Right-wing terrorism draws its inspiration from a variety of ideologies and beliefs, including neo-fascism, neo-Nazism, racism and opposition to foreigners and immigration. Incidents of this type of terrorism have been sporadic with little or no international cooperation. Their actions are generally poorly coordinated and there are few identifiable organizations. Modern right wing terrorism began to appear in western Europe in the 1980s and in eastern Europe following the collapse of the Eastern Bloc.
The objective of right-wing terrorism is the overthrow existing governments and their replacement with nationalist or fascist-oriented governments.
Right-wing terrorists generally are inspired by 19th century and early 20th century nationalist writers such as Arthur de Gobineau, Houston Stewart Chamberlain and Heinrich von Treitschke. The core of this movement includes neo-fascist skinheads, right-wing hooligans, youth sympathisers and intellectual guides who believe that the state must rid itself of foreign elements in order to protect rightful citizens. However, they usually lack a rigid ideology.
Right-wing terrorism came to widespread attention after the August 1980 Bologna bombing, when a group of right-wing terrorists exploded a bomb at a railroad station in Bologna, Italy, killing 84 people and injuring more than 180. Two months later, a right-wing terrorist attack in Munich, Germany killed the attacker and 14 other people, injuring 215. Fears of an on-going campaign of major right-wing terrorist attacks did not materialize.
In 1983, Gordon Kahl, a Posse Comitatus activist, killed two federal marshals and was later killed by police. Also that year, the white nationalist revolutionary group The Order (also known as the Brüder Schweigen or Silent Brotherhood) became involved with terrorism, including: robbing a sex shop, several banks and armored cars; bombing a theater and a synagogue; and murdering radio talk show host Alan Berg.
In November 2011 two members of the German National Socialist Underground committed suicide after a bank robbery and a third member was arrested some days later. Apart from several bank robberies the group was responsible for the so-called Bosphorus serial murders and the 2004 Cologne bombing as well as the murder of policewoman Michéle Kiesewetter back in 2007.
United States 
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During the 1980s, more than 75 right-wing extremists were prosecuted in the United States for acts of terrorism, although they carried out only six attacks during the decade. The success of law enforcement in capturing and preventing terrorists has been credited to their efforts to investigate terrorists before they turned to violence. The April 19, 1995 attack on the Murrah federal building in Oklahoma, by the right-wing extremist Timothy McVeigh, which killed 168 people, would become the worst domestic terrorist attack in American history. It was reported he had ties to a Michigan militia group.
Eric Rudolph carried out a series of terrorist attacks between 1996 and 1998 including the Centennial Olympic Park bombing which claimed 2 lives and injured 111, the plan being to cancel the games, claiming they were set up to promote global socialism. Rudolph has also confessed to the bombings of an abortion clinic in the Atlanta suburb of Sandy Springs on January 16, 1997; the Otherside Lounge of Atlanta lesbian bar on February 21, 1997, injuring five; and an abortion clinic in Birmingham, Alabama on January 29, 1998, killing Birmingham police officer and part-time clinic security guard Robert Sanderson, and critically injuring nurse Emily Lyons.
Right-wing extremists have committed at least eight lethal terrorist attacks in the United States that have resulted in the deaths of nine people since 9/11, according to data compiled by the New America Foundation. Another FBI study reported that between January 1, 2007, and October 31, 2009, white supremacists were involved in 53 acts of violence, 40 of which were assaults directed primarily at African-Americans, seven of which were murders and the rest of which were threats, arson and intimidation.
In August 1980, a bomb detonated in the central station of Bologna, killing 85 people and wounding more than 200. The perpetrators according to the Italian police office were Valerio Fioravanti and Francesca Mambro, two members of the neo-fascist organization Nuclei Armati Rivoluzionari. Both accused perpetrators denied any connection with the attacks.
United Kingdom 
David Copeland planted a series of bombs over 13 days in April 1999. He caused explosions in Brixton, south London Brick Lane in east London and a nail bomb in Soho, central London. The final blast at the gay pub the Admiral Duncan killed Andrea Dykes, 27, who was pregnant, and friends John Light, 32, and Nik Moore, 31, from Essex. His intention was to ignite a race war across Britain. In addition to the three killings, he injured 139 people including a 23 month old todler who had to have a 4 inch nail removed from his brain.
During July 2009, Neil Lewington was planning on waging a terror campaign using tennis balls and weedkiller targeted against those he thought classified as "non British".
Robert Cottage, a former BNP member was convicted in July 2007 for possessing explosive chemicals in his home – described by police at the time of his arrest as the largest amount of chemical explosive of its type ever found in this country.
Martyn Gilleard, a British Nazi sympathizer was jailed in June 2008 after police found nail bombs, bullets, swords, axes and knives in his flat.
Again in 2008, Nathan Worrell was found guilty of possession of material for terrorist purposes and racially aggravated harassment. He was described by anti-terror police as a "dangerous individual". The court heard books and manuals containing "recipes" to make bombs and detonators using household items such as weedkiller were found by police at Worrell's flat.
In 2012 the British Home Affairs Committee warned of the threat of far right terrorism in the UK, claiming it had heard "persuasive evidence" about the potential danger and cited the growth of similar threats across Europe.
On July 22, 2011, Norwegian right-wing extremist Anders Behring Breivik bombed several government buildings in Oslo, Norway killing eight people and injuring more than 30. After the bombing, he made his way to Utøya island in a fake police uniform and began firing on people attending a political youth camp for Norway's left-wing AUF political party, killing 68 and injuring more than 60. The 2011 Norway attacks became the largest mass killing of people committed by a single person during peacetime, excluding use of bombs.
See also 
- Aubrey, p. 45
- Moghadam, p. 57
- Moghadam, p. 58
- Moghadam, pp. 57-58
- "Free the Order Rally". Southern Poverty Law Center. Spring 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-17.
- "Death List Names Given to US Jury". New York Times. September 17, 1985. Retrieved 2007-08-25.
- Morris Dees and Steve Fiffer. Hate on Trial: The Case Against America's Most Dangerous Neo-Nazi. Villard Books, 1993. page xiiv
- Smith, pp. 25-26
- Michael, p. 107
- Marks, p. 103
- La storia d'Italia, Vol. 23, Dagli anni di piombo agli anni 80, Torino, 2005, pag. 587
- "Man 'on cusp' of bombing campaign". BBC News. June 29, 2009.
- "Man guilty over nail bombs plot". BBC News. June 24, 2008.
- "Racist who had bomb kit jailed for campaign against couple". The Guardian (London). December 13, 2008.
- Aubrey, Stefan M. The New Dimension of International Terrorism. Zurich: vdf Hochschulverlag AG, 2004. ISBN 3-7281-2949-6
- Marks, Kathy. Faces of Right Wing Extremism. Boston: Branden Publishing, 2006. ISBN 978-0-8283-2016-0.
- Michael, George. Confronting Right-wing Extremism and Terrorism in the USA. New York: Routledge, 2003 ISBN 0-415-31500-X
- Moghadam, Assaf. The Roots of Terrorism. New York: Infobase Publishing, 2006. ISBN 0-7910-8307-1
- Smith, Brent L. Terrorism in America: Pipe Bombs and Pipe Dreams. Albany: SUNY Press, 1994 ISBN 0-7914-1760-3