Rituparno Ghosh

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Rituparno Ghosh
Rituparno.jpg
Rituparno Ghosh at MAMI festival
Born (1963-08-31)31 August 1963
Kolkata, West Bengal, India
Died 30 May 2013(2013-05-30) (aged 49)
Kolkata, West Bengal, India
Other names Ritu
Occupation Film director
Years active 1992–2013
Notable work(s) Unishe April
Dahan
Raincoat
The Last Lear

Rituparno Ghosh (31 August 1963 – 30 May 2013) was an Indian Bengali film director.[1] After pursuing a degree in economics he started his career as a creative artist at an advertising agency. In 1992, his debut film Hirer Angti released. In 1994 his next film Unishe April released which won National Film Award for Best Feature Film.

Ghosh was a self-professed Satyajit Ray fan and inspired other filmmakers like Mithaq Kazimi who adapted Ghosh's film Raincoat in English.[2] In his career spanning almost two decades he won 12 national and many international awards.[3][4] Ghosh died on 30 May 2013 in Kolkata after a heart attack.[5]

His unreleased Bengali movie named Taak Jhaank was honoured and released on the 19th Kolkata International Film Festival.[6]

Personal life[edit]

Rituparno Ghosh was born in a Bengali Hindu family on 31 August 1963 in Kolkata. His father, Sunil Ghosh, was a documentary film maker and painter.[7] He completed his schooling at South Point High School, and earned a degree in economics from Jadavpur University, Kolkata.[8]

Ghosh was one of the very few openly homosexual people in Indian cinema.[9] He was considered an icon of the LGBT community of India.[10][11] He explored a transgender lifestyle during the last several years of his life.

Advertising[edit]

Before his career in film, Rituparno Ghosh worked at the Response India advertising agency and became known as an especially effective copywriter in Kolkata. He was particularly noted for composing succinct, appealing one-liners and slogans for ad campaigns in Bengali during the 1980s. At the time, the trend in Kolkata was to translate all-India advertisement campaigns originally composed in English and Hindi into Bengali. Ghosh won recognition for his ability to initiate campaigns in Bengali. Among his noted ad campaigns were 'Sharad Samman' and 'Bongo Jiboner Ango' for the antiseptic ointment, Boroline, and others for Frooti, the largest-selling mango drink in India. Some commentators noted that his power to appeal to consumers through ad campaigns helped make his films appealing to wider audiences, particularly to middle class Bengalis.[12][13] In 1990, Rituparno got his first break in documentary film when his own agency, Tele-Response, a member of the Response family of companies, was commissioned to make a documentary on Vande Mataram for Doordarshan.

Film career[edit]

Direction[edit]

1992–2003[edit]

Rituparno Ghosh (left) with Subhash Ghai (right) and Debojyoti Mishra (behind) at the audio release of Noukadubi

Ghosh made his directorial debut in feature film with Hirer Angti which was released in 1992, a family-friendly film[14] based on a novel written by Shirshendu Mukhopadhyay about inheritance and conjuring tricks, and starring Moon Moon Sen, Basanta Choudhury, and others[15]

His second film, 'Unishe April', starring Aparna Sen, Debashree Roy, Prosenjit Chatterjee and Dipankar Dey, with a soundtrack composed by Jyotishka Dasgupta, was released in 1994, and won two National Film Awards in 1995, including Best Feature Film. It portrayed the relationship of an award winning dancer and her emotionally abandoned daughter, who aspires to be a doctor.[16] This film received both critical acclaim and commercial success.[5] His next film, 'Dahan', released in 1997. won Ghosh the National Film Award for Best Screenplay, while Rituparna Sengupta and Indrani Halder shared the National Film Award for Best Actress in 1998 for their roles in it.[17] 'Dahan' was based on the true story of a woman who was molested on a street in Kolkata, and of another woman, a witness who came forward to bring legal action against the perpetrators, but became frustrated by the callousness of society, including the victim's family.[18]

'Bariwali', released in 2000, starring Kirron Kher, Rupa Ganguly and Chiranjeet Chakraborty, portrayed a lonely and withdrawn widow (Kirron Kher) who rents out her large house for a film production, and fantasizes about the charming and very much married director, who flirts with her but, predictably, disappoints her. Kher won National Film Award for Best Actress. In the 1999 film 'Asukh', Ghosh dealt with the relationship between a young film star and her father who must depend unwillingly on his daughter's earnings. The film won National Film Award for Best Feature Film in Bengali.[16]

Ghosh won the National Award for Best Direction for 'Utsab', released in 2000. The film dealt with the decadence of a large family whose members now live away from the ancestral home, and meet only during the traditional Durga puja held on the premises. The 2002 film 'Titli' was another narrative about a mother-daughter relationship—the teenage daughter has a crush on an older film star who, years ago, had an affair with the mother.[15][16]

The 2003 film 'Shubho Mahurat', a whodunit based on Agatha Christie's book, '\'The Mirror Crack'd from Side to Side', starred the veteran actresses Rakhee and Sharmila Tagore, alongside Nandita Das, in major roles. The same year, Ghosh released his film 'Chokher Bali', based on a novel written by Rabindranath Tagore, in which he worked with Bollywood actress Aishwarya Rai for the first time.[19]

2004–2013[edit]

In 2004, Ghosh's first Hindi film, 'Raincoat', an adaptation of the short story, The Gift of the Magi (1906), by O. Henry was released. In this film he worked with Aishwarya Rai again. The shooting of the film was completed in 17 days.[16] This film received National Film Award for Best Feature Film in Hindi award.[16]

Rituparno Ghosh with Amitabh Bachchan (right) at the set of The Last Lear

In 2005 the Bengali film, 'Antar Mahal' was released. The film was set in British India and revolved around a land-owning or zamindari family. Jackie Shroff played the Zamindar. Soha Ali Khan and Roopa Ganguly played the Zaminder's wives.[16]

Ghosh's 2007 film, 'The Last Lear', revolved around the life of a retired Shakespearean theatre actor, with Amitabh Bachchan in the lead role,[16] and with Preity Zinta and Arjun Rampal playing supporting roles.[20]

The 2008 film, 'Khela', was Manisha Koirala's debut film in Bengali cinema.[16] Later the same year, 'Shob Charitro Kalponik', starring Bipasha Basu and Prosenjit, was released, and won the National Award for Best Film in Bengali.

In 2009, Ghosh's film 'Abohoman', starring Jisshu Sengupta, Ananya Chatterjee, Dipankar Dey, and Mamata Shankar, was released, and won him the National film award for Best Director in Bengali for this film.[16]

Just before he died, he had finished production work on his last film, 'Satyanweshi', based on Bengali detective Byomkesh Bakshi.[8][21]

Acting career[edit]

Rituparno Ghosh made his first screen appearance in an Oriya film, 'Katha Deithilli Ma Ku', which was directed by Himanshu Parija and released in 2003.[22] In 2011 he acted in two Bengali films— 'Arekti Premer Golpo', directed by Kaushik Ganguly which dealt with gay relationships,[23] and Memories in March which was directed by Sanjoy Nag.

'Chitrangada' (2012) was Ghosh's last film to be released. Loosely based on Rabindranath Tagore's work 'Chitrangada',[16] this film received the special jury award at the 60th National Film Awards.[20]

Other activities[edit]

Television[edit]

Rituparno Ghosh hosted two celebrity chat shows, 'Ebong Rituporno' on ETV Bangla and 'Ghosh & Co.' on Star Jalsha. He was the scriptwriter of 'Gaaner Opare'.[24][25] An episode of 'Ghosh & Co.', in which he interviewed Mir Afsar Ali, famously led to some controversy about appearance, styling, and dress.[26]

Literary career[edit]

Rituparno Ghosh was the editor of the Bengali film magazine, 'Anandalok' from 1997 to 2004. He was also the editor of Robbar magazine of Sangbad Pratidin from 2006 till his death.

Death[edit]

Rituparno suffered from diabetes mellitus type 2 for ten years, and pancreatitis for five years.[14] He experienced insomnia and had been taking medication for it.[27] According to Dr Rajiv Seal of Fortis Hospitals, who had been his physician for almost two decades, Rituparno was also facing complications from hormone treatments after abdominoplasty and breast implants operations which he underwent for his role in Kaushik Ganguly's film, 'Arekti Premer Golpo', in which he played a transgendered filmmaker with a bisexual lover.[14]

Ghosh died at his Kolkata residence on 30 May 2013, following a massive heart attack. His attendants, Dileep and Bishnu, found him lying unconscious in bed. Nilanjana Sengupta, a neighbour, sent for Dr. Nirup Ray, who declared Ghosh dead.[28] Ghosh was 49 years old.[5]

Many Bengali film actors and directors went to Ghosh's residence to pay tribute. In the afternoon his body was taken to Nandan and kept outside the Nandan complex for some time to allow his fans to see him one last time. Thousands of people came to Nandan to pay homage.[14] Then his body was taken to Tollygunge Technician Studios, where West Bengal's Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee spoke of him in tribute.[29] Mamata Banerjee spent about 45 minutes with Ghosh's family and described Ghosh as a "rare talent".[14] From Tollygunge, Ghosh's body was taken to Siriti cremation ground where his funeral took place.[29] He was given gun salute by Kolkata Police before cremation.[30][31]

Reactions and tributes[edit]

Bengali film industry

Bengali actor Soumitra Chatterjee said "I cannot believe that Rituparno is no more. It is very difficult to accept this news. We lost a very promising film director at a very early age."[32] Konkona Sen Sharma, who acted in Ghosh's 'Titli' and 'Dosar', said that Ghosh's death was a great personal loss for her.[18] Actor Arindam Sil requested to observe the day as a day of national mourning.[28] Dev said he was speechless after getting the news.[28] Rituparna Sengupta described Ghosh as a creative genius who had enriched the Bengali film industry emotionally and culturally.[33]

Bollywood film industry

Amitabh Bachchan remembered Ghosh as the only director who had worked with every member of the Bachchan family. He tweeted, "Ghosh was a sensitive artistic minded gentle human being."[34] For actress Bipasha Basu it was heartbreaking news, difficult to believe.[28] Film director Shyam Benegal said, Ghosh's death was a "huge tragedy".[35] Soha Ali Khan described Ghosh as one in the vanguard of Bengali cinema who created a link between Satyajit Ray and a new school of Bengali filmmakers.[33] To Arjun Rampal, Ghosh was "a master of his craft" and a wonderful man.[33] Actress Kirron Kher remembered his childlike wonder and added, "In the film world, which is replete with ignorant people, Ritu was a very well-read man. He had a library of his own and would study religiously. His knowledge was unparalleled."[33]

Cinematic vision[edit]

Rituparno Ghosh was one of most acclaimed film directors of India, and was himself an admirer of Satyajit Ray. His films glorified womanhood and closely and sensitively portrayed women's lives, feelings and sufferings.[4][36] According to Bollywood actor Anupam Kher, Ghosh had wonderful understanding of the female psyche.[33] In his last films he addressed issues of homosexuality and gender.[4]

An article in the newspaper Live Mint categorised Ghosh's cinematic career in three phases: In his early films, he tried to portray Bengali middle-class lives, their aspirations and desires;[15] in the second phase, he mainly worked with Bollywood actors and made films in Hindi and English as well as Bengali;[15] in the third and the last phase his movies mainly dealt with sexuality.[15]

Rituparno Ghosh had deep interests in the classics and made multiple films of Rabindranath Tagore's works. According to film-maker Goutam Ghose[37]

Rituparno Ghosh was a researcher and admirer of Rabindranath Tagore (pictured).

His films, with their sensitive portrayal of human relationships, anguish, trauma and love in a fast-changing, post-liberalization India charmed audiences. His brilliant story-telling reflected contemporary society like never before. While his death creates a tremendous void that can never be filled, Rituparno's work blazed a trail that has paved the way for an entire generation of filmmakers who have dared to be different. It was Rituparno who gave them the courage.
... ...
He looked at ordinary middle-class relationships from an angle that had never been explored. For example, the mother-daughter relationship in 'Unishe April' was refreshing, yet realistic in a society that was going through churning.

Goutam Ghose also felt that Rituparno Ghosh was the best film director of his generation.[37] He directed and as well as acted in such films which tried to reject the concept that homosexual relationship is all about a physical relationship. He said in an interview in 2010— "There is much more to such relationships. Same-sex relationships, too, are extremely soulful, emotional and have the same pathos that any heterosexual relationship has."[24]

Bengali film director Mrinal Sen said that whenever he thought of direction, the name that came to mind was Rituparno Ghosh. According to Sen, Ghosh's contribution to Indian cinema will be remembered forever.[33] The independent film critic Saibal Chatterjee, in an article in The Hindu, described the way Ghosh mixed the literary traditions of Bengal with modern-day sensibility, thereby transcending the confines of region.[38] Chatterjee praised Ghosh for his brave and empathetic treatment of "alternative sexuality" as actor in Arekti Premer Golpo and Memories in March, and as director-actor in Chitrangada.[38]

Ghosh's exploration of Tagore's works[edit]

Ghosh was a researcher and admirer of Rabindranath Tagore. He made three films directly based on literary works of Rabindranath Tagore— Choker Bali (2003), Nokuadubi (2010) and Chitrangada (2012).[39] In the film Asukh (1999) Tagore played an invisible role.[40] In 2012, Ghosh made a documentary based on Tagore's autobiography, 'Jiban Smriti', for the Government of India Ministry of Culture.[41]

In an interview in August 2012, Ghosh spoke about Tagore— "What comes through is what a lonely man Tagore was – from childhood to old age. There is no one in his life to share even his success with him. It's the journey of a lonely traveller. What I haven't captured in the documentary is what a fun-loving, humorous man he could be. I show him as a profound thinker, a guru – but then this was perhaps necessary for an audience which is not at all familiar with Rabindranath."[40]

Filmography[edit]

Year Title Language Role Notes
Direction Screenplay Acting
1992 Hirer Angti Bengali Yes Yes Directorial debut, based on Shirshendu Mukhopadhyay's novel
1994 Unishe April Bengali Yes Yes National Film Award for Best Feature Film
National Film Award for Best ActressDebashree Roy
1997 Dahan Bengali Yes Yes National Film Award for Best Screenplay – Rituparno Ghosh
National Film Award for Best ActressIndrani Halder, Rituparna Sengupta
1999 Bariwali Bengali Yes Yes National Film Award for Best ActressKirron Kher
National Film Award for Best Supporting ActressSudipta Chakraborty
1999 Asukh Bengali Yes Yes National Film Award for Best Feature Film in Bengali
2000 Utsab Bengali Yes Yes National Film Award for Best Direction
2002 Titli Bengali Yes Yes
2003 Shubho Mahurat Bengali Yes Yes National Film Award for Best Supporting ActressRaakhee
National Film Award for Best Feature Film in Bengali
Chokher Bali Bengali Yes Yes National Film Award for Best Feature Film in Bengali
Raincoat Hindi Yes Yes National Film Award for Best Feature Film in Hindi
2005 Antarmahal Bengali Yes Yes
2006 Dosar Bengali Yes Yes National Film Awards – Special Jury AwardProsenjit Chatterjee
2007 The Last Lear English Yes Yes National Film Award for Best Feature Film in English
2008 Khela Bengali Yes Yes
Shob Charitro Kalponik Bengali Yes Yes National Film Award for Best Feature Film in Bengali
2010 Abohoman Bengali Yes Yes National Film Award for Best Direction- Rituparno Ghosh
National Film Award for Best Feature Film in Bengali
National Film Award for Best ActressAnanya Chatterjee
Noukadubi Bengali Yes Yes He dubbed for Amu Chatterjee
2011 Arekti Premer Golpo Bengali Yes Directed by Kaushik Ganguly, dealt with homosexual relationship
Memories in March English Yes Yes Directed by Sanjoy Nag
2012 Sunglass Hindi Yes Yes Released at the 19th Kolkata International Film Festival inauguration as a tribute to the legend Rituparno Ghosh
Chitrangada Bengali Yes Yes Yes National Film Awards – Special Jury Award
JEEVAN SMRITI : Selective Memories Bengali Yes Yes Yes Documentary on Rabindranath Tagore based on Tagore's autobiography, unreleased
2013 Satyanweshi Bengali Yes Yes Last film of Ghosh

Awards[edit]

Award Year Film Category Status
National Film Awards 1995 Unishe April National Film Award for Best Feature Film Won
1998 Dahan National Film Award for Best Screenplay Won
Asukh National Film Award for Best Feature Film in Bengali Won
2001 Utsab National Film Award for Best Direction Won
2003 Shubho Mahurat National Film Award for Best Feature Film in Bengali Won
2004 Chokher Bali National Film Award for Best Feature Film in Bengali Won
2005 Raincoat National Film Award for Best Feature Film in Hindi Won
2008 The Last Lear National Film Award for Best Feature Film in English Won
2009 Sob Charitro Kalponik National Film Award for Best Feature Film in Bengali Won
2010 Abohoman National Film Award for Best Direction Won
National Film Award for Best Feature Film in Bengali Won
2012 Chitrangada National Film Awards – Special Jury Award Won
Bombay International Film Festival 1999 Asukh FIPRESCI Prize (Special Mention) Won
2002 Titli FIPRESCI Prize (Jury Prize) Won
2003 Shubho Mahurat Best Indian film Nominated
Berlin International Film Festival 2000 Bariwali NETPAC Award Won
Kalakar Awards 1997 Unishe April 5th Kalakar Award for Best Director Won
2011 Arekti Premer Golpo 19th Kalakar Award for Best Actor Won
Tele Cine Awards 2011 Arekti Premer Golpo 11th Tele Cine Awards special award for Extraordinary Performance in an Exceptional Character Won
Pusan International Film Festival 1996 Unishe April New Currents Award Nominated
Locarno International Film Festival 2003 Chokher Bali Golden Leopard Nominated
2005 Antarmahal Golden Leopard Nominated
International Film Festival of Kerala 2005 Antarmahal Golden Crow Pheasant Nominated
Karlovy Vary International Film Festival 1998 Dahan Crystal Globe Nominated
2004 Raincoat Crystal Globe Nominated
Deauville Asian Film Festival 2010 Abohoman Best film— Lotus Nominated
Chicago International Film Festival 2003 Chokher Bali Gold Hugo Nominated

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Rituparno Ghosh: Indian film director dies age 49". The Guardian. 30 May 2013. Retrieved 30 May 2013. 
  2. ^ "Cinema Plus / Film Review : Mixed recipe lacks punch". The Hindu. 10 July 2009. Retrieved 4 June 2013. 
  3. ^ "Rituparno, tender as night: Raja Sen salutes the talent". Rediff. 30 May 2013. Retrieved 30 May 2013. 
  4. ^ a b c "Rituparno Ghosh, trailblazer of new wave Bengali cinema, dies". The Times of India. 30 May 2013. Retrieved 30 May 2013. 
  5. ^ a b c "Rituparno Ghosh, national award winning filmmaker, dies". The Times of India. 30 May 2013. Retrieved 30 May 2013. 
  6. ^ "Rituparno Ghosh's Taak Jhaank to open Kolkata Film fest : Home Right, News – India Today". Indiatoday.intoday.in. 21 October 2013. Retrieved 5 January 2014. 
  7. ^ "Rituparno Ghosh biography". Calcutta Web. Retrieved 30 May 2013. 
  8. ^ a b "Rituparno Ghosh: Bengal's brave, young director". NDTV. 30 May 2013. Retrieved 30 May 2013. 
  9. ^ Ghosh, Palash (30 May 2013). "Renowned Indian Filmmaker And Gay Icon Rituparno Ghosh Dies at 49". International Businesss Times. Retrieved 1 June 2013. 
  10. ^ "Rituparno Ghosh's passing away a great loss to Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual community: Onir". The Indian Express. 30 May 2013. Retrieved 1 June 2013. 
  11. ^ Moitra, Sumit (31 May 2013). "Rituparno Ghosh, an icon for LGBT community". DNA India. Retrieved 1 June 2013. 
  12. ^ "Abohomaner dake sara dite biday Rituparno-er". Anandabazar Patrika. 31 May 2013.  (Bengali)
  13. ^ "Rituparno Ghosh's jumpcut from fleeting ad films to meaningful cinema". The Times of India. 31 May 2013. Retrieved 31 May 2013. 
  14. ^ a b c d e "Shocked Kolkata bids a tearful adieu to filmmaker Rituparno Ghosh". The Times of India. 31 May 2013. Retrieved 31 May 2013. 
  15. ^ a b c d e "Rituparno Ghosh, a film-maker who pushed the envelope, dies at 49". Live Mint. 30 May 2013. Retrieved 30 May 2013. 
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Rituparno Ghosh's glorious cinematic journey". India Today. 30 May 2013. Retrieved 30 May 2013. 
  17. ^ "Rituparno Ghosh, National Award-winning filmmaker, dies". NDTV. 30 May 2013. Retrieved 30 May 2013. 
  18. ^ a b "Filmmaker Rituparno Ghosh passes away in Kolkata at 49". India Today. 30 May 2013. Retrieved 30 May 2013. 
  19. ^ "Variety acclaims Chokher Bali". Sify. 30 May 2013. Retrieved 30 May 2013. 
  20. ^ a b "Rituparno Ghosh: Trailblazer of new wave Bengali cinema". Daily News and Anlysis. 30 May 2013. Retrieved 30 May 2013. 
  21. ^ "Rituparno Ghosh wrapped up Satyanweshi shoot before death". First Post. 30 May 2013. Retrieved 30 May 2013. 
  22. ^ "Rituparno Ghosh’s first, an Oriya film". The Times of India. 6 November 2012. Retrieved 10 November 2012. 
  23. ^ "Arekti Premer Golpo (Bengali)". Outlook. Retrieved 30 May 2013. 
  24. ^ a b "Rituparno Ghosh – It's never gonna be the same again!". The Hindu Business Line. 30 May 2013. Retrieved 30 May 2013. 
  25. ^ "Ghosh & Co.". Kolkata Curry. Retrieved 10 November 2012. 
  26. ^ "I don't think I am doing anything illegal.". The Telegraph (Calcutta). Retrieved 30 May 2013. 
  27. ^ "Rituparno Ghosh: It was the heart that bled". The Times of India. 31 May 2013. Retrieved 31 May 2013. 
  28. ^ a b c d "Tollywood mourns loss of Rituparno Ghosh". The Times of India. 30 May 2013. Retrieved 30 May 2013. 
  29. ^ a b "Mamata reaches technician studios alongside Rituparno's cortege". First Post. 30 May 2013. Retrieved 30 May 2013. 
  30. ^ "Rituparno Ghosh cremated as Kolkata bids tearful goodbyeRituparno Ghosh cremated as Kolkata bids tearful goodbye". India Today. 31 May 2013. Retrieved 31 May 2013. 
  31. ^ "Rituparno Ghosh dies: Gun salute before cremation". NDTV. 31 May 2013. Retrieved 31 May 2013. 
  32. ^ "Renowned filmmaker Rituparno Ghosh dies". The Hindu. 30 May 2013. Retrieved 30 May 2013. 
  33. ^ a b c d e f "Memories of a Maverick Maker: Rituparno Ghosh". The Times of India. 31 May 2013. Retrieved 31 May 2013. 
  34. ^ "Amitabh Bachchan tweets in memory of Rituparno Ghosh". The Times of India. 31 May 2013. Retrieved 31 May 2013. 
  35. ^ "Rituparno Ghosh cremated with full state honours". NDTV. 31 May 2013. Retrieved 31 May 2013. 
  36. ^ Geeta Dharmarajan (1 January 2002). Katha Prize Stories – 11. Katha. pp. 278–. ISBN 978-81-87649-70-0. Retrieved 31 May 2013. 
  37. ^ a b "Rituparno Ghosh: A trailblazer for a new generation". The Times of India. 31 May 2013. Retrieved 31 May 2013. 
  38. ^ a b Chatterjee, Saibal (30 May 2013). "A gutsy filmmaker whose craft transcended the confines of region". The Hindu. Retrieved 3 June 2013. 
  39. ^ "Rituparno Ghosh's life in pics". Indian Express. 31 May 2013. Retrieved 31 May 2013. 
  40. ^ a b "Tagore's was a lonely journey, says Rituparno Ghosh". The Times of India. Retrieved 31 May 2013. 
  41. ^ "Rituparno's Rabindranath". The Telegraph (Calcutta). 24 July 2012. Retrieved 31 May 2013. 

External links[edit]