Rimini

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Rimini, Italy)
Jump to: navigation, search
For other uses, see Rimini (disambiguation).
Rimini
Comune
Comune di Rimini
Rimini Montage.jpg
Top left:View of Adriatic Sea and backyard in Rimini, Top right:View of Rimini Beach in Lungomare area, Bottom left:Malatesta Temple, Bottom middle:Arch of Augustus, Bottom upper right:Rimini City Museum and Pope Paul V in Cavour Square, Bottom lower right:Tiberius Bridge
Coat of arms of Rimini
Coat of arms
Rimini is located in Italy
Rimini
Rimini
Location of Rimini in Italy
Coordinates: 44°03′00″N 12°34′00″E / 44.05000°N 12.56667°E / 44.05000; 12.56667
Country Italy
Region Emilia-Romagna
Province Rimini (RN)
Frazioni Bellariva, Corpolò, Marebello, Miramare di Rimini, Rivabella, Rivazzurra, San Fortunato, San Giuliano a Mare, San Vito, Santa Aquilina, Santa Giustina, Torre Pedrera, Viserba, Viserbella
Government
 • Mayor Andrea Gnassi (PD)
Area
 • Total 134 km2 (52 sq mi)
Elevation 6 m (20 ft)
Population (1 January 2013)
 • Total 146,606
 • Density 1,100/km2 (2,800/sq mi)
Demonym Riminesi
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 47921, 47922, 47923, 47924
Dialing code 0541
Patron saint St. Gaudentius
Saint day October 14
Website Official website

Rimini (Italian pronunciation: [ˈriːmini] ( ); Latin: Ariminum)[1] is a city of 146,606 inhabitants in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy, and capital city of the Province of Rimini. It is located on the Adriatic Sea, on the coast between the rivers Marecchia (the ancient Ariminus) and Ausa (ancient Aprusa). It is one of the most famous seaside resorts in Europe, thanks to its 15 kilometres (9 miles) long sandy beach, over 1,000 hotels and thousands of bars, restaurants and discos. The first bathing establishment opened in 1843. An art city with ancient Roman and Renaissance monuments, Rimini is the hometown of the famous film director Federico Fellini as well.

Founded by the Romans in 268 BC, throughout their period of rule Rimini was a key communications link between the north and south of the peninsula, and on its soil Roman emperors erected monuments like the Arch of Augustus and the Tiberius Bridge, while during the Renaissance, the city benefited from the court of the House of Malatesta, which hosted artists like Leonardo and produced works such as the Malatesta Temple. In the 19th century, Rimini was one of the most active cities in the revolutionary front, hosting many of the movements aimed at the unification of Italy. In the course of World War II the city was the scene of clashes and bombings, but also of a fierce partisan resistance that earned it the honor of a gold medal for civic valor. Finally, in recent years it has become one of the most important sites for trade fairs and conferences in Italy.

The total approximate population of Rimini Urban Area is 225,000 and the provincial population is 330,000.

History[edit]

Ancient history[edit]

The Arch of Augustus (27 BC)

In 268 BC at the mouth of the Ariminus river, in an area that had previously been inhabited by the Etruscans, the Umbrians, the Greeks and the Gauls, the Romans founded the colony of Ariminum, probably from the name of a nearby river, Ariminus (today, Marecchia). Previously the area had been Gaulish, from the 6th century BC, to that group's final defeat in 283 BC by the Umbri, in whose possession it remained until 263 BC when it became a Latin colony very helpful to the Romans during the late Gallic wars.

The city was involved in the civil wars but remained faithful to the popular party and to its leaders, firstly Marius, and then Caesar. After crossing the Rubicon, the latter made his legendary appeal to the legions in the Forum of Rimini.

Ariminum was seen as a bastion against invaders from Gaul and also as a springboard for conquering the Padana plain. As the terminus of the Via Flaminia, which ended here in the surviving prestigious Arch of Augustus (erected 27 BC), Rimini was a road junction connecting central Italy and northern Italy by the Via Aemilia that led to Piacenza and the Via Popilia that extended northwards; it also opened up trade by sea and river. Remains of the amphitheater that could seat 12000 people, and a five-arched bridge of Istrian stone completed by Tiberius (21 AD) are also still visible. Later Galla Placida built the church of San Stefano.

Crisis in the Roman world was marked by destruction caused by invasions and wars, but also by the testimony of the palaces of the Imperial officers and the first churches, the symbol of the spread of Christianity that held an important Council in Rimini in 359.

Middle Ages[edit]

Portrait of Sigismondo Pandolfo Malatesta called the Wolf of Rimini, by Piero della Francesca, c. 1450, Louvre

When the Ostrogoths conquered Rimini in 493, Odoacer, besieged in Ravenna, had to capitulate. During the Gothic War Rimini was taken and retaken many times. In its vicinity the Byzantine general Narses overthrew (553) the Alamanni. Under the Byzantine rule, it belonged to the Pentapolis, part of the Exarchate of Ravenna.

In 728, it was taken with many other cities by the Lombard King Liutprand but returned to the Byzantines about 735. King Pepin gave it to the Holy See, but during the wars of the popes and the Italian cities against the emperors, Rimini sided with the latter.

In the thirteenth century, it suffered from the discords of the Gambacari and Ansidei families. The city became a municipality in the fourteenth century and with the arrival of the religious orders, numerous convents and churches were built, providing work for many illustrious artists. In fact, Giotto inspired the 14th-century School of Rimini, which was the expression of original cultural ferment.

The Malatesta family emerged from the struggles between municipal factions with Malatesta da Verucchio, who in 1239 was named podestà (feudal lord) of the city. Despite interruptions, his family held authority until 1528. In 1312 he was succeeded by Malatesta II, first signore (lord) of the city and Pandolfo I, the latter's brother, named by Louis the Bavarian imperial vicar in Romagna. Ferrantino, son of Malatesta II (1335), was opposed by his cousin Ramberto and by Cardinal Bertando del Poggetto (1331), legate of John XXII. Malatesta Guastafamiglia (1363) was also lord of Pesaro. He was succeeded by Malatesta Ungaro (1373) and Galeotto, uncle of the former (1385), lord also of Fano (from 1340), Pesaro, and Cesena (1378).

His son Carlo, one of the most respected condottieri of the time, enlarged the Riminese possessions and restored the port. Carlo died childless in 1429, and the lordship was divided into three parts, Rimini going to Galeotto Roberto, a Catholic zealot who turned out to be totally inadequate for the role. The Pesarese line of the Malatestas tried, in fact, to take advantage of his weakness and to capture the city, but Sigismondo Pandolfo Malatesta, Carlo's nephew, who was only 14 at the time, intervened to save it. Galeotto retired to a convent, and Sigismondo obtained the rule of Rimini.

Sigismondo Pandolfo was the most famous lord of Rimini. In 1433 Emperor Sigismund soujourned in the city and for a while he was the commander-in-chief of the Papal armies. A skilled general, Sigismondo often acted as condottiero for other states to gain money to embellish it (he was also a dilettante poet). He had the famous Tempio Malatestiano rebuilt by Leon Battista Alberti. However, after the rise of Pope Pius II he had to fight constantly for the independence of the city. In 1463 he was forced to submit to Pius II, who left him only Rimini and little more; Roberto Malatesta, his son (1482), under pope Paul II nearly lost his state but under Sixtus IV became the commanding officer of the pontifical army against Ferdinand of Naples. Sigismondo was, however, defeated by Neapolitan forces in the battle of Campomorto (1482). Pandolfo IV, his son (1500), lost Rimini to Cesare Borgia, after whose overthrow it fell to Venice (1503–1509), but it was later retaken by pope Julius II and incorporated into the Papal States. After the death of pope Leo X, Pandolfo returned for several months, and with his son Sigismondo held a rule which looked tyrannous even for the time. Pope Adrian VI expelled him again and gave Rimini to the Duke of Urbino, the pope's vicar in Romagna. In 1527 Sigismondo managed to regain the city, but in the following year the Malatesta dominion died forever.

Modern history[edit]

Statue of pope Paul V
Piazza Tre Martiri

At the beginning of the 16th century Rimini, now a secondary town of the Papal States, was ruled by an Apostolic Legate. Towards the end of the 16th century, the municipal square (now Piazza Cavour), which had been closed off on a site where the Poletti Theatre was subsequently built, was redesigned. The statue of Pope Paul V has stood in the centre of the square next to the fountain since 1614.

In the 16th century, the 'grand square' (now the Piazza Tre Martiri in honor of three civilians hanged by the retreating Nazis at the end of World War II), which was where markets and tournaments were held, underwent various changes. A small temple dedicated to Saint Anthony of Padua and a clock tower were built there, giving the square its present shape and size.

Until the 18th century raiding armies, earthquakes, famines, floods and pirate attacks ravaged the city. In this gloomy situation and due to a weakened local economy, fishing took on great importance, a fact testified by the construction of structures such as the fish market and the lighthouse.

In 1797 Rimini, along with the rest of Romagna, was affected by the passage of the Napoleonic army and became part of the Cisalpine Republic. Napoleonic policy suppressed the monastic orders, confiscating their property and thus dispersing a substantial heritage, and demolished many churches including the ancient cathedral of Santa Colomba. On 30 March 1815, Joachim Murat launched his Rimini Proclamation to the Italian people from here, hoping to incite them to unity and independence. In 1845 a band of adventurers commanded by Ribbotti entered the city and proclaimed a constitution which was soon abolished. In 1860 Rimini and Romagna were incorporated into the Kingdom of Italy.

The city was transformed after the 1843 founding of the first bathing establishment and the Kursaal, a building constructed to host sumptuous social events, became the symbol of Rimini's status as a tourist resort. In just a few years the seafront underwent considerable development work making Rimini 'the city of small villas'. At the beginning of the twentieth century The Grand Hotel, the city’s first major accommodation facility, was built near the beach.

During the first World War Rimini and its surrounding infrastructure was one of the primary targets of the Austro-Hungarian Navy. After Italy's declaration of war on 15 May 1915 the Austro-Hungarian fleet left its harbours the same day and started its assault on the Adriatic coast between Venice and Barletta.

During World War II the city was torn apart by heavy bombardments and by the passage of the front over the Gothic Line during the Battle of Rimini and was eventually captured by Greek and Canadian forces. Following its liberation on September 21, 1944, reconstruction work began, culminating in huge development of the tourist industry in the city.

Geography[edit]

Topography[edit]

Panoramic view of Rimini beach

Rimini is situated at 44°03’00’’ of latitude North e 12°34’00’’ of longitude East, along the coast of the Adriatic sea, at the south-eastern edge of Emilia-Romagna, at a short distance from Montefeltro and Marche. Rimini extends for 135.71 square km and borders the municipalities of Bellaria-Igea Marina, San Mauro Pascoli and Santarcangelo di Romagna towards NW, Verucchio and Serravalle towards SW, Coriano towards S and Riccione towards SE.

Rimini is located in a historically strategic position, at the extreme southern edge of the Po Valley, at the junction point of Northern and Central Italy. It is surrounded towards southwest by the gently hills of Covignano (153 metres high), Vergiano (81 m), San Martino Monte l’Abbate (57 m) and San Lorenzo in Correggiano (60 m), widely cultivated, with vineyards, olive groves and orchards, and dominated by ancient mansions. These hills, mostly made of clay and sand, connect the plains, created by Marecchia and Ausa, the two most important rivers of Rimini territory, to the higher hills of the Apennines.

The Marecchia river runs through its valley and the plain in a very large riverbed and, after receiving the waters of Ausa, it flows into the Adriatic sea through a deviator between San Giuliano Mare and Rivabella, while the ancient riverbed is used in its last section as the city’s harbour. The Marecchia, usually poor of water, was subjected to periodic, destructive floods near its mouth, where the riverbed became narrow after various bend: for this reason it was deviated towards North.[2] Ausa creek, which was the eastern limit of Rimini for many centuries, was deviated as well after World War II, and its original riverbed was filled and turned into a urban park.

The coastal strip, made of recents marine deposits, is edged by a fine sandy beach, 15 km long and up to 200 metres wide, interrupted only by the mouth of the rivers and gently shelving towards the sea. Along the coastline there is a low sandy cliff, created by sea rise around 4000 B.C., partly conservated north of Rimini, between Rivabella and Bellaria-Igea Marina, at a distance of about 1,300 metres from the sea.[3]

Rimini’s territory, for its geographical position and its climatic features, is situated on the edge between the mediterranean and the central european phytoclimatic zones,[4][5] and thus it represents an environment of notable naturalistic value.

Economy[edit]

Rimini beach

Rimini is a major international tourist destination and seaside resorts, among the most famous ones in Europe and the Mediterranean basin,[6] thanks to a long sandy beach, well-equipped bathing establishments, theme parks and a number of opportunities for leisure and spare time. The economy of the city is entirely based on tourism, whose development started in the first half of the XIX century and increased after World War II.

Rimini concentrates a quarter of Emilia-Romagna’s hotels, with over 1,000 hotels,[7] 300 of which are open all year round,[8] and hundreds of apartment hotels, apartments, holiday homes, bed & breakfast and campings. Tourism is mainly based on seaside holidays, but also includes trade fairs and conventions, events, nightlife, culture, wellness, food and wine.[9] Rimini is a leading trade fair and convention site in Italy,[10] with an important Trade Fair (Rimini Fiera) and a Convention centre (Palacongressi di Rimini).

The city’s others economic sectors, such as services, commerce, construction industry, have been influenced by the development of tourism. Commerce is one of the main economic sectors, thanks to the presence of a large wholesale center, two hypermarkets, department stores, supermarkets and hundreds of shops and boutiques. Industry, less developed than tourism and services, includes various companies active in food industry, woodworking machineries, building constructions, furnishing, clothing and publishing. Notable companies are Bimota (motorcycles), SCM (woodworking machines), Trevi S.p.A. (electronic goods). Rimini is also seat of a historic railway works plant.[11]

Agriculture and fishing were the city’s main economic sources until early XX century. Rimini boasts an important tradition in wine production (Sangiovese, Trebbiano, Rebola, Pagadebit, Albana wines) and an historic extra virgin olive oil production. The most common crops of the area, besides vineyards and olive groves, are orchards (peaches, nectarines, apricots, persimmons, apples, pears, cherries, kiwifruits and plums), vegetables and legumes (lettuce, zucchini, potatoes, tomatoes, beans, green beans, cauliflowers, fennels, strawberries), seminatives (wheat, barley, grain sorghum, corn, oat), sunflowers and canola.[12] Fishing industry can count on a fleet of about 100 fishing boats, the most consistent of Rimini’s fishing department, which includes the coast between Cattolica and Cesenatico.[13]

Notable buildings[edit]

Piazza Cavour
Tempio Malatestiano
Tiberius Bridge
  • Tempio Malatestiano: The original 13th century cathedral of San Francesco was built in Gothic style, but it was transformed into a Renaissance masterwork by the Florentine architect Leon Battista Alberti, working under the commission of Sigismondo Pandolfo Malatesta, hence the name. In the cathedral are the tombs of Sigismondo and his wife Isotta.
  • Arch of Augustus: This arch built in 27 BC has a single gate 9.92 metres (33 ft) high and 8.45 metres (28 ft) wide. Merlons were added in the Middle Ages. It was restored in the 18th century by Tommaso Temanza.
  • San Giuliano Martire (1553–1575): The church houses the great picture of Paul Veronese (1588) representing the martyrdom of that saint. The church also shelters the polyptych (1409) by Bittino da Faenza (1357–1427) depicting episodes of this saint's life.
  • Tiberius Bridge: This bridge on the river Marecchia was begun under Emperor Augustus in 14 AD, as the inscription on the internal parapets recalls, and completed under Tiberius in 21. The bridge still connects the city centre to Borgo San Giuliano and leads to the consular roads Via Emilia and Via Popilia that lead north. Built in Istria stone, the bridge consists of five arches that rest on massive pillars with breakwater spurs set at an oblique angle with respect to the bridge’s axis in order to follow the current. The bridge’s structure, on the other hand, rests on a practical system of wooden poles.
  • Roman amphitheater (2nd century): The amphitheater was erected alongside the ancient coast line, and had two orders of porticoes with 60 arcades. It had elliptical shape, with axes of 117.7 by 88 metres (386 by 289 ft). The arena measured 73 by 44 metres (240 by 144 ft), not much smaller than the greatest Roman amphitheatres: the edifice could house up to 15,000 spectators.
  • Castel Sismondo or Rocca Malatestiana: This castle built by Sigismondo Pandolfo was later used as a prison.
  • Palazzo dell'Arengo e del Podestà (1204): This building was the seat of the judiciary and civil administrations. On the short side in the 14th century the podestà residence was added. It was modified at the end of the 16th century.
  • Teatro Galli: This theater was originally dedicated to king Victor Emmanuel II and then to the musician Amintore Galli, it was designed by architect Luigi Poletti. It was inaugurated in 1857 with an opera by Giuseppe Verdi (Aroldo). The theatre was bombed during World War II. Since then it is still a ruin in the city centre. Many projects and plans have been made to restore it during the years, the latest having been announced in 2010.[14]
  • St. John the Evangelist: This church is also known as St. Augustine.
  • San Giovanni Battista: This church was erected in the 12th century. It has a single nave with rich stucco decoration from the 18th century.
  • Town hall: The Town hall has a small but valuable gallery (Perin del Vaga, Ghirlandajo, Bellini, Benedetto Coda, Tintoretto, Agostino di Duccio); the Gambalunga Library (1677) has valuable manuscripts.
  • San Fortunato (1418): This church houses the Adoration of the Magi (1547) by Giorgio Vasari.
  • The bell tower of the former Cathedral of Santa Colomba.
  • Archeological museum.
  • Bronze statue of Paul V.

Parks and recreation[edit]

Alcide Cervi Park

Rimini has a wide parks system, with 1.3 million square metres of parks and gardens inside the urban area[15] and a total of 2.8 million square metres of green areas inside the city limits,[16] including river parks, sport facilities and natural areas. The city’s park system include a serie of large urban parks, XXV Aprile Park, Giovanni Paolo II Park and Alcide Cervi Park, which were created along the old riverbeds of Marecchia and Ausa.

In Rimini there are are about 42.000 public trees, belonging to 190 different species, predominantly linden, planes, maples, poplars, pines and oaks.[17] 23 of these are old trees, protected as “monumental trees” for their age and their naturalistic value, such as the plane of piazza Malatesta, the downy oak of Giovanni Paolo II Park, the cypresses of Sant’Agostino, the elm of Viale Vespucci and the linden trees of San Fortunato.[18]

The city’s cycling network is articulated inside the main parks and boulevards, linking the most important monuments, tourist attractions, beaches, meeting places, offering various opportunities to different use categories, including urban travels, mountain bike and cyclotourism. The cycling network is connected, through XXV Aprile Park, to the cycle route which links Rimini and Saiano, along the river Marecchia.

Education[edit]

Rimini is the seat of a Campus of University of Bologna, attended by 5.800 students,[19] which include bachelors and masters belonging to eight Faculties: Economy, Statistical Sciences, Pharmacy, Literature and Philosophy, Industrial Chemistry, Sport Sciences, Medicine and Surgery.[20] The city has public school of all levels, including 13 nurseries, 12 kindergartens, 39 primary schools, 5 secondary schools and 11 high schools (4 Lyceums, 3 Technical Institutes, 3 Professional Institutes and an Institute of Musical Studies).[21] The most ancient city’s Lyceum, the Classical Lyceum “Giulio Cesare”, founded in 1800, was attended by Giovanni Pascoli and Federico Fellini.[22]

Transportation[edit]

Rimini is served by six railway stations (Rimini, Rimini Fiera, Rimini Miramare, Rimini Rivazzurra, Rimini Viserba and Rimini Torre Pedrera) and the Federico Fellini Airport.

The Rimini–Riccione trolleybus line links the city with the nearby seaside resort of Riccione.

Sports[edit]

The main football team of the city is Rimini Calcio. It played for 9 years (between 1976 and 2009) in Serie B, the second-highest division in the Italian football league system. Its better positioning was the 5th place of the 2006-07 season (when Rimini was also undefeated in both games against Juventus).

Rimini has also a notable basketball team, the Basket Rimini Crabs, which played for several years in Serie A and two times in the European Korać Cup. About baseball, Rimini Baseball Club won 11 national championships and it was also European champion for three times.

Rimini is the site of the annual Paganello event, one of the world's premier Beach Ultimate tournaments.

Notable natives of Rimini and environs[edit]

Federico Fellini received five Oscars.

Twin towns — Sister cities[edit]

Rimini's twin towns and sister cities.

Rimini is twinned with:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Richard J.A. Talbert, ed. (2000). Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World: Map-By-Map Directory I. Princeton, NJ and Oxford, UK: Princeton University Press. p. 589. ISBN 0691049459. 
  2. ^ L’Emilia-Romagna paese per paese, Firenze, Bonechi, 1984, p. 250.
  3. ^ PSC Comune di Rimini, Quadro Conoscitivo, Sistema Ambientale. Geologia, p. 15.
  4. ^ Emilia-Romagna, Milano, Touring Club Italiano, 1999, p. 27
  5. ^ Pietro Zangheri, Repertorio sistematico e topografico della flora e fauna vivente e fossile della Romagna, Tomo V, Museo civico di Storia Naturale di Verona, Verona, 1966-1970, p. 2052.
  6. ^ "World Guides. Rimini Tourist Attractions and Sightseeing". p. 1. 
  7. ^ Quadro Conoscitivo PSC, Sistema economico e sociale, p. 107
  8. ^ Riviera di Rimini: le tue vacanze, p. 15.
  9. ^ Quadro Conoscitivo PSC, Sistema economico e sociale, p. 101
  10. ^ "Il sistema delle fiere in Italia: tendenze evolutive e confronto con i principali competitor" (PDF) (in Italian). p. 1. 
  11. ^ "L’officina Locomotive di Rimini fra tradizione e innovazione" (in Italian). p. 1. 
  12. ^ "Il sistema agroalimentare dell’Emilia-Romagna. Rapporto 2011" (PDF) (in Italian). pp. 19–46. 
  13. ^ "I luoghi della pesca in Emilia-Romagna" (PDF) (in Italian). pp. 77–82. 
  14. ^ Teatro Galli: un progetto per un teatro vivo
  15. ^ "Rapporto Ecosistema Urbano 2013" (PDF) (in Italian). p. 55. 
  16. ^ "Rapporto Ecosistema Urbano 2013" (PDF) (in Italian). p. 56. 
  17. ^ "Il censimento alberi e aree verdi del Comune di Rimini" (PDF) (in Italian). p. 1. 
  18. ^ "Alberi monumentali e di pregio del Comune di Rimini" (PDF) (in Italian). p. 2. 
  19. ^ "9º Osservatorio Istruzione Universitaria nella Provincia di Rimini. A.A. 2009-2010." (PDF) (in Italian). 
  20. ^ "Polo scientifico-didattico di Rimini. Facoltà e Corsi di Laurea." (in Italian). 
  21. ^ "Comune di Rimini. Servizi educativi." (in Italian). 
  22. ^ "Liceo Classico Psicopedagogico "G. Cesare" – "M. Valgimigli"" (in Italian). 

Sources and external links[edit]