Right of foreigners to vote in the United States

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The right of foreigners to vote in the United States has historically been a contentious issue. A foreigner, in this context, is a person who is not a citizen of the United States.

Under current law, non-citizens are not allowed to vote in federal elections, and it is a federal crime for a non-citizen to vote or register to vote in such an election, punishable by imprisonment and/or the initiation of removal proceedings against that individual.[1]

Over 40 states or territories, including colonies before the Declaration of Independence, have at some time admitted aliens voting rights for some or all elections.[2][3][4][5] In 1874, the Supreme Court in Minor v. Happersett noted that "citizenship has not in all cases been made a condition precedent to the enjoyment of the right of suffrage. Thus, in Missouri, persons of foreign birth, who have declared their intention to become citizens of the United States, may under certain circumstances vote."[6]

By 1900, nearly one-half of the states and territories had some experience with voting by aliens, and for some the experience lasted more than half a century.[7] At the turn of the twentieth century, anti-immigration feeling ran very high, and Alabama stopped allowing aliens to vote by way of a constitutional change in 1901; Colorado followed suit in 1902, Wisconsin in 1908, and Oregon in 1914.[8] Just as the nationalism unleashed by the War of 1812 helped to reverse the alien suffrage policies inherited from the late eighteenth century, World War I caused a sweeping retreat from the progressive alien suffrage policies of the late nineteenth century.[9] In 1918, Kansas, Nebraska, and South Dakota all changed their constitutions to purge alien suffrage, and Texas ended the practice of non-citizen voting in primary elections by statute.[10] Indiana and Texas joined the trend in 1921, followed by Mississippi in 1924 and, finally, Arkansas in 1926.[11] In 1931, political scientist Leon Aylsworth noted: "For the first time in over a hundred years, a national election was held in 1928 in which no alien in any state had the right to cast a vote for a candidate for any office – national, state, or local."[12]

Non-citizen voting in elections has been extinct since Arkansas became the last state to ban it in 1926.[13]

Historical data[edit]

No citizenship requirement for suffrage[edit]

Connecticut[edit]

1776–1819[4]

Delaware[edit]

1776–1831[4]

Illinois[edit]

  • Article 27 of the 1818 Illinois Constitution: "In all elections, all white male inhabitants above the age of 21 years, having resided in the state six months next preceding the election, shall enjoy the right of an elector"
  • 1848: end of alien suffrage by constitutional amendment, but noncitizens who were present in 1848 were grandfathered.[4]

Kentucky[edit]

1789–1799[4]

Maryland[edit]

1776–1851[4]

Massachusetts[edit]

  • 1780 Massachusetts Constitution:[4][14]
    • Article IV (Chapter I., Section III. House of Representatives) : "Every male person, being twenty-one years of age, and resident in any particular town in this Commonwealth for the space of one year next preceding, having a freehold estate within the same town, of the annual income of three pounds, or any estate of the value of sixty pounds, shall have a right to vote in the choice of a Representative or Representatives for the said town."
    • Article II (Chapter I, Section II. Senate): "every male inhabitant of twenty-one years of age and upwards, having a freehold estate within the Commonwealth, of the annual income of three pounds, or any estate of the value of sixty pounds, shall have a right to give in his vote for the Senators for the district of which he is an inhabitant. And to remove all doubts concerning the meaning of the word "inhabitant" in this constitution, every person shall be considered as an inhabitant, for the purpose of electing and being elected into any office, or place within this State, in that town, district, or plantation, where he dwelleth, or hath his home."

New Hampshire[edit]

1792–1814[4]

New Jersey[edit]

1776–1820[4]

New York[edit]

1776–1804[4]

North Carolina[edit]

1704–1856[4]

Northwest Territory[edit]

1787 Northwest Ordinance (valid until 1803) "Provided, That no person be eligible or qualified to act as a representative unless he shall have been a citizen of one of the United States three years, and be a resident in the district, or unless he shall have resided in the district three years; and, in either case, shall likewise hold in his own right, in fee simple, two hundred acres of land within the same; Provided, also, That a freehold in 50 acres (200,000 m2) of land in the district, having been a citizen of one of the states, and being resident in the district, or the like freehold and two years residence in the district, shall be necessary to qualify a man as an elector of a representative."[15]

Ohio[edit]

  • 1802 Constitution: "In all elections, all white male inhabitants above the age of twenty-one years, having resided in the State one year next preceding the election, and who have paid or are charged with a State or county tax, shall enjoy the right of an elector"[16]
  • 1851: end of aliens voting rights[4]

Pennsylvania[edit]

  • 1776 Constitution: "all free men having a sufficient evident common interest with, and attachment to the community, have a right to elect officers, or to be elected into office"[17]
  • 1790 Constitution (Art. III section 1.): "In elections by the citizens, every freeman of the age of twenty-one years, having resided in the State two years next before the election, and within that time paid a State or county tax, which shall have been assessed at least six months before the election, shall enjoy the rights of an elector: Provided, That the sons of persons qualified asaforesaid, between the ages of twenty-one and twenty-two years, shall be entitled to vote, although they shall not have paid taxes."[18]
  • 1838 Constitution (Art. III, section 1.): "In elections by the citizens, every white freeman of the age of twenty-one years, having resided in this State one year, and in the election-district where he offers to vote ten days immediately preceding such election, and within two years paid a State or county tax, which shall have been assessed at least ten days before the election, shall enjoy the rights of an elector. (...)"[19]
  • 1874 Constitution (Article VIII, section 1.): "Every male citizen twenty-one years of age, possessing the following qualifications, shall be entitled to vote at all elections: First—He shall have been a citizen of the United States at least one month. (...)"[20]

Rhode Island[edit]

1762–1842[4]

South Carolina[edit]

1790–?[4]

Tennessee[edit]

1796–1834[4]

Vermont[edit]

  • 1776 and 1786 Constitutions: "all freemen. having a sufficient, evident, common interest with, and attachment to the community, have a right to elect officers, or be elected into office."[21][22]
  • 1793 Constitution (Section 21st): "Every man of the full age of twenty one years, having resided in this State for the space of one whole year next before the election of Representatives, and is of a quiet and peaceable behaviour, and will take the following oath or affirmation, shall be entitled to all the privileges of a freeman of this State. "You solemnly swear (or affirm) that whenever you give your vote or suffrage, touching any matter that concerns the State of Vermont, you will do it so as in your conscience you shall judge will most conduce to the best good of the same, as established by the constitution, without fear or favour of any man." "[23]
  • 1828: end of alien suffrage for federal elections; but still up to 1977 for local elections.[24]

Virginia[edit]

  • 1776 Virginia Bill of Rights: "all men, having sufficient evidence of permanent common interest with, and attachment to, the community, have the right of suffrage"[25]
  • 1850: end of aliens voting rights[4]

Suffrage for those who intend to become citizens[edit]

Alabama[edit]

  • 1868: "Every male person, born in the United States, and every male person who has been naturalized, or who has legally declared his intention to become a citizen of the United States, twenty-one years old or upward, who shall have resided in this State six months next preceding the election, and three months in the county in which he offers to vote, except as hereinafter provided, shall be deemed an elector"[26]
  • 1901: "Every male citizen of this state who is a citizen of the United States, and every male resident of foreign birth, who, before the ratification of this Constitution, shall have legally declared his intention to become a citizen of the United States, twenty-one years old or upwards, not laboring under any of the disabilities named in this article, and possessing the qualifications required by it, shall be an elector, and shall be entitled to vote at any election by the people; provided, that all foreigners who have legally declared their intention to become citizens of the United States, shall, if they fail to become citizens thereof at the time they are entitled to become such, cease to have the right to vote until they become such citizens"[27]

Arkansas[edit]

  • 1874: "Every male citizen of the United States, or male person who has declared his intention of becoming a citizen of the same, of the age of twenty-one years, who has resided in the State twelve months, and in the county six months, and in the voting precinct or ward one month, next preceding any election, where he may propose to vote, shall be entitled to vote at all elections by the people."[28]
  • 1926: end of aliens voting rights[2][4]

Colorado[edit]

1876–1902[4]

Florida[edit]

  • 1868: "Every male person of the age of twenty-one years and upwards, of whatever race, color, nationality, or previous condition, who shall, at the time of offering to vote, be a citizen of the United States, or who shall have declared his intention to become such in conformity to the laws of the United States, and who shall have resided and had his habitation, domicil, home, and place of permanent abode in Florida for one year, and in the county for six months, next preceding the election at which he shall offer to vote, shall in such county be deemed a qualified elector at all elections under this Constitution."[29]
  • 1894: end of aliens voting rights[4]

Georgia[edit]

  • 1868 "Every male person born in the United States and every male person who has been naturalized, or who has legally declared his intention to become a citizen of the United States, twenty-one years old or upward, who shall have resided in this State six months next preceding the election, and shall have resided thirty days in the county in which he offers to vote, and shall have paid all taxes which may have been required of him, and which he may have had an opportunity of paying, agreeably to law, for the year next preceding the election (except as hereinafter provided), shall be deemed an elector"[30]
  • 1877: end of aliens voting rights[4]

Idaho[edit]

1863–1890[4]

Indiana[edit]

  • 1851: "In all elections, not otherwise provided for by this Constitution, every white male citizen of the United States, of the age of twenty-one years and upwards, who shall have resided in the State during the six months immediately preceding such election; and every white male, of foreign birth, of the age of twenty-one years and upwards, who shall have resided in the United States one year, and shall have resided in the State during the six months immediately preceding such election, and shall have declared his intention to become a citizen of the United States, conformably to the laws of the United States on the subject of naturalization; shall be entitled to vote, in the township or precinct where he may reside."; "No Negro or Mulatto shall have the right of suffrage"[31]
  • 1921: end of aliens voting rights[2][4]

Kansas[edit]

  • 1859: "Every white male person, of twenty-one years and upward, belonging to either of the following classes, who shall have resided in Kansas six months next preceding any election, and in the township or ward in which he offers to vote at least thirty days next preceding such election, shall be deemed a qualified elector: First, Citizens of the United States. Second, Persons of foreign birth who shall have declared their intention to become citizens, conformably to the laws of the United States on the subject of naturalization."[32]
  • 1918: end of aliens voting rights[2][4]

Louisiana[edit]

1879–?[4]

Michigan[edit]

  • 1850: "In all elections, every male inhabitant of this State, being a citizen of the United States, every male inhabitant residing in this State on the twenty-fourth day of June, eighteen hundred and thirty-five, every male inhabitant residing in this State on the first day of January, eighteen hundred and fifty, every male inhabitant of foreign birth who, having resided in the State two years and six months prior to the eighth day of November, eighteen hundred and ninety-four, and having declared his intention to become a citizen of the United States two years and six months prior to said last named day, and every civilized male inhabitant of Indian descent, a native of the United States and not a member of any tribe, shall be an elector and entitled to vote; but no one shall be an elector or entitled to vote at any election unless he shall be above the age of twenty-one years, and has resided in this State six month, and in the township or ward in which he offers to vote, twenty days next preceding such election"[33]
  • 1894: end of aliens voting rights[4]

Minnesota[edit]

Mississippi[edit]

Missouri[edit]

1865–1921[4]

Montana[edit]

1864–1889[4]

Nebraska[edit]

1854–1918[4]

Nevada[edit]

1848–1864[4]

North Dakota[edit]

1889-1889/1909[4]

Oklahoma[edit]

1850–1907[4]

Oregon[edit]

1848–1914[4]

South Dakota[edit]

1850–1918[4]

Texas[edit]

  • 1876: "Every male person subject to none of the foregoing disqualifications, who shall have attained the age of twenty-one years, and who shall be a citizen of the United States, and who shall have resided in this State one year next preceding an election, and the last six months within the district or county in which he offers to vote, shall be deemed a qualified elector; and every male person of foreign birth, subject to none of the foregoing disqualifications, who, at any time before an election, shall have declared his intention to become a citizen of the United States, in accordance with the federal naturalization laws, and shall have resided in this State one year next preceding such election, and the last six months in the county in which he offers to vote, shall also be deemed a qualified elector"[35]
  • 1921[36]

Washington[edit]

(1853–1889)

Wisconsin[edit]

  • 1848: "Every male person of the age of twenty-one years, or upwards, of the following classes, who shall have resided in this State for one year next preceding any election, shall be deemed a qualified elector at such election. 1st. White citizens of the United States 2d. White persons of foreign birth who shall have declared their intention to become citizens conformably to the laws of the United States on the subject of naturalization (...)"; "No person shall be eligible to the legislature, who shall not not have resided one year within the state, and be a qualified elector in the district he may be chosen to represent."[37]
  • 1908

Wyoming[edit]

(1850–1889)

Current status[edit]

Jamie Raskin, an American law professor and politician, has argued that the blanket exclusion of noncitizens from the ballot is neither constitutionally required nor historically normal.[2] A Queens College political science professor and rights activist, Ron Hayduk, wrote in 2006 a book entitled Democracy For All: Restoring Immigrant Voting Rights In The United States, presenting additional elements of the historical and present reality of noncitizens voting rights in the United States.[4]

California[edit]

A proposition which would have allowed all parents of children in the San Francisco school system to vote in school board elections regardless of their immigration or citizenship status was rejected in a November 2004 ballot.[38]

Connecticut[edit]

An "act concerning voting by resident alien property owners", "to allow alien property owners to vote at town meetings and referenda", was submitted to the Connecticut General Assembly in 2003.[39]

District of Columbia[edit]

An "Equitable Voting Rights Amendment Act" was proposed, and rejected in commission, in 2004.[40]

Maryland[edit]

Maryland ended noncitizen voting rights for state and federal elections in 1851, but its constitution recognizes the autonomy of local municipalities and localities on the subject. As of February, 2008, one city, three towns, and three villages in Montgomery County have introduced bills to restore the right to vote to foreigners within their jurisdictions. Barnesville (since 1918), Martin's Additions and Somerset (since 1976), Takoma Park (since 1991) and Garrett Park (since 1999), Chevy Chase Section 3 and Chevy Chase Section 5.[4][41]

Maine[edit]

LD 1195, "An Act To Allow Noncitizen Residents To Vote in Municipal Elections", was submitted to the 124th Maine Legislature in 2009 and was voted down.[42]

Massachusetts[edit]

Three municipal assemblies in the state of Massachusetts have introduced bills to confer foreigners the right to vote. The municipal assembly in the city of Newton introduced a bill to this effect in 2004, while Amherst and Cambridge did so in 1998.[43] However, as of February, 2008, the proposals have not yet been approved by the state's assembly.

Minnesota[edit]

A "bill for an act relating to elections; proposing an amendment to the Minnesota Constitution, article VII, section 1; authorizing local units of government to permit permanent resident noncitizens to vote in local elections" was submitted on February 7, 2005 at the Minnesota House of Representatives.[44]

New York[edit]

Bills have been submitted at the New York City Council and at the New York State Assembly in 2003, 2005, 2006 and 2010.[45]

In New York City, non-citizens who have children in public schools could vote in school board elections until 2002. Since then there are no longer elected school boards.

Texas[edit]

A bill was submitted by Rep. Roberto Alonso in 1995 "proposing a constitutional amendment providing by local option for a lawfully admitted resident alien to vote in an election held by a political subdivision."[46]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "18 U.S.C. §611. - Voting by Aliens". United States Congress. Retrieved October 24, 2014. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f Raskin, Jamin B. (April 1993), "Legal aliens, local citizens: The historical, constitutional and theoretical meanings of Alien suffrage" (– Scholar search), University of Pennsylvania Law Review (Southern Oregon University) 141 (4): 1391–1470, doi:10.2307/3312345, JSTOR 3312345, archived from the original on 2007-06-09, retrieved 2007-12-03 
  3. ^ Williamson, Chilton (1960), American Suffrage. From property to democracy, Princeton University Press 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak Hayduk, Ronald (2006), Democracy For All: Restoring Immigrant Voting Rights In The United States, Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-95073-2 
  5. ^ see also Droit de vote des étrangers aux États-Unis
  6. ^ U.S. Supreme Court, Minor v. Happersett 88 U.S. 162 (1874), retrieved 2007-12-08 
  7. ^ Op. cit. Raskin 1993, citing Rosberg, Gerald M. (April–May 1977), Aliens and Equal Protection: Why Not the Right to Vote? 75, Michigan Law Review, p. 1099 
  8. ^ Op. cit. Raskin 1993, citing Aylsworth, Leon E. (1931), The Passing of Alien Suffrage 25, American Political Science Review, p. 115 
  9. ^ Op. cit. Raskin 1993, citing Braeman, John; Bremner, Robert Hamlett; Brody, David (1968), Change and Continuity in Twentieth Century America: the 1920s: The 1920s, Ohio State University Press, p. 229 
  10. ^ Op. cit. Raskin 1993, citing Op. cit. Aylsworth 1931, p. 115
  11. ^ Op. cit. Raskin 1993, citing Op. cit. Aylsworth 1931, pp. 115–116
  12. ^ Op. cit. Raskin 1993, citing Op. cit. Aylsworth 1931, p. 114
  13. ^ Thompson, Simon (December 3, 2010). "Voting Rights: Earned or Entitled?". Harvard Political Review. 
  14. ^ the entry Constitution of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts (1780) on Wikisource is not the original 1780 text but the present-day amended text; for the original 1780 constitution, see: A constitution or frame of government, Agreed upon by the Delegates of the People of the State of Massachusetts Bay, teachingamericanhistory.org – Ashbrook Center for Public Affairs at Ashland University, March 2, 1780, retrieved 2007-12-12 
  15. ^ An ordinance for the government of the Territory of the United States north-west of the river Ohio, July 13, 1787, The Library of Congress, retrieved 2007-12-04 
  16. ^ article IV, section 1 of the 1802 Ohio Constitution
  17. ^ Constitution of Pennsylvania – September 28, 1776, The Avalon Project at Yale Law School, retrieved 2007-12-11 
  18. ^ Constitution of Pennsylvania 1790, retrieved 2007-12-11 
  19. ^ The Constitution of Pennsylvania of 1838, retrieved 2007-12-11 
  20. ^ The Constitution of Pennsylvania of 1874, retrieved 2007-12-11 
  21. ^ Constitution of Vermont – July 8, 1777, The Avalon Project at Yale Law School, retrieved 2007-12-11 
  22. ^ Constitution of Vermont – July 4, 1786, The Avalon Project at Yale Law School, retrieved 2007-12-11 
  23. ^ Constitution of Vermont – July 9, 1793, Vermont State Archives, retrieved 2007-12-11 
  24. ^ Immigrant voting rights in Vermont, Immigrant Voting Project, retrieved 2007-12-07 
  25. ^ Virginia Bill of Rights, June 12, 1776, The Avalon Project at Yale Law School, retrieved 2007-12-09 
  26. ^ 1868 Constitution of Alabama, Article VII, Section 2, retrieved 2007-12-04 
  27. ^ Constitution of Alabama, 1901, Section 177, retrieved 2007-12-12 
  28. ^ Constitution of Arkansas, 1874, Article 3 § 1, archived from the original on 2008-02-06, retrieved 2007-12-10 
  29. ^ Constitution of the State of Florida Adopted February 25, 1868, Article XIV. Section 1, retrieved 2007-12-09 
  30. ^ Georgia Constitution of 1868, Article II, Section 2, archived from the original on 2007-09-14, retrieved 2007-12-09 
  31. ^ Indiana's Constitution of 1851 Article 2, sections 2 and 5, retrieved 2007-12-10 
  32. ^ Constitution of Kansas, 1859 – Article V, section 1, retrieved 2007-12-10 
  33. ^ Constitution of Michigan, 1850 – Article 7, section 1, retrieved 2007-12-09 
  34. ^ Betty Kane, Amending our state constitution: Continuity Through Ordered Change, 1981
  35. ^ Constitution of the State of Texas (1876), Article VI, section 2, retrieved 2007-12-09 
  36. ^ Non-citizens (aliens) voting rights in Texas, retrieved 2007-12-09 
  37. ^ Constitution of the State of Wisconsin, Adopted in Convention, at Madison, on the first day of February, in the year Our Lord one thousand eight hundred and forty-eight. Article III, section 1. (Suffrage) and Article IV, section 6. (Legislative), retrieved 2007-12-09 
  38. ^ Immigrant Voting Rights in California
  39. ^ An act concerning voting by resident alien property owners
  40. ^ Immigrant voting rights in Washington, D.C.
  41. ^ Earnest, David C. (August 29, 2003). "Noncitizen Voting Rights: A Survey of an Emerging Democratic Norm" (pdf). Old Dominion University. 
  42. ^ http://janus.state.me.us/legis/LawMakerWeb/summary.asp?ID=280032186
  43. ^ "Non-citizens (aliens) voting rights in Massachusetts – the debate in the City of Newton (excerpts from meetings of the board of aldermen and the programs and services committee, 2004–2007". Retrieved 2007-12-12. 
  44. ^ H.F. No. 818, as introduced – 84th Legislative Session (2005–2006)
  45. ^ Immigrant voting rights in New York City and State
  46. ^ Non-citizens (aliens) voting rights in Texas