A riffle is a short, relatively shallow and coarse-bedded length of stream over which the stream flows at higher velocity and higher turbulence than it normally does in comparison to a pool. As a result of the increased velocity and heightened turbulence, small ripples are frequently found. Riffles are usually caused by an increase in a stream bed's slope or an obstruction in the water.
Riffles are instrumental in the formation of meanders, with deeper pools forming alternately. Although simple fluid flow suggests slower flow in deeper water and faster flow over riffles, the true flow pattern pool and riffle waters is often helicoidal flow or turbulent, which permits more rapid erosion of the wetted perimeter. Nevertheless, the coarse-grained bedding of riffles suggests erosion of smaller particles, according to the Hjulström curve. Riffles are typically found in the middle course of rivers, and are theoretically found at intervals around 6 times the width of the river, although local conditions cause this to vary.