, 2013, a federal judge struck down the law.[41]

In April 2012, Snyder made a surprise trip to Afghanistan to thank and pledge support for U.S. troops. He traveled to Kuwait and then to Germany where he visited injured U.S. soldiers at the U.S. Military hospital.[citation needed] He has also engaged in trade missions to Europe, Asia, and around the world in order to improve international business relations as well as research and development opportunities associated with Michigan universities.[42] Snyder has focused efforts to attract companies such as Chrysler.[43]

Following approval from the legislature, Snyder signed the fiscal year 2012 budget in June, the earliest it has been completed in three decades.[44] In May 2012, Snyder joined a bipartisan effort urging the U.S. Congress to pass a measure to affirm that States can collect sales taxes on online purchases.[45][46]

As Governor, Snyder abolished the state's complex business tax in favor of a flat tax, and signed a bill which raised taxes by eliminated tax exemptions for pensions. Snyder signed "landmark" legislation in December 2012 making Michigan the 24th "Right to Work" state in the U.S. as part of a plan to attract business and jobs to the state.[47][48] The Employee Free Choice Act, as it was named, has received mixed results in polls.[49] The law effectively provides that payment of union dues cannot be required as a condition of employment.[50]

A Market Research Group poll conducted in March 2012 showed Snyder's approval rating rising to 50% among likely voters, which matched that of President Barack Obama, placing Snyder among the most popular Republican governors in a state carried by Obama in the 2008 election cycle.[51] Snyder was briefly mentioned as a possible pick to be the Republican Party candidate for Vice President of the United States in 2012.[3][4][52] His business executive background and 'positive' style have been cited as political assets, with his deeds seen as strengthening the case for electing a business executive candidate as President of the United States.[53][54][55] He has been mentioned as a potential Republican Party candidate for President of the United States in 2016.[56][57][58][59]

In December 2012, Snyder signed legislation requiring facilities where at least 120 abortions are performed annually to obtain a state license as freestanding surgical facilities.[60] Planned Parenthood had urged Snyder to veto the bill claiming it unnecessarily increases costs.[61]

In January 2013, Snyder traveled to Israel to meet with Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu. He was last in Israel in 1999 as a venture capitalist. “I had a chance to see the start of high-tech boom in Israel and that’s great to see. This is really a startup nation. They’ve done a great job of being entrepreneurial, innovative, and that’s a major part of their economy now and the good part is we can learn from that.”[62]

In March 2013, Snyder announced a financial emergency for the city of Detroit[63] and appointed an emergency manager, Kevyn Orr. As a result of emergency manager appointments under Synder's watch, over half of the state's black population lives in cities where the local government was appointed rather than elected by the voters.[64]

On December 27, 2013, Snyder signed a bill into law which nullifies Section 1021 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2012, which contains a controversial provision that allows the government and the military to indefinitely detain American citizens and others without trial.[65]

On January 23, 2014, Snyder announced plans to offer visas to 50,000 immigrant workers with advanced degrees to help jumpstart the Detroit economy. The program's advocates claim the program is expected to bring an influx of new jobs and a more stable tax base.[66]

On September 10, Detroit reached a deal with three Michigan counties over regional water and sewer services that could eliminate one roadblock to federal court approval of the city's plan to adjust its debt and exit bankruptcy. The deal with Oakland, Wayne and Macomb counties creates a regional water and sewer authority, but allows Detroit to maintain control of its local system. The deal was crucial to adjusting the city's $18 billion of debt and exit the biggest-ever municipal bankruptcy.[67]

On December 18, the Governor issued an executive order which would create the Michigan Department of Talent and Economic Development to house a new state agency, Talent Investment Agency, created from the merger of Michigan State Housing and Development Authority, the Workforce Development Agency, the Governor's Talent Investment Board and the Unemployment Insurance Agency. With objection from the state legilsature, the Department would come into effect 60 days after the start of the next legislative session.[68]

Cabinet[edit]

Name Title(s)
Maura D. Corrigan Group executive for people (Department of Human Services, Department of Community Health, Department of Education, Department of Civil Rights)
Director of the Department of Human Services
Andy Dillon State Treasurer
Group Executive for Treasury (Department of Treasury, Lottery and Michigan Gaming Control Board)
Michael Finney Director of the Michigan Economic Development Corporation
Group Executive for Economic Development (MEDC, Department of Transportation, Department of Licensing and Regulatory Affairs)
David Behen Director of the Department of Technology, Management, and Budget
Value for Money group executive (State Budget Office, Department of Technology, Management, and Budget, Office of the State Employer)
Maj. Gen. Gregory J. Vadnais Group executive for public safety (Michigan State Police, Department of Corrections, Department of Military and Veterans Affairs, Michigan National Guard)
Director of the Department of Military and Veterans Affairs
Director of the Michigan National Guard
Dan Wyant Director of the Department of Environmental Quality
Quality of Life group executive (Department of Natural Resources, Department of Environmental Quality, Department of Agriculture and Rural Development)
Jamie Clover Adams Director of the Department of Agriculture and Rural Development
James Haveman Director of the Department of Community Health
Kriste Etue Director of the Michigan State Police
Mike Flanagan Director of the Superintendent of Public Instruction
Daniel Heyns Director of the Department of Corrections
Steve Arwood Director of the Department of Licensing and Regulatory Affairs
Daniel Krichbaum Director of the Department of Civil Rights
Kirk Steudle Director of the Department of Transportation
Keith Creagh Director of the Department of Natural Resources

Electoral history[edit]

Michigan Gubernatorial election, 2010[69]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Republican Rick Snyder 1,874,834 58.11% +15.81%
Democratic Virg Bernero 1,287,320 39.90% -16.46%
Libertarian Ken Proctor 22,390 0.69% +0.08%
Constitution Stacey Mathia 20,818 0.65% +0.46%
Green Harley Mikkelson 20,699 0.64% +0.12%
Majority 587,514 18.21% +4.15%
Turnout 3,226,088
Republican gain from Democratic Swing
Republican Primary - 2010 Michigan Gubernatorial Election[70]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Rick Snyder 381,327 36.4%
Republican Pete Hoekstra 280,976 26.8%
Republican Mike Cox 240,409 23.0%
Republican Mike Bouchard 127,350 12.2%
Republican Tom George 16,986 1.6%
Totals 1,044,925 100%

See also[edit]


References[edit]

  1. ^ Luke, Peter (January 1, 2011). "Gov. Rick Snyder celebrates taking office with 'clean slate' at Inauguration". Mlive.com. Retrieved March 20, 2011. 
  2. ^ Christoff, Chris; Bell, Dawson & Jennifer Dixon (November 2, 2010). "Snyder leads Republicans to sweep of Michigan's top 3 posts". Detroit Free Press. Archived from the original on November 8, 2010. 
  3. ^ a b Bell, Dawson (May 4, 2012).Rick Snyder for vice president?.Detroit Free Press.
  4. ^ a b Experts: Snyder Good Choice For Vice President.WILX news May 4, 2012.
  5. ^ WWJ Lansing (May 3, 2012).One Tough Veep? Snyder Won't Quash Romney Running Mate Rumors, detroit.cbslocal.com; accessed December 13, 2014
  6. ^ Anders, Melissa (May 3, 2012)."Michigan Gov. Rick Snyder as Mitt Romney's vice presidential candidate?", MLive.com; accessed December 13, 2014.
  7. ^ a b Egan, Paul (November 5, 2014). "Snyder defeats Schauer in election for governor". Detroit Free Press. Retrieved December 13, 2014. 
  8. ^ "Rick Snyder ancestry". Freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com. Retrieved July 19, 2013. 
  9. ^ Drake, Bruce. "How Old Is Rick Snyder?". Politicsdaily.com. Retrieved 2013-07-19. 
  10. ^ McVicar, Brian (May 4, 2011). "Gov. Snyder's message to Muskegon Community College graduates: Optimism and positive action". The Muskegon Chronicle. Retrieved November 5, 2011. 
  11. ^ "Michigan Governor Rick Snyder addresses University of Michigan Spring Commencement 2011". Youtube. Retrieved November 5, 2011. 
  12. ^ "Governor Rick Snyder's biography at". Votesmart.org. Retrieved 2013-07-19. 
  13. ^ a b Bomey, Nathan (September 9, 2009). Ann Arbor venture capitalist Rick Snyder lands gubernatorial endorsements, AnnArbor.com; accessed December 13, 2014.
  14. ^ Tysiac, Ken (December 2012). "Snyder's Challenge: Reinvigorating Michigan". Journal of Accountancy (American Institute of Certified Public Accountants) 214 (6): 22–25. 
  15. ^ "Ex-Gateway Computers CEO Offers Advice to Entrepreneurs". Grand Rapids Press. May 6, 2009. 
  16. ^ a b Bomey, Nathan (July 4, 2010)."Rick Snyder: Nerd. Accountant. Computer executive. Investor. Governor?", AnnArbor.com; archived from the original on February 9, 2012; retrieved on March 7, 2013.
  17. ^ "Venture Capitalist Rick Snyder Exploring Governor's Race". Associated Press. March 20, 2009. Retrieved December 13, 2014. 
  18. ^ "Gateway CEO Steps Down". InternetNews. February 9, 2006. Retrieved December 13, 2014. 
  19. ^ "Rick Snyder Talks About Gateway Outsourcing and Bid for Governor". AnnArbor.com. February 20, 2010. Retrieved December 13, 2014. 
  20. ^ Bill Ford Jr. endorses Ann Arbor’s Rick Snyder for governor, AnnArbor.com, September 24, 2009.
  21. ^ Bill Ford backs Rick Snyder for Michigan governor.Mlive.com September 24, 2009.
  22. ^ "Rick Snyder". OntheIssues.org. Retrieved 2013-07-19. 
  23. ^ Christoff, Chris (August 27, 2010). Poll: GOP's Snyder is winning over voters, freep.com; accessed December 13, 2014.
  24. ^ Rick Snyder tops Virg Bernero in fundraising in Michigan gubernatorial race, annarbor.com, October 22, 2010.
  25. ^ "Gubernatorial hopeful Rick Snyder of Ann Arbor releases tax returns", Ann Arbor.com, July 17, 2010.
  26. ^ "2010 Election Map". Politico.com. Retrieved November 6, 2011. 
  27. ^ "'Nerd' Governor Rick Snyder is rock star to fellow accountants", MLive.com, January 20, 2012; accessed December 13, 2014.
  28. ^ Oosting, Jonathan (January 30, 2014).It's official: Michigan Gov. Rick Snyder launching re-election campaign with statewide tour, MLive.com; accessed December 13, 2014.
  29. ^ Woods, Ashley (January 31, 2014)."Rick Snyder Launches Re-election Campaign For Michigan Governor Race". Huffington Post; accessed December 14, 2014.
  30. ^ "Executive Reorganization Department of Natural Resources and Environment Creating the Department of Natural Resources and the Department of Environmental Quality" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-07-19. 
  31. ^ Chris Christoff (2011-01-04). "Detroit Free Press: Snyder makes it official: DNR and DEQ split". Freep.com. Retrieved 2013-07-19. 
  32. ^ "Gov. Rick Snyder: 'Job 1 is jobs'". Freep.com. Retrieved 2013-12-28. 
  33. ^ Berman, Laura (July 13, 2010). "Dillon's abortion position will matter", DetroitNews.com; accessed December 13, 2014.
  34. ^ "Governor Snyder unveils recommended budget to provide foundation for Michigan's reinvention". Michigan.gov. 2011-02-17. Retrieved 2013-07-19. 
  35. ^ Nathan Bomey (2011-02-17). "Rick Snyder proposes significant elimination of business taxes, elimination of credits for film, high-techindustries (February 17, 2011)". Annarbor.com. Retrieved 2013-07-19. 
  36. ^ Reeve, Elspeth (February 23, 2012)."Most Americans Now Think Auto Bailout Was a Good Idea", thewire.com; accessed December 13, 2014.
  37. ^ State of Michigan Public Act 4 (March 16, 2011).[1]; retrieved July 14, 2012.
  38. ^ "New Emergency Manager Law Signed By Michigan Governor Rick Snyder". Huffingtonpost.com. 2012-12-27. Retrieved 2013-07-19. 
  39. ^ "Governor Rick Snyder signs domestic partner benefits ban into law". AnnArbor.com. 2011-12-22. Retrieved 2014-01-27. 
  40. ^ "Bassett v. Snyder, First Amended Complaint". Retrieved 2014-01-27. 
  41. ^ "Michigan ban on domestic partner benefits struck down by federal judge in preliminary injunction". mLive.com. 2013-08-28. Retrieved 2014-01-27. 
  42. ^ McMorris, Craig (April 18, 2012).Gov. Snyder continues European trade mission.WNEM, Meridith Corp.
  43. ^ Buss, Dale (April 1, 2012).7 Things Chrysler Could Use To Mount a Good 'Second Half', Forbes.com; accessed December 13, 2014.
  44. ^ Barks, Kathy (2011-06-21). "Associated Press: Gov. Snyder signs $47.4B Michigan budget Tuesday". Businessweek.com. Retrieved 2013-07-19. 
  45. ^ Becker, Bernie (May 11, 2012).Michigan governor joins online sales tax chorus. The Hill. Retrieved June 28, 2013.
  46. ^ Anders, Melissa (May 11, 2012).Gov. Rick Snyder wants Michigan to collect sales tax for all online purchases, MLive.com; accessed June 28, 2013.
  47. ^ Action on Right to Work legislation appears likely, Fox News Detroit; retrieved December 11, 2012.
  48. ^ Governor's Office Freedom to Work Press Release (December 6, 2012).[2]. Retrieved December 11, 2012.
  49. ^ Egan, Paul (January 16, 2013).New poll suggests Snyder's popularity not hurt by right-to-work legislation.Detroit Free Press; retrieved June 28, 2013.
  50. ^ Staff. "Michigan afl-cio (December 11, 2012)". Mnaflcio.org. Retrieved 2013-07-19. 
  51. ^ Bell, Dawson (March 23, 2012).Poll: More Michiganders like how Barack Obama, Rick Snyder are doing their jobs.Detroit Free Press. Retrieved March 23, 2012.
  52. ^ Carpenter, Mackenzie (February 20, 2011).Republicans consider early possibilities for vice president, post-gazette.com; retrieved March 23, 2012.
  53. ^ Decker, Brett M. (April 18, 2012).DECKER: Romney's Snyder example, WashingtonTimes.com; accessed December 13, 2014.
  54. ^ White, Joseph (October 31, 2011)."Michigan Governor's GOP Brand Is Distinct", Wall Street Journal online; accessed December 14, 2014.
  55. ^ Murray, Dave (April 21, 2012).Unlike predecessors, 'relentlessly positive' Gov. Rick Snyder reluctant to use veto pen, MLive.com; accessed December 13, 2014.
  56. ^ Republican-Candidates.org Republican Presidential Candidates for 2016; retrieved June 28, 2013.
  57. ^ Crain, Keith (December 2, 2012)."An early vote: Snyder for president". Crain's Detroit Business; retrieved June 28, 2013.
  58. ^ Egan, Paul (January 27, 2014).Snyder seen as 2016 White House hopeful. Gannett, Lansing State Journal
  59. ^ Some in GOP float idea of Rick Snyder presidency, USAToday.com, January 28, 2014.
  60. ^ "Governor Rick Snyder Signs Abortion Legislation". wlns.com. Retrieved 29 December 2012. 
  61. ^ [3], "Michigan Gov. Rick Snyder signs bill adding regulations to abortion providers; vetoes Blue Cross bills", MLive.com; accessed December 13, 2014.
  62. ^ Staff. "See what Gov. Rick Snyder is up to in Israel". MLive.com. Retrieved 2013-07-19. 
  63. ^ "Michigan Governor declares financial emergency in Detroit". Wxyz.com. Retrieved 2013-07-19. 
  64. ^ http://www.thenation.com/article/166297/scandal-michigans-emergency-managers#
  65. ^ "BREAKING NEWS: Michigan nullifies NDAA's indefinite detention". Communities.washingtontimes.com. Retrieved 2013-12-28. 
  66. ^ "Immigrants Seen as Way to Refill Detroit Ranks". The New York Times. 2014-01-23. Retrieved 2014-01-24. 
  67. ^ Lambert, Lisa. "Detroit, counties reach deal over water, sewer authority". Reuters. Retrieved December 13, 2014. 
  68. ^ Lawler, Emily (December 18, 2014). "Michigan Gov. Rick Snyder debuts new workforce talent department with executive order". mlive (Mlive Media Group). Retrieved December 19, 2014. 
  69. ^ "2010 Official Michigan General Election Results - Governor 4 Year Term (1) Position". Miboecfr.nictusa.com. Retrieved 2013-07-19. 
  70. ^ "Michigan Primary results". 2010 Unofficial Michigan Primary Election Results. August 4, 2010. Retrieved August 10, 2010. 

External links[edit]

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