Rinconada Bikol language
|230,000 (2000 census)|
|Latin (Rinconada Bicol alphabet);
Official language in
|Regional language in the Philippines|
|Regulated by||Commission on the Filipino Language|
Rinconada Bikol, spoken in Camarines Sur Province, Philippines, is one of several languages that compose the Inland Bikol group of the Bikol languages. It belongs to the Austronesian language family that also includes Māori, Hawaiian, Malagasy, Tagalog, Indonesian and Malay. The closest relatives to this language outside Bicol are Aklanon, Waray-waray and, to a lesser extent, Tagalog specifically the dialect of Batangas. Rinconada Bikol is considered by most Bicolanos to be one of the most difficult varieties of Bikol.
This is also the language adopted by the aboriginal or indigenous population of Agta/Aeta (the Negrito) in the surrounding mountainous areas. Rinconada was brought to the Negritos by the Austronesian people when they engaged in commerce and trade with them. The original language of the aboriginal people is unknown, but it is believed that it contributed to Rinconada's accent, vocabulary and lexicon.
The name of the language is derived from the name of the place where it originated, developed and is largely spoken: Rinconada District (in Camarines Sur province) which was formerly called "Sumagang". It is erroneously said to be from the Spanish word arrinconada which means cornered. There is a place in Spain that bears the same name (La Rinconada), adding credence to the suggestion that Rinconada is truly a Spanish word. It could have been the name that was given by the Spaniards to the then newly explored and colonized part of Bicol. Same logic can be attributed from the La Rinconada of Chile, which was also a Spanish colony. However, the origin of the word "Rinconada" is still a matter of debate, while others would like to rename it to Sumagaŋon (Sumagangon), a word derived from the original place of Rinconada - Sumagaŋ (Sumagang).
- 1 Dialects
- 2 Features and Geographic Distribution
- 3 Pronouns
- 4 Greetings
- 5 Uniqueness and Distinction
- 6 Standard Rinconada Bikol
- 7 Angry Speech Register
- 8 Inigin or "baby talk"
- 9 Alphabet
- 10 Numerals
- 11 Intelligibility
- 12 Status
- 13 Modern culture
- 14 Distribution
- 15 References
The language is divided into two main dialects and subdivided into six variants:
Sinabukid (highland dialect)
(Strong accent, flat intonation only, and with /ə/)
- Agta variant
- Iriga variant (standard)
Sinaranəw (lowland dialect)
(Soft accent with different types of intonation, and without /ə/)
- Nabua – Balatan variant
- Baao variant
- Bula – Pili variant
- Bato variant
|Nabua – Balatan variant
|Bula – Pili variant
|Filipino/Tagalog translation||English translation|
|Namāmaɣəw iyā ku inarādo naŋgad ku igin niyā su ragâ dāwâ ədâ pa tubig adtoŋ omā nirā.||Namāmaɣəw iyā ku inarādo naŋgad ku igin niyā su ragâ dāwâ ədâ pa katbag adtoŋ omā nirā.||Namāmaɣow 'yā ku inarādo naŋgad ku igin niyā su ragâ dāwâ udâ pa tubig adtoŋ omā nirā.||Namāmaɣow iyā ku inarādo naŋgad ku akos niyā su ragâ dāwâ udâ pa tubig adtoŋ omā nirā.||Namāmaɣow siyā ku inarādo jāday ku igin niyā su ragâ dāwâ udâ pa kin tubig adtoŋ omā nindā.||Namāmaɣow siyā ku inarādo dayday ku igin niyā su ragâ dāwâ udâ pa tubig adtoŋ omā nindā.||Nag-aalmusal siya nang araruhing muli ng kaniyang anak ang lupa kahit na wala pang tubig ang kanilang bukirin.||He was eating breakfast when his child plowed the land again even though the rice field has no water yet.|
Features and Geographic Distribution
The Nabua-Balatan variant features high pitch intonation. It covers the entire municipalities of Nabua and Balatan. It is the direct descendant of Rinconada Bikol.
Iriga variant on the other hand has the most speakers. The speakers are concentrated in the district center - Iriga City, some of the important barangays of Buhi (West and East Sta. Justina and De Los Angeles) and the urban barangay of Matacon located in Polangui, Albay. The Iriga variant has a flat intonation and is spoken rapidly.
The Bato variant, on the other hand, has a distinctive mellow intonation. It is said that regardless of their mood, the Bato speaker always sounds sleepy and as if they are chanting. The Bato variant is primarily being spoken in Bato, Camarines Sur and also spoken in Agos, Polangui, Albay.
The Agta variant is the smallest in the group. The speakers are exclusively the indigenous population of Agta/Aeta, the aboriginal people of different tribes surrounding Mount Iriga. Like Iriga, the Agta variant also has a flat intonation but they speak the language with distinct form of pronunciation which can be attributed to the group's extinct language.
The variants of Baao and Bula-Pili are considered sisters. They have the same accent and only slight differences in vocabulary. Of the two variants, Baao often uses rising intonation, while Bula-Pili is moderately flat. Both use high pitch when reasoning. The latter variant is used entirely in Bula and in the southern half of the provincial capital town of Pili. It also has significant speakers in Ocampo and Minalabac. These two variants have borrowed some vocabulary from the Coastal Bikol language but at the same time, Bikol-Partido (a dialect of Coastal Bikol) has borrowed vocabulary from these two variants.
List of phrases and expressions that are unique to each variant:
Baao variant: "Gaorag na!"
Nabua – Balatan variant: "Labinā kan."
Agta variant: "Mayaŋ na ŋod."
Bato variant: "Ay tarā?"
Bula – Pili variant: "Paiŋōrag.."
Iriga variant: "Labinā man nâ!"
Like other Visayan and Bikol languages, Rinconada Bikol uses shorten commands.
The phrase "iyəwən mo" (grill it) is often shorten to "iyəwā" and the command phrase "punāsan mo a salmiŋ" (wipe the mirror) can be shorten to "punāsa a salmiŋ".
The uniqueness comes when talking to elderly or older person in a polite manner. Instead of putting the letters "ā/a" after the root word of the verb, it has to be replaced by the letters "e/ē" if the statement will be politely delivered. The letter "e" or "ē" stands for "tābî" which means "please" in English, or "po" in Tagalog.
"iyəw" is a root word that means "grill".
"iyəwən" means "grill it".
"iyəwən mo" roughly means "you, grill it".
"iyəwā" is the shortcut of the words "iyəwən mo".
"iyəwē" is the shorten polite word for "iyəwən mo tābî" (grill it please).
"punas" is a root word that means "wipe".
"punasan" means "wipe it".
"punasan mo" roughly means "you, wipe it".
"punāsa" is the shortcut of the words "punāsan mo".
"punāse" is the shorten polite word for "punāsan mo tābî" (wipe it please).
"īmo" is a root word that means "prepare".
"imōɣon" means "prepare it".
"imōɣon mo" means "you, prepare it".
"imōɣa" is the shortcut of the words "imōɣon mo".
"imōɣe" is the shorten polite word for "imōɣon mo tābî" (please prepare it).
|1st person singular||akō||ko||kanakə^, saakə^|
|2nd person singular||ikā, ka||mo||kanimō, saimō|
|3rd person singular||iyā, siyā||niyā||kaniyā, saiyā|
|1st person plural inclusive||kitā||ta||kanatə^, saatə^|
|1st person plural exclusive||kamī||namə^, amə^||kanamə^, saamə^|
|2nd person plural||kamō||ninyō||kaninyō|
|3rd person plural||sirā, sindā||nirā, ninda||kanirā, saindā, kandā|
Maray na aldəw - Good day (from sunrise to sunset)
Maray na gab-ī - Good evening (from sunset to sunrise)
- The said greetings can be shorten to "Aldəw" and "Gab-ī" as they are like "Bonjour" and "Bonsoir" of the French language.
Maray na ramrag - Good morning (from 6AM to 11AM)
Maray na mudtō - Good noon (from 11AM to 1PM)
Maray na apon - Good afternoon (from 1PM to 6PM)
Maray na gab-ī - Good evening (from 6PM to 11PM)
Maray na lawəd - Good midnight (from 11PM to 1AM)
Maray na mararamrāgən - Good dawn (from 1AM to 6AM)
People of Rinconada classify dim or dark hours as night time and light hours as day time. As such, even with the introduction of Modern Standard Time, they consider the hours of 12 midnight until 6 o'clock in the morning as night time. Therefore, the general greeting from 6AM to 6PM is "Maray na aldəw", and "Maray na gab-ī" for the hours that start from 6PM to 6AM.
e.g. Maray na mudtō tabî kaninyō ŋāmin!
Maogmaŋ Pagkaməndag! - Happy Birthday.
Maogmaŋ Bagoŋ Taon! - Happy New Year.
Maogmaŋ Anibersaryo! - Happy Anniversary.
Uniqueness and Distinction
Rinconada Bikol or Rinconada is rampantly using short or unstressed letter "i" sound. In fact, most root words with letter "i" are unstressed. However, not all words with "i" should be read and pronounced as such since there are words that have stressed " ī " in them, especially loanwords, e.g. sīli (chili). Native words with stressed "ī" are very rare.
The language retains the proto-Philippine schwa vowel /ə/ that has been disappeared in most Philippine languages like Cebuano, Tagalog and even the neighboring Coastal Bikol language. In Nabua, Camarines Sur (where the language was originated), the vowel was also disappeared via the normal development and evolution. However, before this happened, the vowel/sound was taken to the mountainous area around Mount Iriga (formerly called Mount Asog) by the people migrated from Nabua due to severe flooding. As a result, the vowel only survived in Highland dialect or Sinabukid speakers. People who are new to the highland accent may find it sounds like Ilokano or Pangasinense. The vowel can also be found in towns and cities speaking the Albay Bikol group of languages. The native word for this vowel in Rinconada is "gəpə". The vowel has divided the language into two dialects – Sinabukid or Highland (with /ə/) and Sinaranəw or Lowland (without /ə/).
Aside from the vowel /ə/, the other interesting thing in Rinconada language is the occurrence of an extra consonant phoneme /ɣ/. This consonant bears the sound of mixed letters "h, y and "w". The neighboring language of Buhinon also uses this sound - a clear evidence of close ties between the two languages. Unfortunately, this phoneme neither has a corresponding letter in Philippine alphabet nor an equivalent character on Philippine standard keyboard. Thus, Rinconada Bikol speakers are left no other option but to use "h" as an alternative letter. However, in the spoken Sinaranəw dialect, the consonant /ɣ/ and the vowel /ə/ are often replaced by the letters "w" and "o" respectively.
Examples of letter 〈ɣ〉
1. Mimaɣəw – will eat breakfast. (Mudto na, mimaɣəw pa sanā ikā?)
2. Baɣəw – cold cooked rice. (Naŋagnəw na man na kānən adī, malakabaɣəw!)
3. Taɣəp – a process of separating rice from its outside layer after milling. "Tahip" in Filipino/Tagalog. (A pagtaɣəp, əsad na gīboŋ dirî dāpat pinagdədəlagan.)
4. Daɣun – plant leaf. (Kadakəl ka daɣun ka tanəm ni Tāta Isko.)
5. Saɣəg – meat or fish mixed in a vegetable viand, "ulam". (The native word is "bangot" in Rinconada Bikol. *Saɣəg is one example of a borrowed word from Tagalog – "sahog"). (Ayaw ŋanî pagkuutā itō saɣəg ta pansalak iton sa gūlay!)
- The special consonant phoneme /ɣ/ can easily be distinguished from the sound of letters "h,w and y" if it is placed before the vowel phoneme /ə/. It can be compared to the letter "j" of the Spanish word "Dios Mamajes".
Standard Rinconada Bikol
The Iriga variant is used as the de facto standard Rinconada Bikol for the following reasons:
1. It retains the proto-Austronesian schwa vowel /ə/ that helps eliminate homographs (words that are spelled the same way but have different pronunciations and meanings).
2. The consonant phoneme /ɣ/ is evident and pronounced more clearly.
3. It has a neutralized and flat intonation which serves to moderate between variants.
4. It has no continuum accent or fusion of variants in between boundaries.
One example of continuum accent can be heard in barangays bordering Bula and Nabua which the speakers have mixed accents of Bula-Pili variant and Nabua-Balatan variant. Same thing can be heard in the boundaries of Baao and Nabua.
5. Iriga City is the center of learning, trade and commerce in Rinconada.
6. It has fewer loan words and is less influenced by neighboring languages than any other variant except Agta.
7. It has been used for decades to represent Rinconada as a whole at the local and national level.
8. It has the most number of speakers inside and outside the Rinconada area.
9. There's no or little variation in accent among speakers. Whether a person resides in the northeasternmost part of Iriga bordering Bikol-Partido speakers or in the southernmost part of Matacon, Polangui bordering West Miraya speakers or in East Sta. Justina, Buhi bordering Buhinon speakers, all use the same accent with centralized intonation.
- Even with the usage of Iriga variant (highland dialect) as the Rinconada standard (both in spelling and pronunciation), all other variants remain official in their respective municipalities. The standard spelling must be observed in all written forms but can be pronounced differently depending on the accent of the speakers.
e.g. "lawəd" (midnight) can be pronounced as "lawod, lawəd or lawud" by speakers but MUST be written officially as "lawəd" across variants.
The language is commonly called as Rinconada but officially called as Rinconada Bikol (de jure) and not Iriga Bikol, Irigueño, Baaoeño or Bikol Nabua.
Angry Speech Register
The angry register is unique to Bicol languages as it cannot be found in other Austronesian Languages inside and outside the Philippines. It is generally used only among same-age speakers or by older speakers to younger listeners, as usage by younger speakers in addressing their elders would constitute great disrespect. On occasion, the angry register is used in sarcasm or humor, but the majority of its usage is in anger.
Rinconada Bikol has contributed much to this unique feature of spoken languages of Bicolanos.
|Normal Register||Angry Register
|eat||kaən||ablô / gətək||ablô / gotok|
|drink||inom||til-ab / lablab||til-ab / lablab|
|hungry||aləp||gəsləp / gəlsək||guslop / gulsok|
|woman||babayī||babaknit / siknit||babaknit / siknit|
|old||guraŋ||gusnab / gusgos||gusnab / gusgos|
Inigin or "baby talk"
Inigin is a group of selected words for babies and newly born. It is being used by parents to communicate with their babies easily and to train them how to talk, hence, an introductory language. It is often described as language for the babies and commonly called as "baby talk". Words are limited to two syllables and features basic command. Several letters are absent such as "r, g, s, j, and h".
|Normal words||Inigin words||English equivalent|
|wāwâ||kakâ||spit it out|
|ədâ na||nāna||no more|
Rinconada uses a variation of Latin alphabet modeled on the Tagalog alphabet. But unlike the modern Tagalog - Filipino, Rinconada retains and uses diacritics ('kul-it' in Rinconada Bikol, and 'kudlit' in Tagalog). This is to highlight the meaning of the words and to differentiate words with different meanings but the same spelling. In return, the diacritics provide Rinconada Bikol with a unique orthography among Philippine languages. Diacritics for this language are limited to the macron and circumflex which is unlike other languages, for example Vietnamese that has several. However, due to technical difficulties and a scarcity of resources, diacritics are sometimes not available. Thus, two Rinconada alphabets were created to meet the needs of the speakers: the NATIVE and the SIMPLIFIED. Both can be used at the same time depending on the situation, purpose and availability of resources.
Glottal Stop (rəgsad)
The Rinconada name for the letter which represents the glottal stop is "rəgsad". This can only be found in the native form of alphabet, and it is limited to final vowels or vowels at the end of a word. Rəgsad is represented by the circumflex ( ˆ ).
For examples of the rəgsad, consider the Rinconada words salâ (wrong) and turô (drop of water/fluid), often simply sala and turo in the simplified alphabet and in Filipino and English orthographies.
- With rəgsad and kul-it, the translation of the phrase I love you in Rinconada is "PAYABÂ KO IKĀ" (transliteration: love me you).
The Rinconada Native alphabet has 6 short vowels, 6 long vowels, and 17 consonants, a total of 29 letters. A long or stressed vowel is written with a macron (a diacritic placed above a vowel). This alphabet contains all sounds found in the native vocabulary of Rinconada. It also includes the velar nasal special character /ŋ/ that represents "NG" as one letter only.
|Majuscule Forms (also called uppercase or capital letters)|
|Minuscule Forms (also called lowercase or small letters)|
Example of a Filipino proverb written in the Rinconada native alphabet:
"A dirî tattaoŋ maglīlî sa pinaŋgalinan, dirî makaaābot sa paiiyānan." (Tagalog: Ang hindi marunong lumingon sa pinanggalingan ay hindi makararating sa paroroonan)
|J||tadjok||hit by a sharp pointed tool or thing|
|Ō||ōmol||a person who is not funny anymore|
|T||tagbâ||a way of harvesting with a use of bolo or knife|
- Exceptions to the rules of native alphabet are formal names like Juan Dela Cruz and placenames such as Laguna, Cebu and Manila. Those names must retain their official and simplified spelling instead of their native spellings Huwan Delā Krus, Lagūna, Sebū and Manīla. With the exception of names and places, all words in the native alphabet must be written with their respective spellings with their designated diacritics.
The Rinconada Simplified alphabet is just the same as the Philippine alphabet. It has 28 letters:
|Majuscule Forms (also called uppercase or capital letters)|
|Minuscule Forms (also called lowercase or small letters)|
The letters F, V and Z are included because they are native to other Philippine languages like Itawis and Ibanag. Letters C, Ñ, and Q are also included, but their usages are limited to foreign names, Filipinized words of foreign origins or loans, especially from Spanish, English and Arabic.
The simplified alphabet doesn't use diacritics like the macron 〈◌̄〉 for stressed and long vowels, the circumflex 〈◌̂〉 for glottal stop, or the letters for velar nasal 〈ŋ〉, schwa 〈ə〉, or velar fricative 〈ɣ〉, as they don't appear on a standard "qwerty" keyboard. The velar nasal 〈ŋ〉 is replaced by the digraph 〈ng〉, and the two latter sounds can be replaced by 〈o〉 and 〈h〉, 〈w〉, and 〈y〉 respectively. But even with the absence of diacritics in the modern and simplified alphabet, pronunciations in the spoken language are not altered. Moreover, the long vowel sound in a word should not be omitted. One good example of this is "bə̄ət" (kind) and "bəət" (want/like). The word bə̄ət in the native alphabet is written as bəət in the simplified alphabet making the two words the same in spelling albeit with different meanings. In this case, the pronunciation of the words depends on their place and usage in a sentence. To avoid confusion and aid in ease of reading, it is strongly recommended to use the native alphabet in writing Rinconada Bikol.
Numbers and words (in native alphabet) are as follow:
There are no written records to indicate that Rinconada has native words for two-digit numbers (11 - 99). On the other hand, there is also no proof that the language has no indigenous words for those numbers. It is intriguing that Rinconada has native words for three-digit numbers (e.g. "sanggatos" for 100) but not for two digit numbers. Utilization and adaptation of foreign words via 333 years of Spanish colonization could be a reason why the native terminologies may not have been passed to the new generations. But a long established language needs a complete numbering system in words. Therefore, the reconstruction of words for 11-99 is necessary but needs to follow and retain the indigenous or original structural form of Rinconada's orthography.
The number words of 1 to 10 and 100 are all native Rinconada while the numbers 11 to 99 are all reconstructed. However, as earlier mentioned, the reconstructed numbers must be based on the original structure. Sampōlô (number ten) or sampu in Filipino is the only two-digit number that has a native word with a perfect indigenous structural form. The evolution of the word "sampōlô" from "əsadnapōlô" follows the orthography of Rinconada and developed naturally over the years. Being said, it is imperative that all reconstructed numbers must follow the same format of number 10.
The word sampōlô is derived from a portmanteau of the words əsad + na + pōlô (əsadnapōlô) which is the based tenth of one. In the evolution of this number, the schwa letter 〈ə〉 of 〈əsadnapōlô〉 became silent and so the word became "sadnapōlô". Same with other Philippine languages, /na/ is converted into /ŋ/, replaces the last consonant letter of the first word (which is /d/) and become the connector to the second word (which is pōlô) - thus, the letter /d/ is omitted and the word became "saŋ". The connector /ŋ/ becomes /m/ naturally if the next letter is /p/ or /b/ (which is also the case in other Philippine languages). So then, the word became sampōlô.
Structure of sampōlô (10):
1. əsad + na + pōlô = əsadnapōlô
2. əsadnapōlô – /ə/ = sadnapōlô
3. sadnapōlô – /d/ = sanapōlô
4. /na/ replaced by /ŋ/ = saŋpōlô
5. /ŋ/ replaced by /m/ before /p/ = sampōlô.
From sampōlô, all two-digit numbers were given a name that was copied from it. The number 40 (pampōlô) and 60 (nəmpōlô) follow the same exact format of sampōlô. The exception to the naming system of numbers is the number zero (0). Though zero (0) is single digit, there is no native word for it. Since sampōlô (10) is a combination of 1 and 0, the word pōlô was taken out from it to represent zero (0) rather than using "sīro" or "sēro". As a result, Rinconada has a complete basic set of numbers without using foreign words.
The number referenced in Php 356,817,142,590 can be translated into Rinconada Bikol as:
"Toloŋgatos limamnəm na bilyon, waloŋgatos sampitoŋ milyon, saŋgatos pamdarwaŋ rībo ag limaŋgatos yampōloŋ pīso."
In ENGLISH language it is:
"Three hundred fifty six billion, eight hundred seventeen million, one-hundred forty two thousand and five hundred ninety pesos."
In FILIPINO language it is:
"Tatlong daan limampu't anim na bilyon, walong daan at labing pitong milyon, sandaan at apatnapu't dalawang libo at limang raan siyamnapung piso."
- Rinconada numbers in words are very simple in structure. Translations are shorter than both Filipino and English languages.
|PAN, circa 4000 BC||*isa||*DuSa||*telu||*Sepat||*lima||*enem||*pitu||*walu||*Siwa||*puluq|
|Māori||tahi||rua||toru||whā||rima||ono||whitu||waru||iwa||tekau (archaic: ngahuru)|
|Marquesan||e tahi||e 'ua||e to'u||e fa||e 'ima||e ono||e fitu||e va'u||e iva||'onohu'u|
Although properly considered separate languages, speakers of Rinconada Bikol or Rinconada can communicate with Albay Bikol speakers with ease and without code switching. A student from Ligao City (West Miraya speaker) studying in a university in Iriga City can understand Rinconada (any variant) and can be understood by Rinconada speakers as well. The same thing will happen if a local tourist from Rinconada visits the Cagsawa Ruins in Albay or visits Donsol, Sorsogon (East Miraya speaker) for the annual whale shark sightings. The difference between Rinconada and Albay Bikol (both are included in Inland Bikol group) is comparable to German and Yiddish or Portuguese and Galician, while the differences between variants are comparable to those between English US, English British and English Australian. The mutual intelligibility of Rinconada and Albay Bikol is 80% to 85%, while intelligibility between variants is 95% to 98%.
Rinconada Bikol having hundreds of thousands of speakers, is not among the recognized regional languages in the Philippines. There is no publication of local government of Camarines Sur written in this language and not a single local radio station in the province utilizes it as a medium of communication and broadcast. Rinconada speakers are linguistically marginalized by the dominant Coastal Bikol (Bikol Naga-Legazpi) speakers.
Some advocates are planning to submit a proposal for a Rinconada Bikol Language festival for survival and preservation of this language.
Due to the well-known mobility tendency of Rinconada speakers to move freely inside and outside the Bicol Region, the language earned the moniker: PASĀDI PASAN, PASĪNI PASĪTON LANGUAGE. Translated literally, this means the – will go here will go there, will go here will go there language.
- Iriga variant
Nora Aunor (Multi-awarded International Filipina actress, singer, & producer)
Mila Ocampo (Filipina actress (mother of Snooky Serna), first Miss Philippines Press Photography)
Jaime Fabregas (Filipino veteran actor)
Rez Cortez (Filipino actor)
Eddie Ilarde (former assemblyman, senator and congressman of the Philippines)
Emilia Boncodin (former secretary of the Philippine Department of Budget and Management)
Leila De Lima (secretary of Philippine Department of Justice)
Efren Orbon (Major General; the former commanding general of the 2nd Infantry Division, Philippine Army)
Raul Nagrampa (Philippine NPO Deputy Director)
Tshomlee Go (Taekwando Jin, Olympian; Taekwando World Cup Championship Silver medalist; 2005 SEA Games Gold medalist)
Ruben F. Ciron (Director General of the Civil Aviation Authority of the Philippines)
Dominic Almelor (ABS-CBN reporter)
Dianne Necio (Top 15 Miss International 2011)
Angeline Tucio (1st Runner-up Mutya ng Pilipinas 2003)
- Bato variant
Venus Raj (Miss Universe 2010 4th runner-up)
- Baao variant
- Bula-Pili variant
Jericho Rosales (Filipino Actor, Model and Band Vocalist)
Rinconada is spoken by majority in Bula, Baao, Nabua, Balatan, Iriga City and Bato in Camarines Sur (politically the 5th district of Camarines Sur province except the municipality of Buhi, where the majority speaks Buhinon). The language is dominant and the lingua franca in the southern half of the provincial capital town of Pili, the west barangays of Ocampo, and the far west barangays of Buhi; it can also be heard in neighboring places such as the northern barangays of Polangui and Libon in Albay.
|Baao, Cam. Sur||54,971||100%|
|Balatan, Cam. Sur||28,699||100% (25% of the population is bilingual with Coastal Bikol)|
|Bato, Cam. Sur||48,306||100%|
|Buhi, Cam. Sur||24,603||1/3 of the population|
|Bula, Cam. Sur||68,011||100%|
|Nabua, Cam. Sur||80,111||100%|
|Pili, Cam. Sur||41,153||(half of the population)|
|Polangui, Albay||27,435||(1/3 of the population)|
Based from the population of towns and city with a concentration of Rinconada Bikol speakers, the total number is 479,208 or almost half a million. This number is based from the population of the fifth district of Camarines Sur (Rinconada) and neighboring towns of Polangui and Pili, in which, Rinconada Bikol is their de facto daily language. Moreover, the total number does not include speakers outside Rinconada area. Some linguists place the native speaker population at 600,000 (estimate) because there are many speakers of this language outside the region who left in search for better job opportunities. The population that consider Rinconada Bikol as their second language are believed to number 50,000.
|Rinconada Bikol language test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator|