Righthaven LLC was a copyright holding company founded in early 2010, which entered agreements from its partner newspapers after finding that their content had been copied to online sites without permission, in order to engage in litigation against the site owners for copyright infringement. The lawsuits were heavily criticized by commentators, who describe the activity as copyright trolling and the company as a "lawsuit factory". Righthaven LLC's CEO, Steven Gibson, was a partner in the Las Vegas office of American law firm Dickinson Wright and regularly spoke to the media about Righthaven.
As of November 2011, the company's assets were subject to confiscation by the US Marshals Service due to expired debts from legal fees to a successful defendant. In January 2012, its domain name, righthaven.com, was sold at auction to help satisfy its debts. In March 2013, Stephens Media bought back what copyrights they had transferred to Righthaven, allowing the Righthaven Receivership Estate to pay off legal fees.
Righthaven initially entered agreements concerning old news articles from Stephens Media, publisher of the Las Vegas Review-Journal, based on a business model of suing bloggers, other Internet authors, and Internet site operators for statutory damages for having reproduced the articles on their sites without permission. An affiliate of Stephens Media owns half of Righthaven. As of 24 March 2011[update], 255 cases have been filed. Typically, Righthaven has demanded $75,000 and surrender of the domain name from each alleged infringer, but accepted out of court settlements of several thousand dollars per defendant. As of December 2010[update] approximately 70 cases had settled.
The Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) soon took up the case on behalf of several defendants. Kurt Opsahl, an EFF attorney, said, "Despite what Righthaven claims, it's hard to interpret these lawsuits as anything else besides a way to bully Internet users into paying unnecessary settlements."
In August 2010, the company entered an agreement with WEHCO Media in Arkansas to pursue similar actions. Later, it made a similar arrangement with Media News Group, publisher of the San Jose Mercury News.
In December 2010, Righthaven began to sue website operators over republished graphics and photographs, and also expanded its scope to material originally published by the Denver Post and other newspapers. That month it filed more than a dozen lawsuits over a graphic illustration of the "Vdara death ray" that had gone viral.
In April 2011, a federal judge unsealed the agreement between Righthaven and Stephens Media, revealing that Stephens media receives 50% of the proceeds of lawsuits (after deducting costs). In addition, an attorney for one of the defendants claims that the agreement provides only limited rights to the copyrights of Stephens Media, specifically, only the right to sue. Some defense attorneys argue that one must have complete ownership in order to have standing to sue, which may undermine the lawsuits related to the Review-Journal material.
On June 14, 2011, a federal court ruled that Righthaven has no standing to sue for copyright infringement, on the grounds that the original parties retain the actual copyrights, and that Righthaven failed to disclose their financial connections to Stephens Media. Among other sanctions imposed by Federal District Court Judge Roger Hunt, Righthaven was fined US$5,000 for the misrepresentation.
On August 15, 2011, Righthaven was ordered to pay $34,045.50 in attorney's fees and court costs in the case of Righthaven v Wayne Hoehn.
On September 7, 2011, Legal Wings Inc., a process server used by Righthaven between May and October 2010, filed a lawsuit against Righthaven in Las Vegas Township Justice Court for unpaid bills valued at $5,670.
On September 8, 2011, the MediaNews Group, which is the publisher of a number of newspapers including the Denver Post, announced it was terminating its deal with Righthaven at the end of the month, and called it a "dumb idea". The new CEO of the company, John Paton, said he would not have entered into such a deal, had he been CEO at the time of the decision.
On October 26, 2011, Righthaven was ordered to pay $119,488 in attorney's fees and court costs in the case of Righthaven v Thomas DiBiase.
On October 29, 2011, the defendant from Righthaven v Wayne Hoehn asked a Nevada court to award the seizure of the company's bank accounts and property to provide for the payment of the $34,045.50 fee from the August 2011 ruling. The company had previously delayed the payment to avoid bankruptcy.
On November 1, 2011, the Nevada court authorized the US Marshals Service to use reasonable force to seize the debt in cash and assets from the company. The total amount of outstanding debt had ballooned to over $63,000, with the additional costs and fees from the delay. When it was discovered that the company bank account held less than $1,000, the court issued an order for Righthaven to turn over its intellectual property to a court-appointed receiver to be sold at auction. Righthaven did not comply by the December 19, 2011 deadline, and filed an emergency appeal with the 9th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals in San Francisco to stop the auction from going forward, a motion which was rejected on January 10, 2012.
On December 21, 2011, the righthaven.com domain name was transferred to the receiver for auction. On January 6, 2012, the righthaven.com domain name sold for $3,300 to a Switzerland-based hosting service with the stated goal of protecting clients against "frivolous or overly aggressive take-down tactics".
On March 13, 2013, what copyrights Righthaven held regarding Stephens Media assets were sold off in order to satisfy financial obligations. Proceeds from the sale were divided between the receivers of the Righthaven Receivership Estate, the litigant Wayne Hoehn, and Hoehn's lawyer, Marc Randazza. As stated by the receiver, "…Righthaven’s rights acquired from Stephens Media were sold back to their original source in a commercially reasonable manner, as no other market existed for them."
The cases were covered by many newspapers and blogs. The Las Vegas Review-Journal and its main competitor, the Las Vegas Sun, published a series of editorials criticizing each other over the incident. Wired magazine and others described the lawsuits as copyright trolling and likened the activity to that of patent trolls. Most critics (and several federal judges) agreed that Righthaven had been suing over usage of news items allowed under the "fair use" doctrine.
- Righthaven LLC v. Democratic Underground LLC
- Fair use
- Digital Millennium Copyright Act
- Online Copyright Infringement Liability Limitation Act
- Jones, Ashby (September 3, 2010). "Vegas, Baby! Ruling a Possible Boon to ‘Copyright-Troll’ Suits". Wall Street Journal.
- Cassens Weiss, Debra (August 4, 2010). "Attack Dog’ Group Buys Newspaper Copyrights, Sues 86 Websites". ABA Journal (American Bar Association).
- Kravets, David (December 21, 2010). "Newspaper Lawsuit Factory Sues Over ‘Death Ray’ Image". Wired News.
- Frosch, Dan (May 3, 2011). "Enforcing Copyrights, For a Profit". New York Times.
- Garfield, Bob; et al (April 22, 2011). "Newspapers vs. the Internet". On the Media (National Public Radio).
- Anderson, Nate (1 November 2011). "US Marshals turned loose to collect $63,720.80 from Righthaven". ArsTechnica.com. Retrieved 2 November 2011.
- Allemann, Andrew (6 January 2012). "Righthaven.com sells for $3,300". DomainNameWire.com. Retrieved 6 January 2012.
- Masnick, Mike (March 18, 2013). "Righthaven Copyrights 'Sold' Back To Stephens Media For $80k To Pay Legal Fees". techdirt.com. Retrieved 15 May 2013.
- Mullin, Joe (August 16, 2010). "Is This the Birth of the Copyright Troll?". Corporate Counsel.
- Green, Steve (January 12, 2011), "Righthaven extends copyright lawsuit campaign to individual Web posters", Las Vegas Sun, retrieved 2011-01-22
- Green, Steve (September 1, 2010). "Why we are writing about the R-J copyright lawsuits". Las Vegas Sun.
- Coker, Chuck (April 13, 2011). "List of Righthaven Copyright Lawsuits". ix23.com. Archived from the original on 13 July 2011. Retrieved September 20, 2011.
- Kravets, David (August 30, 2010). "Threat Level Privacy, Crime and Security Online". Wired.
- Galperin, Eva (August 25, 2010). "EFF Seeks to Help Righthaven Defendants". Electronic Frontier Foundation.
- Webster, Stephen C. (November 16, 2010). "'Copyright troll’ Righthaven looks to dismiss suit against Democratic Underground". The Raw Story. Retrieved 2011-01-22.
- Green, Steve (December 9, 2010). "Drudge Report owner sued by Righthaven". Las Vegas Sun.
- Green, Steve (April 15, 2011). "Judge unseals Review-Journal/Righthaven contract". Vegas Inc.
- Green, Steve (14 June 2011). "Judge rules Righthaven lacks standing to sue, threatens sanctions over misrepresentations". VegasInc.
- "Righthaven Loses Again; Told To Pay $34,045.50 In Legal Fees".
- "Receiver says Righthaven ‘uncooperative’ in surrendering copyrights".
- Kravets, David (September 8, 2011). "Newspaper Chain Drops Righthaven — ‘It Was a Dumb Idea’". Wired. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
- "Righthaven ordered to pay nearly $120,000 in attorney fees, court costs".
- Kravets, David (29 October 2011). "Creditor Moves to Dismantle Copyright Troll Righthaven". Wired.com. Retrieved 30 October 2011.
- Kravets, David (12 September 2011). "Copyright Troll Righthaven Says It’s Nearing Bankruptcy". Wired.com. Retrieved 30 October 2011.
- Lee, Timothy B. (20 December 2011). "Defendant asks US Marshals to drag Righthaven principals to court". Ars Technica. Retrieved 21 December 2011.
- Green, Steve (20 December 2011). "Righthaven files emergency appeal to block auction". Vegasinc.com. Retrieved 21 December 2011.
- Green, Steve (10 January 2012). "9th Circuit rejects Righthaven bid to block auction of copyrights". Vegasinc.com. Retrieved 14 January 2012.
- Green, Steve (22 December 2011). "Dismantling of Righthaven appears under way with loss of website". Vegasinc.com. Retrieved 22 December 2011.
- Beschizza, Rob (23 January 2012). "New Righthaven offers hosting service "with a spine"". BoingBoing.com. Retrieved 24 January 2012.
- Frederick, Sherman (September 1, 2010). "Protecting newspaper content – You either do it, or you don't". Las Vegas Review-Journal.
- righthavenlawsuits.com – unofficial site that lists the lawsuits
- righthavenvictims.blogspot.com – unofficial site listing "victims of Righthaven LLC 'shakedown' lawsuits"
- Court finding in Righthaven v Realty One, October 16, 2010
- "Righthaven defendant wins first lawsuit dismissal motion" – newspaper report of Realty One decision
- lasvegassun.com – lawsuits over a TSA pat-down photo