Rin Tin Tin
Rin Tin Tin (September 1918 – August 10, 1932) was a male German Shepherd Dog rescued from a World War I battlefield by an American soldier, Lee Duncan, who nicknamed him "Rinty". Duncan trained Rin Tin Tin (often hyphenated as Rin-Tin-Tin) and obtained silent film work for the dog. Rin Tin Tin was an immediate box office success and went on to appear in 27 Hollywood films, gaining worldwide fame. Along with the earlier canine film star Strongheart, Rin Tin Tin was responsible for greatly increasing the popularity of German Shepherd Dogs as family pets. The immense profitability of his films made Warner Bros. studios a success and helped advance the career of Darryl F. Zanuck. In 1929, Rin Tin Tin may have received the most votes for the first Academy Award for Best Actor, but the Academy determined that a human should win.
After Rin Tin Tin died in 1932, the name was given to several related German Shepherd Dogs featured in fictional stories on film, radio, and television. Rin Tin Tin, Jr. appeared in some serialized films but was not as talented as his father. Rin Tin Tin III, said to be Rin Tin Tin's grandson but probably only distantly related, helped promote the military use of dogs during World War II. Rin Tin Tin III also appeared in a film with child actor Robert Blake in 1947.
Duncan groomed Rin Tin Tin IV for the 1950s television series The Adventures of Rin Tin Tin, but the dog performed poorly in a screen test and was replaced in the TV show by trainer Frank Barnes's dogs, primarily one named Flame, Jr., called JR, with the public led to believe otherwise. Instead of shooting episodes, Rin Tin Tin IV stayed at home in Riverside. The TV show Rin Tin Tin was nominated for a PATSY Award in 1958 and in 1959 but did not win.
After Duncan died in 1960 the screen property of Rin Tin Tin passed to TV producer Herbert B. "Bert" Leonard who worked on further adaptations such as the 1988–1993 Canadian-made TV show Katts and Dog which was called Rin Tin Tin: K-9 Cop in the US and Rintintin Junior in France. After Leonard died in 2006 Leonard's lawyer James Tierney made the 2007 film Finding Rin Tin Tin; an American–Bulgarian production based on Duncan's discovery of the dog in France. Meanwhile, a Rin Tin Tin memorabilia collection was being amassed by Texas resident Jannettia Propps Brodsgaard who had purchased several direct descendant dogs from Duncan beginning with Rinty Tin Tin Brodsgaard in 1957. Brodsgaard bred the dogs to keep the bloodline. Brodsgaard's granddaughter, Daphne Hereford, continued to build on the tradition and bloodline of Rin Tin Tin from 1988 to 2011; she was the first to trademark the name Rin Tin Tin in 1993 (Duncan had never done so) and she bought the domain names rintintin.com and rintintin.net to establish a website. Hereford also opened a short-lived Rin Tin Tin museum in Latexo, Texas. Hereford passed the tradition to her daughter, Dorothy Yanchak in 2011. The current Rin Tin Tin XII dog owned by Yanchak takes part in public events to represent the Rin Tin Tin legacy.
As part of the advances made by the French and American forces during the Battle of Saint-Mihiel, U.S. Army corporal Lee Duncan was sent forward on September 15, 1918, to the small French village of Flirey to find a suitable landing ground for military aircraft. The area had been subject to bombs and artillery, and Duncan found a severely damaged kennel which had once supplied the German Army with German Shepherd Dogs. The only dogs left alive in the kennel were a starving mother with a litter of five nursing puppies, their eyes still shut because they were less than a week old. Duncan rescued the dogs and brought them back to his unit. When the puppies were weaned he gave the mother to an officer and three of the litter to other soldiers, but he kept a male and a female. He felt that these two dogs were symbols of his good luck. He called them Rin Tin Tin and Nanette after a pair of good luck charms called Rintintin and Nénette that French children often gave to the American soldiers. Duncan sensed that Nanette was the smarter of the two puppies. (The soldiers were usually told that Rintintin and Nénette were lucky lovers who had survived a bombing attack, but the original dolls had been designed by Francisque Poulbot before the war in late 1913 to look like Paris street urchins. Contrary to popular usage, Poulbot said that Rintintin was the girl doll.)
In July 1919, Duncan managed to bundle the dogs aboard a ship taking him back to the US at the end of the war. When he got to Long Island, New York, for re-entry processing, he put his dogs in the care of a Hempstead breeder named Mrs. Leo Wanner who raised police dogs. Nanette was diagnosed with pneumonia; as a replacement the breeder gave Duncan another female German Shepherd puppy. Duncan headed to California by rail with his dogs. While Duncan was traveling by train, Nanette died in Hempstead. As a memorial, Duncan named his new puppy Nanette II, but he called her Nanette. Duncan, Rin Tin Tin and Nanette II settled at his home in Los Angeles. Rin Tin Tin was a dark sable color and had very dark eyes. Nanette II was much lighter in color.
An athletic silent film actor named Eugene Pallette was one of Duncan's friends. The two men enjoyed the outdoors; they took the dogs to the Sierras where Pallette liked to hunt while Duncan taught Rin Tin Tin various tricks. Duncan thought that his dog might win a few awards at dog shows and thus be a valuable source of puppy sales, bred with Nanette. In 1922 Duncan was a founding member of the Shepherd Dog Club of California, based in Los Angeles. At the club's first show Rin Tin Tin showed his agility but also demonstrated an aggressive temper, growling, barking and snapping. It was a very poor performance, but the worst moment came afterward when Duncan was walking home. A heavy bundle of newspapers was thrown off of a delivery truck and it landed on the dog, breaking his left front leg. Duncan had the injured limb set in plaster and he nursed the dog back to health for nine months.
Ten months after the break, the leg was healed and Rin Tin Tin was entered in a show for German Shepherd Dogs in Los Angeles. Rin Tin Tin had learned to leap great heights. At the dog show while making a winning leap of 11 feet 9 inches (3.58 m) he was filmed by Duncan's acquaintance Charley Jones, who had just developed a slow-motion camera. Seeing his dog being filmed, Duncan became convinced Rin Tin Tin could become the next Strongheart, a successful film dog that lived in his own full-sized stucco bungalow with its own street address in the Hollywood Hills, separate from the mansion of his owners who lived a block away next to Roy Rogers. Duncan later wrote, "I was so excited over the motion-picture idea that I found myself thinking of it night and day."
Duncan walked his dog up and down Poverty Row, talking to anyone in a position to put Rin Tin Tin in film, however modest the role. The dog's first break came when he was asked to replace a camera-shy wolf in The Man From Hell's River (1922). The wolf was not performing properly for the director, but under the guidance of Duncan's voice commands, Rin Tin Tin was very easy to work with. When the film was completed the dog was billed as "Rin Tan". Rin Tin Tin would be cast as a wolf or wolf-hybrid many times in his career because it was much more convenient for filmmakers to work with a trained dog. In another 1922 film titled My Dad, Rin Tin Tin picked up a small part as a household dog. The credits read: "Rin Tin Tin – Played by himself".
Rin Tin Tin's first starring role was in Where the North Begins (1923), playing alongside silent screen actress Claire Adams. This film was a huge success and has often been credited with saving Warner Bros. from bankruptcy. It was followed by 24 more screen appearances. Each of these films was very popular, making such a profit for Warner Bros. that Rin Tin Tin was called "the mortgage lifter" by studio insiders. A young screenwriter named Darryl F. Zanuck was involved in creating stories for Rin Tin Tin; the success of the films raised him to the position of respected film producer.
Rin Tin Tin was much sought after and was signed for endorsement deals. He was featured in ads for Ken-L Ration, Ken-L-Biskit, and Pup-E-Crumbles. Warner Bros. got thousands of requests for publicity photographs of Rinty, which were signed with a paw print and a line written by Duncan: "Most faithfully, Rin Tin Tin." In the 1920s, Rin Tin Tin's success for Warner Bros. inspired several imitations from other studios looking to cash in on his popularity, notably RKO's Ace the Wonder Dog, also a German Shepherd Dog. Around the world, Rin Tin Tin was extremely popular because, as a dog, he was equally well understood by all viewers. At the time, silent films were easily adapted for various countries by simply changing the language of the intertitles. Rin Tin Tin's films were widely distributed. By 1927, Rin Tin Tin was the most popular actor with the very sophisticated film audience in Berlin.
Author Susan Orlean investigated the Hollywood legend that Rin Tin Tin received the most votes for Best Actor at the first Academy Award competition in 1929. Orlean says that the Academy wished to appear more serious, that they determined to have a human actor win the award. Rin Tin Tin was removed as a choice and the votes were cast once more: German actor Emil Jannings won the Best Actor award.
Although primarily a star of silent films, Rin Tin Tin did appear in four sound features, including the 12-part Mascot Studios chapter-play The Lightning Warrior (1931), co-starring with Frankie Darro. In these films, vocal commands would have been picked up by the microphones, so Duncan likely guided Rin Tin Tin by hand signals.
Death and legacy
Rin Tin Tin and Nanette produced at least 48 puppies; Duncan kept two of them, selling the rest or giving them as gifts. On August 10, 1932, Rin Tin Tin died at Duncan's home on Club View Drive in Los Angeles. Duncan wrote about the death in his unpublished memoir: He heard Rin Tin Tin bark in a peculiar fashion so he went to see what was wrong. He found the dog lying on the ground, moments away from death. Newspapers across the nation carried obituaries. Magazine articles were written about his life, and a special Movietone News feature was shown to movie audiences. In the press the death was given a wide variety of fabrications such as Rin Tin Tin dying on the set of the film Pride of the Legion (where Rin Tin Tin, Jr., was working), dying at night, and dying at home on the front lawn in the arms of actress Jean Harlow who lived on the same street. In a private ceremony, Duncan buried Rin Tin Tin in a bronze casket in his own backyard with a plain wooden cross to mark the location. Duncan was suffering the financial effects of the Great Depression and could not afford a finer burial, nor even his own expensive house. He sold his house and quietly arranged to have the dog's body returned to his country of birth for re-burial in the Cimetière des Chiens et Autres Animaux Domestiques, the famous pet cemetery in the Parisian suburb of Asnières-sur-Seine.
In the United States, his death set off a national response. Regular programming was interrupted by a news bulletin. An hour long program about Rin Tin Tin played the next day
Rin Tin Tin was honored with a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 1623 Vine St. in 1963.
Rin Tin Tin, Jr., appeared in several short films in the 1930s. He starred with Rex the Wild Horse in the Mascot Pictures serials, The Law of the Wild (1934) and The Adventures of Rex and Rinty (1935). He voiced the part of Rinty in the radio shows produced during that era, as well. He was sired by the first Rin Tin Tin and his mother was Champion Asta of Linwood, also owned by Lee Duncan. Lee Duncan gave some of the original Rin Tin Tin's puppies, those from mate Nanette II, to friends such as Greta Garbo, Jean Harlow, and Will Keith Kellogg.
Rin Tin Tin III starred alongside a young Robert Blake in 1947's The Return of Rin Tin Tin but is primarily credited with assisting Duncan in the training of more than 5,000 dogs for the World War II war effort at Camp Hahn, California.
Between 1930 and 1955, Rin Tin Tin was cast in three different radio series, beginning April 5, 1930 with The Wonder Dog, in which the original Rin Tin Tin performed some of the sound effects until his death in 1932. (Most of the dog noises were performed live on radio by a man named Bob Barker.) This 15-minute program was broadcast Saturdays on the Blue Network at 8:15 pm until March 1931 when it moved to Thursdays. Story lines were often highly unlikely, with Rin Tin Tin saving a group of space-exploring scientists from giant Martians in one episode.
In September 1930, the title changed from The Wonder Dog to Rin Tin Tin. Don Ameche and Junior McLain starred in the series, which ended June 8, 1933. With Ken-L Ration as a sponsor, the series continued on CBS from October 5, 1933 until May 20, 1934, airing Sundays at 7:45 pm.
The final radio series was broadcast on Mutual from January 2, 1955 to December 25, 1955 a 30-minute program heard Sunday evenings. Sponsored by National Biscuit for Shredded Wheat and Milk-Bone, the series featured Rin Tin Tin's adventures with the 101st Cavalry in the same manner as the concurrent TV show: The Adventures of Rin Tin Tin. The radio show also starred Lee Aaker (born 1943) as Rusty, James Brown (1920–1992) as Lieutenant Ripley "Rip" Masters and Joe Sawyer (1906–1982) as Sergeant Biff O'Hara.
The Adventures of Rin Tin Tin, an ABC television series, ran from October 1954 to May 1959. Duncan's Rin Tin Tin IV was nominally the lead dog, but nearly all of the screen work was performed by a dog named Flame, Jr., nicknamed JR (pronounced Jay Are), owned by trainer Frank Barnes. Other dogs that sometimes played TV's Rin Tin Tin included Barnes's dog Blaze and Duncan's dog Hey You from the Rin Tin Tin bloodline. Hey You had suffered an eye injury during his youth; he was used as a stunt dog and for fight scenes. TV's Rin Tin Tin was far lighter in color than the original sable-colored dog of silent film.
Lee Duncan died on September 20, 1960, without ever having trademarked the name "Rin Tin Tin". The tradition continued in Texas with Jannettia Brodsgaard Propps, who had purchased several direct descendant dogs from Duncan. Her granddaughter, Daphne Hereford, continued the lineage and the legacy of Rin Tin Tin following her grandmother's death on December 17, 1988. Hereford passed the tradition to her daughter, Dorothy Yanchak in July 2011. The current Rin Tin Tin is twelfth in line from the original silent film star and makes personal appearances across the country to promote responsible pet ownership. Rin Tin Tin was the recipient of the 2011 American Humane Association Legacy award and was honored by the Academy of Arts and Sciences in a special program, Hollywood Dogs: From Rin Tin Tin to Uggie, on June 6, 2012, at the Samuel Goldwin Theatre. Rin Tin Tin continues to make personal appearances across the country and works in film and other ventures.
The Rin Tin Tin bloodline dogs are also trained as service dogs to provide assistance to special needs children.
In popular culture
In 1976, a film was produced loosely based on Rin Tin Tin's debut: Won Ton Ton, the Dog Who Saved Hollywood. Producer David V. Picker offered a fee to Herbert B. Leonard but Leonard disagreed with the basic premise of a film ridiculing the famous dog. Leonard sued the filmmakers for infringement on the Rin Tin Tin legacy and lost.
Originally co-produced by Leonard, the 1988–93 Canadian TV series Katts and Dog featured the adventures of a police officer and his canine partner. The series was titled Rin Tin Tin: K9 Cop for its American showings, and in France it was presented as Rintintin Junior. Leonard was funded by the Christian Broadcasting Network whose founder, televangelist Pat Robertson, had been enthusiastic for the idea. Leonard was criticized by his fellow producers for staying with his new wife in Los Angeles rather than helping with the show on location in Canada. Partway through the first season, Robertson said that some of his viewers were deeply concerned that the plot involved a widowed mother who was living unmarried in the same house with the brother of her late husband. Robertson recommended the mother character be killed off to stop the complaints, but Leonard protested such a change. After Leonard quit the show the problematic character was killed off. Though separated from the show, Leonard continued to receive a fee for the screen rights to Rin Tin Tin.
In 2007, a film was produced—Finding Rin Tin Tin—based on the story of Lee Duncan finding Rin Tin Tin on a battlefield in France and making a star of him in Hollywood. The film was the subject of a lawsuit brought in October 2008 by Daphne Hereford who asked a federal court in Houston, Texas, to protect her rights to the Rin Tin Tin trademark. The judge ruled in favor of the filmmakers, declaring the use of the name in the film to be fair use.
Rin Tin Tin has been featured as a character in many fiction works, including a children's book in which Rin Tin Tin and the other animal characters are able to talk to one another but are unable to talk to humans.
In October 2011 at the first annual American Humane Association Hero Dog Awards in Beverly Hills, Rin Tin Tin was honored with the first Hero Dog Legacy Award. Mickey Rooney narrated a memorial tribute film about Rin Tin Tin. A twelfth generation Rin Tin Tin legacy dog was there to receive the award.
This filmography is based on the listing at the Internet Movie Database.
- The Man from Hell's River (1922)
- My Dad (1922)
- Where the North Begins (1923)
- Shadows of the North (1923)
- Find Your Man (1924)
- The Lighthouse by the Sea (1924)
- Tracked in the Snow Country (1925)
- Below the Line (1925)
- Clash of the Wolves (1925)
- The Night Cry (1926)
- A Hero of the Big Snows (1926)
- While London Sleeps (1926)
- Hills of Kentucky (1927)
- Tracked by the Police (1927)
- Jaws of Steel (1927)
- A Dog of the Regiment (1927)
- A Race for Life (1928)
- Rinty of the Desert (1928)
- Land of the Silver Fox (1928)
- The Million Dollar Collar (1929)
- Frozen River (1929)
- Tiger Rose (1929)
- The Lone Defender (1930)
- On the Border (1930)
- The Man Hunter (1930)
- Rough Waters (1930)
- The Lightning Warrior (1931)
Rin Tin Tin Jr. filmography
This filmography is based on the listing at the Internet Movie Database.
Rin Tin Tin III filmography
This filmography is based on the listing at the Internet Movie Database.
- Orlean, Susan (August 29, 2011). "The Dog Star". The New Yorker. Retrieved October 17, 2011.
- Orlean 2011, pp. 31–32
- "Les Poupées du Poulbot". Poupendol.com. Retrieved December 3, 2012.
- Présence d'André Malraux sur la Toile (September 8, 2009). "Nénette et Rintintin – notice" (in French). Malraux.org. Retrieved December 3, 2012.
- Orlean 2011, pp. 43–44
- Orlean 2011, pp. 46–47
- Orlean 2011, pp. 48–49
- Orlean 2011, pp. 64–65
- Schuessler, Jennifer (October 20, 2011). "Rin Tin Tin: American Hero". The New York Times.
- Orlean 2011, pp. 68–69
- Orlean 2011, p. 81
- Orlean 2011, pp. 78–80
- Basinger 1999
- Horak, Jan-Christopher (March 1993). "Rin-Tin-Tin in Berlin or American cinema in Weimar". Film History (Indiana University Press) 5 (1): 60. JSTOR 3815109.
- Orlean 2011, p. 104
- Orlean 2011, pp. 109–112
- Orlean, Susan (2011-09-24). "Rin Tin Tin: From Battlefield To Hollywood, A Story Of Friendship: Monkey See". NPR. Retrieved 2012-05-17.
- Orr, Gertrude, Dog Stars of Hollywood. Akron, Ohio: The Saalfield Publishing Company, 1936
- Orlean 2011, p. 94
- Dunning, John (1998). On The Air: The Encyclopedia of Old-Time Radio. Oxford University Press. p. 578. ISBN 0-19-507678-8.
- Orlean 2011, pp. 191–193
- Eder, Richard. "Review," The New York Times.
- Orlean 2011, pp. 276–277
- Orlean 2011, pp. 284–285
- Flood, Mary. "A pooch to protect." Houston Chronicle. October 6, 2008.
- Flood, Mary. "Rin Tin Tin breeder loses suit against film studio: Houston judge rules dog’s name in title is fair use." Houston Chronicle. November 12, 2009.
- Cooper, P.T. (2012). Rin Tin Tin and the Lost King. ISBN 978-0615651910.
- "Hero Dog Awards Airs Tonight". North Country Gazette. November 11, 2011. Retrieved February 12, 2013.
- Rin Tin Tin at the Internet Movie Database
- Rin Tin Tin Jr. at the Internet Movie Database
- Rin Tin Tin III at the Internet Movie Database
- Basinger, Jeanine (1999). "Rin Tin Tin". Silent Stars. Wesleyan University Press. pp. 451–466. ISBN 0-8195-6451-6.
- English, James W. (1950). The Rin Tin Tin Story. Dodd, Mead & Co.
- Orlean, Susan (2011). Rin Tin Tin: The Life and the Legend. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-1-4391-9013-5.
- Rothel, David (1980). "Man's Best Friends". The Great Show Business Animals. A.S. Barnes. ISBN 0498025195.