Right-wing terrorism

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Right-wing terrorism is terrorism motivated by a variety of far right ideologies and beliefs, including anti-communism, neo-fascism, neo-Nazism, racism, xenophobia and opposition to immigration. This type of terrorism has been sporadic, with little or no international cooperation.[1] The terrorist acts are generally poorly coordinated, and few identifiable organizations have been involved. Modern right-wing terrorism first appeared in western Europe in the 1980s and in eastern Europe following the dissolution of the Soviet Union.[2]

Right-wing terrorists aim to overthrow governments and replace them with nationalist or fascist-oriented governments.[1] The core of this movement includes neo-fascist skinheads, far right hooligans, youth sympathisers and intellectual guides who believe that the state must rid itself of foreign elements in order to protect rightful citizens.[3] However, they usually lack a rigid ideology.[4]

Germany[edit]

In 1980, a right-wing terrorist attack in Munich, Germany killed the attacker and 14 other people, injuring 215. Fears of an ongoing campaign of major right-wing terrorist attacks did not materialize.[1]

In addition to several bank robberies, the German National Socialist Underground was responsible for the Bosphorus serial murders (2000-2006), the 2004 Cologne bombing and the murder of policewoman Michéle Kiesewetter in 2007. In November 2011, two members of the National Socialist Underground committed suicide after a bank robbery and a third member was arrested some days later.

Italy[edit]

In the August 1980 Bologna bombing, a group of right-wing terrorists exploded a bomb at a railroad station in Bologna, Italy, killing 84 people and injuring more than 180. According to the Italian police, the perpetrators were Valerio Fioravanti and Francesca Mambro, two members of the neo-fascist organization Nuclei Armati Rivoluzionari. Both of the accused denied any connection with the attacks.[5]

In December 2011, far right CasaPound activists took part in targeted shooting of Senegalese traders in Florence, killing two and injuring three.[6][7]

Norway[edit]

On July 22, 2011, Norwegian right-wing extremist with Nazi[8][9] and fascist[10] sympathies, Anders Behring Breivik, carried out the 2011 Norway attacks, the largest mass killing of people in Norway by a single person during peacetime, excluding use of bombs. First he bombed several government buildings in Oslo, killing eight people and injuring more than 30. After the bombings, he went to Utøya island in a fake police uniform and began firing on people attending a political youth camp for the Worker's Youth League (AUF), a left-wing political party, killing 68 and injuring more than 60.

United Kingdom[edit]

In April 1999, David Copeland, a neo-Nazi, planted a series of nail bombs over 13 days, causing explosions in Brixton, Brick Lane (in east London), and Soho (in central London). His attacks, which were aimed at London's black, Bangladeshi and gay communities, resulted in three people being killed and more than 100 being injured.[11] Copeland was a former member of two far right political groups, the British National Party (BNP) and the National Socialist Movement. Copeland told police, "My aim was political. It was to cause a racial war in this country. There'd be a backlash from the ethnic minorities, then all the white people will go out and vote BNP."[12]

In July 2007, Robert Cottage, a former BNP member, was convicted for possessing explosive chemicals in his home – described by police at the time of his arrest as the largest amount of chemical explosive of its type ever found in this country.[13] In June 2008, Martyn Gilleard, a British Nazi sympathizer, was jailed fter police found nail bombs, bullets, swords, axes and knives in his flat.[14] Also in 2008, Nathan Worrell was found guilty of possession of material for terrorist purposes and racially aggravated harassment. He was described by anti-terror police as a "dangerous individual". The court heard that police found books and manuals containing "recipes" to make bombs and detonators using household items, such as weedkiller, at Worrell's flat.[15] In July 2009, Neil Lewington was planning on waging a terror campaign using weapons made from tennis balls and weedkiller against those he classified as "non British".[16]

In 2012, the British Home Affairs Committee warned of the threat of far right terrorism in the UK, claiming it had heard "persuasive evidence" about the potential danger and cited the growth of similar threats across Europe.[17]

Members of Combat 18 (C18), a neo-Nazi organisation based on the concept of "leaderless resistance", have been suspected in numerous deaths of immigrants, non-whites, and other C18 members.[18] Between 1998 and 2000, dozens of Combat 18 members in the UK were arrested on various charges during dawn raids by the police.[19][20] A group calling itself the Racial Volunteer Force split from C18 in 2002, although it has retained close links to its parent organization.[21] Some journalists believed that the White Wolves are a C18 splinter group, alleging that the group had been set up by Del O'Connor, the former second-in-command of C18 and member of Skrewdriver Security.[22] Racist attacks on immigrants continue from members of C18.[23] Weapons, ammunition and explosives have been seized by police in the UK and almost every country in which C18 is active.

Northern Ireland[edit]

Ulster Volunteer Force members on patrol in Belfast.

In 1912, when political tension rose in Northern Ireland, the Ulster Volunteers was formed to resist home rule. In 1921, when the Republic of Ireland gained independence from the United Kingdom, Ulster, having a large number of Protestant British settlers, wanted to remain part of the UK. Ireland was partitioned into the Irish Republic and Northern Ireland.

In the late 1960s, during a period known as The Troubles, opposing terrorist groups committed bombings and fought one another on the streets of Northern Ireland. Irish republicans were mainly left-wing socialists who wanted Northern Ireland to be united with the Republic of Ireland, and they were mainly Catholic.[citation needed] On the opposing side, Ulster loyalists wanted Northern Ireland to remain part of the United Kingdom, and were mainly Protestant. Most Ulster loyalists were right-wing and supported conservative ideas.[24][25] Many loyalist embrace other far right ideologies such as neo-Nazism, fascism, British nationalism, and white supremacy.[26] Ulster loyalist terrorist groups began forming, including Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF), Ulster Protestant Volunteers (UPV), Ulster Defence Association (UDA) and Red Hand Commandos.

The UPV bombed an electricity station at Castlereagh. Two years later,the Ulster Volunteer Force committed the McGurk's Bar bombing. In 1974, the the UVF carried out the Dublin and Monaghan bombings. Also in 1974, six Catholic civilians were killed and 18 Catholic civilians were injured by an UVF bomb at a bar in Belfast. Mass shootings were common, most famously the Greysteel massacre. The UDA often targeted individual Catholic citizens, such as killing Catholic taxi drivers or shooting random Catholic civilians at their homes, or sexually assaulting females.

After the end of The Troubles, with the Good Friday Agreement, the UVF, UPV, UDA and Red Hand Commandos agreed to a ceasefire with Irish republican groups. Their attacks lessened afterwards and the groups formally ended in 2005. Dissident loyalist groups in Northern Ireland include Orange Volunteers, Red Hand Defenders and Real Ulster Freedom Fighters.

United States[edit]

During the 1980s, more than 75 right-wing extremists were prosecuted in the United States for acts of terrorism, although they carried out only six attacks during the decade.[27] In 1983, Gordon Kahl, a Posse Comitatus activist, killed two federal marshals and was later killed by police. Also that year, the white nationalist revolutionary group The Order (also known as the Brüder Schweigen or Silent Brotherhood) robbed several banks and armored cars, as well as a sex shop;[28] bombed a theater and a synagogue; and murdered radio talk show host Alan Berg.[29][30]

The April 19, 1995 attack on the Murrah federal building in Oklahoma, by the right-wing extremist Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols, which killed 168 people.[31] McVeigh stated it was retaliation for the government's actions in Ruby Ridge and Waco.[32] McVeigh attended Michigan militia group gun shows.[33][34]

Eric Rudolph executed a series of terrorist attacks between 1996 and 1998. He carried out 1996 Centennial Olympic Park bombing — which claimed two lives and injured 111 — with the aim of to cancelling the games, claiming they promoted global socialism.[35] Rudolph confessed to bombing an abortion clinic in Sandy Springs, an Atlanta suburb, on January 16, 1997; the Otherside Lounge, an Atlanta lesbian bar, on February 21, 1997, injuring five; and an abortion clinic in Birmingham, Alabama on January 29, 1998, killing Birmingham police officer and part-time clinic security guard Robert Sanderson, and critically injuring nurse Emily Lyons.

According to data compiled by the New America Foundation, since the 2001 September 11 attacks, right-wing extremists have committed at least eight lethal terrorist attacks in the United States, resulting in the deaths of nine people.[citation needed] According to the Federal Bureau of Investigation, between January 1, 2007 and October 31, 2009, white supremacists were involved in 53 acts of violence, 40 of which were assaults directed primarily at African-Americans, seven of which were murders and the rest of which were threats, arson and intimidation. "These were treated as racially motivated crimes rather than political acts of violence, i.e. terrorism."[36]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Aubrey, p. 45
  2. ^ Moghadam, p. 57
  3. ^ Moghadam, pp. 57-58
  4. ^ Moghadam, p. 58
  5. ^ La storia d'Italia, Vol. 23, Dagli anni di piombo agli anni 80, Torino, 2005, pag. 587
  6. ^ "Viewpoint: Killer Breivik's links with far right". BBC News. August 27, 2012. 
  7. ^ Kington, Tom (December 23, 2011). "Ezra Pound's daughter aims to stop Italian fascist group using father's name". The Guardian (London). 
  8. ^ Leif Stang (18 April 2012). "Close to Nazism". Dagbladet (in Norwegian). 
  9. ^ Daniel Vergara (10 January 2014). "Breivik vill deportera "illojala judar"". Expo Idag (in Swedish). 
  10. ^ Eva-Therese Grøttum; Marianne Vikås (10 May 2013). "Breivik seeks to start the fascist party". VG Nett (in Norwegian). 
  11. ^ Buncombe, Andrew; Judd, Terri; and Bennett, Jason. "'Hate-filled' nailbomber is jailed for life", The Independent, 30 June 2000.
  12. ^ "The Nailbomber", BBC Panorama, 30 June 2000.
  13. ^ http://www.newstatesman.com/2009/07/mehdi-hasan-muslim-terrorism-white-british
  14. ^ "Man guilty over nail bombs plot". BBC News. June 24, 2008. 
  15. ^ "Racist who had bomb kit jailed for campaign against couple". The Guardian (London). December 13, 2008. 
  16. ^ "Man 'on cusp' of bombing campaign". BBC News. June 29, 2009. 
  17. ^ "Home Affairs Committee warns of far-right terror threat". BBC News. February 6, 2012. 
  18. ^ "Ex-Combat 18 man speaks out". BBC News. 25 November 2001. 
  19. ^ "MI5 swoops on Army 'neo-Nazis'", Sunday Telegraph, 7 March 1999
  20. ^ BNP Under the skin: Profile of Adrian Marsden, BBC News
  21. ^ "Combat 18" at www.metareligion.com
  22. ^ Stuart Millar, "Anti-terror police seek White Wolf racist over bombs"
  23. ^ "Belfast racists threaten to cut Romanian baby's throat", Belfast Telegraph, 17 June 2009
  24. ^ http://thetruthisnow.com/headlines/the-uk-supported-loyalist-terror-in-northern-ireland/
  25. ^ https://www.indymedia.org.uk/en/2013/06/509926.html?c=on
  26. ^ http://thecircular.org/white-supremacy-groups-in-ireland-a-growing-concern/
  27. ^ Smith, pp. 25-26
  28. ^ "Free the Order Rally". Southern Poverty Law Center. Spring 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-17. 
  29. ^ "Death List Names Given to US Jury". New York Times. September 17, 1985. Retrieved 2007-08-25. 
  30. ^ Morris Dees and Steve Fiffer. Hate on Trial: The Case Against America's Most Dangerous Neo-Nazi. Villard Books, 1993. page xiiv
  31. ^ Michael, p. 107
  32. ^ "McVeigh offers little remorse in letters". The Topeka Capital-Journal. Associated Press. June 10, 2001. Archived from the original on February 27, 2011. 
  33. ^ Marks, p. 103
  34. ^ MacQuarrie, Brian (April 19, 2005). "Militias' era all but over, analysts say". The Boston Globe. Archived from the original on March 17, 2011. 
  35. ^ http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=4600480
  36. ^ "Right-wing extremist terrorism as deadly a threat as al Qaeda? - CNN.com". CNN. August 8, 2012. 

References[edit]