|Duke of Burgundy
The Riodinidae (or metalmarks) are a family of butterflies. The common name "metalmarks" refers to the small metallic-looking spots commonly found on their wings. There are approximately 1,000 species of metalmark butterflies in the world. Although mostly neotropical in distribution, the family is represented both in the Nearctic and the Old World.
Like the lycaenids, the males of this family have reduced forelegs while the females have full-sized, fully functional forelegs. The foreleg of males is often reduced and has a uniquely shaped first segment (the coxa) which extends beyond its joint with the second segment, rather than meeting it flush. They have a unique venation on the hindwing: the costa of the hind wing is thickened out to the humeral angle and the humeral vein is short.
Taxonomy and systematics
Riodinidae is currently treated as a distinct family within the superfamily Papilionoidea, but in the past they were held to be the subfamily Riodininae of the Lycaenidae. Earlier, they were considered to be part of the now defunct family Erycinidae, whose species are divided between this family and the subfamily Libytheinae.
The family Riodinidae consists of three subfamilies. They are:
- Euselasiinae – a handful of genera
- Nemeobiinae – sometimes treated as a tribe, Nemeobiini, but which of the remaining two subfamilies it would belongs is uncertain
- Riodininae – some dozens of genera
Genera of uncertain position
- Hamearis – Duke of Burgundy (Zemerini or distinct subfamily Hamearinae?)
- Taxila – Orange Harlequin
- Tribe Abisarini
- Tribe Nemeobiini
- Tribe Zemerini
The eggs vary in shape but often appear round and flattened. The caterpillars are usually hairy, plump, and are the common overwintering stage. Pupae are hairy and attached with silk to either the host plant or to ground debris or leaf litter. There is no cocoon.
Several genera of Riodinidae have evolved intimate associations with ants, and their larvae are tended and defended by ant associates. This also is the case with several linages of Lycaenidae and contributed to arguments for the uniting the two families. It is now recognized that myrmecophily arose several times among Riodinidae and Lycaenidae clades.
The larvae feed on plants of the families Araceae, Asteraceae, Bromeliaceae, Bombacaceae, Cecropiaceae, Clusiaceae, Dilleniaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Lecythidaceae, Loranthaceae, Malpighiaceae, Marantaceae, Melastomataceae, Myrtaceae, Orchidaceae, Rubiaceae, Sapindaceae, Zingiberaceae as well as bryophytes and lichens.
- Borror et al. (1989)
- Hall, J.P.W. (2004b)
- See Savela (2007) for references.
- DeVries (2001)
- Borror, Donald J.; Triplehorn, Charles A. & Johnson, Norman F. (1989): An introduction to the study of insects (6th ed.). Philadelphia: Saunders College Pub. ISBN 0-03-025397-7.
- DeVries, P.J. (2001): [Riodinidae]. In Levin, S.A. (ed.): Encyclopaedia of Biodiversity. Academic Press.
- Hall, J.P.W. (2004b): Metalmark Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae), pp. 1383–1386. In J.L. Capinera (ed.) Encyclopedia of Entomology, Vol. 2. (PDF)
- Savela, Markku (2007): Markku Savela's Lepidoptera and some other life forms: Riodinidae. Version of 2007-AUG-07. Retrieved 2007-SEP-09.
- Glassberg, Jeffrey Butterflies through Binoculars, The West (2001)
- Guppy, Crispin S. and Shepard, Jon H. Butterflies of British Columbia (2001)
- James, David G. and Nunnallee, David Life Histories of Cascadia Butterflies (2011)
- Pelham, Jonathan Catalogue of the Butterflies of the United States and Canada (2008)
- Pyle, Robert Michael The Butterflies of Cascadia (2002)
- Media related to Riodinidae at Wikimedia Commons
- TOL - Implied clade inks to species lists.
- TOL Images 3 pages.
- LEPINDEX Taxonomy project of Natural History Museum, London
- Barcode of Life Includes images.
- Idaho Museum of Natural History
- Calephelis virginiensis, little metalmark on the UF / IFAS Featured Creatures Web site
- Mariposas mexicana Excellent high resolution images of Mexican Riodinidae
- Flickr Riodinidae
- Neotropical Butterflies Metalmark Gallery
- Butterflies of America Images of type specimens
- Butterflies and Moths of North America