Río de la Plata

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Coordinates: 35°40′S 55°47′W / 35.667°S 55.783°W / -35.667; -55.783
Río de la Plata
River Plate, La Plata River
River
Rio de la Plata BA 2.JPG
NASA photo of the Río de la Plata looking from northwest to southeast. Buenos Aires is visible on the right side near the Paraná River delta. River sediments turn the water brown to the vicinity of Montevideo, visible on the left coast.
Name origin: Spanish, "river of silver"
Countries Argentina, Uruguay
Tributaries
 - left Uruguay River, San Juan River, Santa Lucía River
 - right Paraná River, Luján River, Salado River
Cities Buenos Aires, Montevideo, San Fernando, San Isidro, Vicente López, Avellaneda, Hudson, Punta Lara, Atalaya, San Clemente del Tuyú, Ciudad del Plata, Ciudad de la Costa, Colonia del Sacramento, Costa de Oro, Juan Lacaze, Piriápolis
Source confluence of Paraná and Uruguay Rivers
 - elevation 0 m (0 ft)
 - coordinates 34°0′5″S 58°23′37″W / 34.00139°S 58.39361°W / -34.00139; -58.39361 [1]
Mouth Atlantic Ocean
 - location Argentine Sea, Argentina & Uruguay
 - elevation 0 m (0 ft)
 - coordinates 35°40′S 55°47′W / 35.667°S 55.783°W / -35.667; -55.783 [2]
Length 290 km (180 mi) [3] 4,876 km including the Paraná
Width 220 km (137 mi) [4]
Basin 4,144,000 km2 (1,600,000 sq mi) [3]
Discharge for mouth
 - average 22,000 m3/s (777,000 cu ft/s) [3]
Map of the La Plata Basin, showing the Río de la Plata at the mouths of the Paraná and Uruguay rivers, near Buenos Aires.
Map of the Río de la Plata, showing cities in Argentina and Uruguay.

The Río de la Plata (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈri.o ðe la ˈplata], River of Silver) — usually rendered River Plate in British English and the Commonwealth, and occasionally rendered [La] Plata River in other English-speaking countries — is the estuary formed by the confluence of the Uruguay River and the Paraná River on the border between Argentina and Uruguay. It is a funnel-shaped indentation on the southeastern coastline of South America, about 290 kilometres (180 mi) long.

The Río de la Plata widens from about 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) at the inner part to about 220 kilometres (140 mi) at its mouth.[4] It forms part of the border between Argentina and Uruguay, with the major ports and capital cities of Buenos Aires and Montevideo on its western and northern shores, respectively. The coasts of the Río de la Plata are the most densely populated areas of Argentina and Uruguay.[3]

Geography[edit]

Buenos Aires sits along the Río de la Plata.

Some geographers consider the Río de la Plata a gulf or marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean, while others consider it a river.[3] For those who regard it to be a river it is the widest in the world, with a maximum width of about 220 kilometres (140 mi) and a total surface area of about 35,000 square kilometres (14,000 sq mi).[3]

The Río de la Plata behaves as an estuary in which freshwater and seawater mix. Its freshwater comes from the Paraná River, one of the world's longest, and its main tributary, the Paraguay River, as well as the Uruguay River and other smaller streams. Currents in the Río de la Plata are controlled by tides reaching to its source and beyond, into the Uruguay and Paraná rivers.[4] Both rivers are tidally influenced for about 190 kilometres (120 mi).[3] The tidal ranges in the Río de la Plata are small, but its large width allows for a tidal prism important enough to dominate the flow regime despite the huge discharge received by the tributary rivers. The rivers' discharge is strong enough to prevent salt water from penetrating the inner Río de la Plata.[5]

A submerged shoal, the Barra del Indio, acts as a barrier, dividing the Río de la Plata into an inner freshwater riverine area and an outer brackish estuarine area.[6] The shoal is located approximately between Montevideo and Punta Piedras (the northwest end of Samborombón Bay). It is the freshwater of the inner area that causes many to describe the Río de la Plata as a river.[4] The depth of the inner fluvial zone is between about 1 to 5 metres (3.3 to 16.4 ft). It is about 180 kilometres (110 mi) long and up to 80 kilometres (50 mi) wide. The depth of the outer estuary zone increases from 5 to 25 metres (16 to 82 ft).[6]

The Río de la Plata is a salt wedge estuary. Saltwater, being denser than freshwater, penetrates into the estuary in a layer below the freshwater, which floats on the surface. Salinity fronts, or haloclines, form at the bottom and on the surface, where fresh and brackish waters meet. The salinity fronts are also pycnoclines due to the water density discontinuities. They play an important role in the reproductive processes of fish species.[6]

Extent[edit]

The International Hydrographic Organization defines the eastern extent of the Río de la Plata as "A line joining Punta del Este, Uruguay (34°58.5′S 54°57.5′W / 34.9750°S 54.9583°W / -34.9750; -54.9583) and Cabo San Antonio, Argentina (36°18′S 56°46′W / 36.300°S 56.767°W / -36.300; -56.767)".[2]

Drainage basin[edit]

Satellite image of the Paraná and Uruguay rivers emptying into the Río de la Plata. Due to the relatively calm surface of the estuary and the angle of the Sun relative to the satellite, the current of the river flowing out into the Atlantic is visible.

The Río de la Plata basin is the second largest drainage basin in South America. At a size of about 4,144,000 square kilometres (1,600,000 sq mi), the basin is about one fourth of the continent's surface.[3] It includes areas of southeastern Bolivia, southern and central Brazil, the entire nation of Paraguay, most of Uruguay, and northern Argentina. The main rivers of the La Plata basin are the Paraná, one of the longest in the world, and its main tributary, the Paraguay River, and the Uruguay River.[6]

The Paraná River's main tributaries include the Paranaíba River, Grande River, Corumbá River, Tietê River, Paranapanema River, Iguazu River, Negro River, Carcarañá River, Gualeguay River, and the Salado River. The Paraná River ends in the large Paraná Delta.

The Paraguay's main tributaries include the Jauru River, Cuiabá River, Taquari River, Nabileque River, Curiche Grande River, Apa River, Pilcomayo River, and the Bermejo River. The Paraguay River flows through the Pantanal wetland.

The Uruguay's main tributaries include the Pelotas River, Canoas River, Peperiguaçu River, Ibicuí River, Quaraí River, and the Río Negro.

The rivers of the La Plata Basin carry an estimated 57,000,000 cubic metres (2.0×109 cu ft) of silt into the Río de la Plata each year, where the muddy waters are stirred up by winds and tides. The shipping route from the Atlantic to Buenos Aires is kept open by constant dredging.

History[edit]

Discovery of the Río de la Plata by Juan Díaz de Solís. He would be attacked and killed by Charrúas later.

The Río de la Plata was first explored by the Portuguese in 1512-1513.[7][8] The Spanish first explored it in 1516, when the navigator Juan Díaz de Solís traversed it during his search for a passage between the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans, naming it the Mar Dulce, or fresh water sea.[3] The Portuguese navigator Ferdinand Magellan briefly explored the estuary in 1520 before his expedition continued its circumnavigation,[3] and in 1521 Cristóvão Jacques also explored the Plate River estuary and ascended for the first time the Parana River, entering it for about 23 leagues (around 140 km), to near the present city of Rosario.[9]

Sebastian Cabot made a detailed study of the area and renamed it Río de la Plata. He explored the Paraná and Uruguay rivers between 1526 and 1529. He ascended the Paraná as far as the present-day city of Asunción, and also explored up the Paraguay River. Trading with the Guaraní near today's Asunción, Cabot acquired silver trinkets, and these objects gave rise to the name Río de la Plata, "river of silver".[3]

The area was visited by Francis Drake's fleet in early 1578, in the early stages of his circumnavigation.[10]

The first European colony was the city of Buenos Aires, founded by Pedro de Mendoza on 2 February 1536. However, it was quickly abandoned. It was refounded by Juan de Garay on 11 June 1580. The failure to establish a settlement on the estuary led to explorations upriver and the founding of Asunción in 1537.[3]

During the colonial era the Río de la Plata was largely neglected by the Spanish Empire until the 1760s, when Portugal and Britain threatened to expand into the estuary.[3] The Spanish Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata was created in 1776. In 1806 and 1807 the river was the scene of an important British invasion that aimed to occupy the area.

Conflict in the region intensified after the independence of the former Spanish and Portuguese colonies in the first quarter of the 19th century. Interests in the territories and the navigation rights over the Platine region played a major role in many armed conflicts throughout the century, including the Argentine civil wars, the Cisplatine and Platine wars, and the Paraguayan War.[3] The river was blockaded by extra-regional powers 1838–1840 and 1845–1850.

Battle of the River Plate[edit]

In the first naval battle in the Second World War the German pocket battleship Admiral Graf Spee was engaged by the Royal Navy (RN) cruisers, HMS Exeter, Ajax and Achilles[11] off the estuary of the River Plate. The German ship retired up the estuary with a crippled fuel system and put into port at Montevideo. A few days later, rather than fight outgunned, she was scuttled in the estuary.

Etymology[edit]

The English name "River Plate" is not, as sometimes thought, a mistranslation, as "plate" was used extensively as a noun for "silver" or "gold" from the 12th century onwards, especially in Early Modern English[12] and the estuary has been known as the River Plate or Plate River in English since at least the time of Francis Drake.[13] A modern translation of the Spanish Río de la Plata is "Silver River", referring not to color but to the riches of the fabled Sierra de la Plata thought to lie upstream.

The English version of the name served as an inspiration for one of Argentina's most important football clubs, Club Atlético River Plate.

Fauna[edit]

The Río de la Plata is a habitat for the Loggerhead Sea Turtle, Green Sea Turtle, Leatherback Sea Turtle, the rare La Plata Dolphin, and many species of fish.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Río Paraná Guazú at GEOnet Names Server (main distributary of the Río Paraná)
  2. ^ a b "Limits of Oceans and Seas, 3rd edition". International Hydrographic Organization. 1953. Retrieved 7 February 2010. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "Río de la Plata". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 11 August 2010. 
  4. ^ a b c d Fossati, Monica; Ismael Piedra-Cueva. "Salinity Simulations of the Rio de la Plata". International Conference on Estuaries and Coasts. Retrieved 11 August 2010. 
  5. ^ Cabreira, A.G.; Madirolas, A.; Alvarez Colombo, G.; Acha, E.M.; Mianzan, H.W. (2006). "Acoustic study of the Río de la Plata estuarine front". ICES Journal of Marine Science 63 (9): 1718–1725. doi:10.1016/j.icesjms.2006.04.026. ISSN 1095-9289. Retrieved 11 August 2010. 
  6. ^ a b c d Seeliger, Ulrich; Kjerfve, Björn (2001). Coastal Marine Ecosystems of Latin America. Springer. pp. 185–204. ISBN 978-3-540-67228-9. 
  7. ^ Viana 1994, p. 254.
  8. ^ Bethell 1987, p. 64.
  9. ^ John/Silva, Harold/Maria Beatriz Nizza da (1992). Nova História da Expansão Portuguesa (direcção de Joel Serrão e A. H. de Oliveira Marques)- O Império Luso-brasileiro (1500-1620), vol. VI. Lisboa: Editorial Presença. p. pp. 114-170. 
  10. ^ Kelsey, Harry (2000). Sir Francis Drake: The Queen's Pirate. Yale University Press. pp. 100–102. ISBN 978-0-300-08463-4. 
  11. ^ (The Achilles was part of the New Zealand Division
  12. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition, online version.
  13. ^ Sir Francis Drake’s Famous Voyage Round the World; A Narrative by Francis Pretty, one of Drake's Gentlemen at Arms

Bibliography[edit]

  • Mulhall, Michael George, and Edward T. Mulhall. Handbook of the River Plate: Comprising Buenos Ayres, the Upper Provinces, Banda Oriental, Paraguay (2 vol. 1869) online
  • Bethell, Leslie (1987). Colonial Brazil. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-34127-2. 
  • Viana, Hélio (1994). História do Brasil: período colonial, monarquia e república (in Portuguese) (15 ed.). São Paulo: Melhoramentos. ISBN 978-85-06-01999-3. 
  • Piola, A. R., R. P. Matano, E. D. Palma, and E. D. Campos (2005): "The influence of the Plata River discharge on the western South Atlantic shelf". Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 32, L01603, doi:10.1029/2004GL021638.
  • Real, Walter. España en el Río de la Plata: Descubrimiento y Poblamientos (1516–1588). Montevideo: Club Español. 2001. ISBN 9974-39-317-5.
  • Simionato, Claudia G., Vera, Carolina S., Siegismund, Frank (2005). "Surface Wind Variability on Seasonal and Interannual Scales Over Río de la Plata Area" Journal of Coastal Research. 21 (4): 770-783. Abstract online

External links[edit]