Trent Bridge, with Nottingham in the background
|Name origin: Trisantona|
|Country within the UK||England|
|Counties||Staffordshire, Derbyshire, Leicestershire, Nottinghamshire, Lincolnshire, Yorkshire|
|Cities||Stoke-on-Trent, Derby, Nottingham|
|Towns||Stone, Burton upon Trent, Newark-on-Trent, Gainsborough|
|- left||Blithe, Swarbourn, Dove, Derwent, Erewash, Leen, Greet, Idle, Torne|
|- right||Sow, Tame, Mease, Soar, Devon, Eau|
|- location||Biddulph Moor, Staffordshire, England|
|- elevation||275 m (902 ft)|
|- location||Trent Falls, Humber Estuary, Lincolnshire & Yorkshire, England|
|- elevation||0 m (0 ft)|
|Length||298 km (185 mi)|
|Basin||10,435 km2 (4,029 sq mi) |
|- average||84 m3/s (2,966 cu ft/s) |
|- max||1,018 m3/s (35,950 cu ft/s) [a]|
|- min||15 m3/s (530 cu ft/s) [b]|
|Discharge elsewhere (average)|
|- North Muskham||88 m3/s (3,108 cu ft/s)|
The drainage basin of the River Trent
|Wikimedia Commons: River Trent|
|Progression : River Trent — Humber — North Sea|
The River Trent is one of the major rivers of England. Its source is in Staffordshire on the southern edge of Biddulph Moor. It flows through the Midlands (forming a once significant boundary between the north and south of England) until it joins the River Ouse at Trent Falls to form the Humber Estuary, which empties into the North Sea below Hull and Immingham.
The Trent is unusual amongst English rivers in that it flows north (for the second half of its route), and in exhibiting a tidal bore, the "Trent Aegir". The area drained by the river includes most of the northern Midlands.
The name "Trent" comes from a Celtic word possibly meaning "strongly flooding". More specifically, the name may be a contraction of two Celtic words, tros ("over") and hynt ("way"). This may indeed indicate a river that is prone to flooding. However, a more likely explanation may be that it was considered to be a river that could be crossed principally by means of fords, i.e. the river flowed over major road routes. This may explain the presence of the Celtic element rid (c.f. Welsh rhyd, "ford") in various place names along the Trent, such as Hill Ridware, as well as the Old English‐derived ford. Another translation is given as "the trespasser", referring to the waters flooding over the land. According to Koch at the University of Wales, the name Trent derives from the Romano-British Trisantona, a Romano-British reflex of the combined Proto-Celtic elements *tri-sent(o)-on-ā- (through-path-AUG-F-) ‘great feminine thoroughfare’.
In the Pleistocene epoch (1.7 million years ago) the River Trent rose in the Welsh hills and flowed almost east from Nottingham through the present Vale of Belvoir to cut a gap through the limestone ridge at Ancaster and thence to the North Sea At the end of the Wolstonian Stage (c. 130,000 years ago) a mass of stagnant ice left in the Vale of Belvoir caused the river to divert north along the old Lincoln river, through the Lincoln gap. In a following glaciation (Devensian, 70,000 BC) the ice held back vast areas of water – called Glacial Lake Humber – in the current lower Trent basin. When this retreated, the Trent adopted its current course into the Humber.
Migration of course in historic times 
Unusually for an English river, the channel altered significantly in historic times, and has been described as being similar to the Mississippi in this respect, especially in its middle reaches, where there are a numerous old meanders and cut-off loops.:192 An abandoned channel at Repton is described on an old map as 'Old Trent Water'.:200 Further downstream at Hemington, archaeologists have found the remains of a medieval bridge across another abandoned channel. Researchers using aerial photographs have mapped many of these palaeochannel features, one well documented example, being the cut-off meander at Sawley. The river's propensity to change course is referred to in Shakespeare's play Henry IV - Part 1:
The Trent rises on the Staffordshire moorlands near the village of Biddulph Moor, from a number of sources including the Trent Head Well. It is then joined by other small streams to form the Head of Trent, which flows south, to the only reservoir along its course at Knypersley. Downstream of the reservoir it passes through Stoke on Trent and merges with the Lyme, Fowlea and other brooks that drain the 'six towns' of the Staffordshire Potteries to become the River Trent. On the southern fringes of Stoke, it passes through the landscaped parkland of Trentham Gardens.
The river then continues south through the market town of Stone, and after passing the village of Salt, it reaches Great Haywood, where it is spanned by the Elizabethan Essex Bridge near Shugborough Hall, at this point the River Sow joins it. The Trent now flows south-east past the town of Rugeley until it reaches Kings Bromley where it meets the Blithe. Following the confluence with the Swarbourn, it passes Alrewas and reaches Wychnor, where it is crossed by the A38 dual carriageway, which follows the route of the Roman Ryknild Street. The river turns north-east where it is joined by its largest tributary; the Tame, and immediately afterwards by the Mease; creating a larger river that now flows through a broad floodplain. The river continues north-east passing the village of Walton-on-Trent until it reaches the large town of Burton upon Trent. The river in Burton is crossed by a number of bridges including the ornate Victorian Ferry Bridge that links Stapenhill to the town. To the north-east of Burton the river is joined by the River Dove at Newton Solney and enters Derbyshire, before passing between the villages of Willington and Repton where it turns directly east to reach Swarkestone Bridge, King's Mill, Weston and Aston-on-Trent.
At Shardlow, where the Trent and Mersey Canal begins, the river also meets the Derwent at Derwent Mouth. Following this confluence, the river turns north-east and is joined by the Soar before reaching the outskirts of Nottingham, where it is joined by the River Erewash near the Attenborough nature reserve. As it enters the city, it passes the suburbs of Beeston, Clifton and Wilford; where it is joined by the Leen. On reaching West Bridgford it flows beneath Trent Bridge near the cricket ground of the same name, and beside Nottingham Forest football ground until it reaches Holme Sluices.
Downstream of Nottingham it passes Radcliffe on Trent, Stoke Bardolph and Burton Joyce before reaching Gunthorpe with its bridge, lock and weir. The river now flows north-east below the Toot and Trent Hills before reaching Hazelford Ferry, Fiskerton and Farndon. To the north of Farndon, beside the Staythorpe Power Station the river splits, with one arm passing Averham and Kelham, and the other arm, which is navigable, being joined by the Devon before passing through the market town of Newark-on-Trent and beneath the town's castle walls. The two arms recombine at Crankley Point beyond the town, where the river turns due north to pass North Muskham and Holme to reach Cromwell Weir, below which the Trent becomes tidal.
The now tidal river, meanders across a wide floodplain, at the edge of which are located riverside villages such as Carlton and Sutton on Trent, Besthorpe and Girton. After passing the site of High Marnham power station, it reaches the only toll bridge along its course at Dunham on Trent. Downstream of Dunham the river passes Church Laneham and reaches Torksey, where it meets the Foss Dyke navigation which connects the Trent to Lincoln and the River Witham. Further north at Littleborough is the site of the Roman town of Segelocum, where a Roman road once crossed the river.
It then reaches the town of Gainsborough with its own Trent Bridge. The river frontage in the town is lined with warehouses, that were once used when the town was an inland port, many of which have been renovated for modern use. Downstream of the town the villages are often named in pairs, reflecting the fact that they were once linked by a river ferry between the two settlements. These villages include West and East Stockwith, Owston and East Ferry and West and East Butterwick. At West Stockwith the Trent is joined by the River Idle. The last bridge over the river is at Keadby where it is joined both by the Stainforth and Keadby Canal, and also by the River Torne.
Downstream of Keadby the river progressively widens, passing Amcotts and Flixborough to reach Burton upon Stather and finally Trent Falls. At this point, between Alkborough and Faxfleet the river joins the Ouse to form the Humber which flows into the North Sea.
Nottingham seems to have been the ancient head of navigation until the Restoration, due partly to the difficult navigation of the Trent Bridge. Navigation was then extended to Wilden Ferry, near to the more recent Cavendish Bridge, as a result of the efforts of the Fosbrooke family of Shardlow.
Later, in 1699, Lord Paget, who owned coal mines and land in the area, obtained an Act of Parliament to extend navigation up to Fleetstones Bridge, Burton, despite opposition from the people of Nottingham. Lord Paget seems to have funded the work privately, building locks at King's Mill and Burton Mills and several cuts and basins. The Act gave him absolute control over the building of any wharfs and warehouses above Nottingham Bridge. Lord Paget leased the navigation and the wharf at Burton to George Hayne, while the wharf and warehouses at Wilden were leased by Leonard Fosbrooke, who held the ferry rights and was a business partner of Hayne. The two men refused to allow any cargo to be landed which was not carried in their own boats, and so created a monopoly.
In 1748, the merchants from Nottingham attempted to break this monopoly by landing goods on the banks and into carts, but Fosbrooke used his ferry rope to block the river, and then created a bridge by mooring boats across the channel, and employing men to defend them. Hayne subsequently scuppered a barge in King's Lock, and for the next eight years goods had to be transhipped around it. Despite a Chancery injunction against them, the two men continued with their action. Hayne's lease ran out in 1762, and Lord Paget's son, the Earl of Uxbridge, gave the new lease to the Burton Boat Company.
The Trent and Mersey Canal was authorised by Act of Parliament in 1766, and construction from Shardlow to Preston Brook, where it joined the Bridgewater Canal, was completed by 1777. The canal ran parallel to the upper river to Burton on Trent, where new wharfs and warehouses at Horninglow served the town, and the Burton Boat Company were unable to repair the damaged reputation of the river created by their predecessors. Eventually in 1805, they reached an agreement with Henshall & Co., the leading canal carriers, for the closure of the river above Wilden Ferry. Though the river is no doubt legally still navigable above Shardlow, it is probable that the agreement marks the end of the use of that stretch of the river as a commercial navigation.
The Lower River 
The first improvement of the lower river was at Newark, where the channel splits into two. The residents of the town wanted to increase the use of the branch nearest to them, and so an Act of Parliament was obtained in 1772 to authorise the work. Newark Navigation Commissioners were created, with powers to borrow money to fund the construction of two locks, and to charge tolls for boats using them. The work was completed by October 1773, and the separate tolls remained in force until 1783, when they were replaced by a 1 shilling (5p) toll whichever channel the boats used.
Users of the Trent and Mersey Canal, the Loughborough Canal and the Erewash Canal next demanded major improvements to the river down to Gainsborough, including new cuts, locks, dredging and a towing path suitable for horses. The Dadfords, who were engineers on the Trent and Mersey Canal, estimated the cost at £20,000, but the proposal was opposed by landowners and merchants on the river, while the Navigator, published in 1788, estimated that around 500 men who were employed to bow-haul boats would have lost their jobs. Agreement could not be reached, and so William Jessop was asked to re-assess the situation. He suggested that dredging, deepening, and restricting the width of the channel could make significant improvements to the navigable depth, although cuts would be required at Wilford, Nottingham bridge and Holme. This proposal formed the basis for an Act of Parliament obtained in 1783, which also allowed a horse towing path to be built. The work was completed by September 1787, and dividends of 5 per cent were paid on the capital in 1786 and 1787, rising to 7 per cent, the maximum allowed by the Act, after that. Jessop carried out a survey for a side cut and lock at Sawley in 1789, and it was built by 1793.
At the beginning of the 1790s, the Navigation faced calls for a bypass of the river at Nottingham, where the passage past Trent Bridge was dangerous, and the threat of a canal running parallel to the river, which was proposed by the Erewash and the Trent and Mersey Canal companies. In order to retain control of the whole river, they supported the inclusion of the Beeston Cut in the bill for the Nottingham Canal, which prevented the Erewash Canal company from getting permission to build it, and then had the proposal removed from the Nottingham Canal company's bill in return for their support of the main bill. The parallel canal was thwarted in May 1793, when they negotiated the withdrawal of the canal bill by proposing a thorough survey of the river which would lead to their own legislation being put before parliament. William Jessop carried out the survey, assisted by Robert Whitworth, and they published their report on 8 July 1793. The major proposals included a cut and lock at Cranfleet, where the River Soar joins the Trent, a cut, locks and weirs at Beeston, which would connect with the Nottingham Canal at Lenton, and a cut and lock at Holme Pierrepont. An Act of Parliament was obtained in 1794, and the existing proprietors subscribed the whole of the authorised capital of £13,000 (£1,190,000 as of 2013), themselves.
The aim of the improvements was to increase the minimum depth from 2 feet (0.6 m) to 3 feet (0.9 m). By early 1796, the Beeston cut was operational, with the Cranfleet cut following in 1797, and the Holme cut in 1800, with the whole works being finished by 1 September 1801. The cost exceeded the authorised capital by a large margin, with the extra being borrowed, but the company continued to pay a 7 per cent dividend on the original shares and on those created to finance the new work. In 1823 and again in 1831, the Newark Navigation Commissioners proposed improvements to the river, so that larger vessels could be accommodated, but the Trent Navigation Company were making a healthy profit, and did not see the need for such work.
The arrival of the railways resulted in significant change for the Company. Tolls were reduced to retain the traffic, wages were increased to retain the workforce, and they sought amalgamation with a railway company. The Nottingham and Gainsborough Railway offered £100 per share in 1845, but this was rejected. Tolls fell from £11,344 (£800,000 as of 2013), in 1839 to £3,111 (£210,000 as of 2013), in 1855. Many of the connecting waterways were bought by railway companies, and gradually fell into disrepair. In an attempt to improve the situation, the Company toyed with the idea of cable-hauled steam tugs, but instead purchased a conventional steam dredger and some steam tugs. The cost of improvements was too great for the old company, and so an Act of Parliament was obtained in 1884 to restructure the company and raise additional capital. Failure to raise much of the capital resulted in another Act being obtained in 1887, with similar aims and similar results. A third Act of 1892 reverted the name to the Trent Navigation Company, and this time, some improvements were carried out.
With traffic still between 350,00 and 400,000 tonnes per year, Frank Rayner became the engineer in 1896, and the company were persuaded that major work was necessary if the navigation was to survive. The engineer for the Manchester Ship Canal, Sir Edward Leader Williams, was commissioned to survey the river, while negotiations with the North Staffordshire Railway, who owned the Trent and Mersey Canal and had maintained its viability, ensured that some of the clauses from previous Acts of Parliament did not prevent progress. A plan to build six locks between Cromwell and Holme, and to dredge this section to ensure it was 60 feet (18 m) wide and 5 feet (1.5 m) deep was authorised by an Act of Parliament obtained in 1906. Raising finance was difficult, but some was subscribed by the chairman and vice-chairman, and construction of Cromwell Lock began in 1908. The Newark Navigation Commissioners financed improvements to Newark Town lock at the same time, and dredging of the channel was largely funded by selling the 400,000 tonnes of gravel removed from the river bed. At 188 by 30 feet (57 by 9.1 m), Cromwell lock could hold a tug and three barges, and was opened on 22 May 1911. The transport of petroleum provided a welcome increase to trade on the river, but little more work was carried out before the onset of the First World War.
Increased running costs after the First World War could not be met by increasing the tolls, as the company had no statutory powers to do so, and so suggested that the Ministry of Transport should take over the navigation, which they did from 24 September 1920. Tolls were raised, and a committee recommended improvements to the river. Nottingham Corporation invested some £450,000 on building the locks authorised by the 1906 Act, starting with Holme lock on 28 September 1921, and finishing with Hazelford lock, which was formally opened by Neville Chamberlain on 25 June 1926. A loan from Nottingham Corporation and a grant from the Unemployment Grants Committee enabled the Company to rebuild Newark Nether lock, which was opened on 12 April 1926.
In the early 1930s, the Company considered enlarging the navigation above Nottingham, in conjunction with improvements to the River Soar Navigation, between Trent Lock and Leicester. There were also negotiations with the London and North Eastern Railway, who were responsible for the Nottingham Canal between Trent Lock and Lenton. Plans for new larger locks at Beeston and Wilford were dropped when the Trent Catchment Board opposed them. The Grand Union declined to improve the Soar Navigation, because the Trent Navigation Company could not guarantee 135,000 tons of additional traffic. The Company also considered a plan to reopen the river to Burton, which would have involved the rebuilding of Kings Mills lock, and the construction of four new locks. An extra set of gates were added to Cromwell lock in 1935, effectively creating a second lock, while the Lenton to Trent Lock section was leased from the LNER in 1936, and ultimately purchased in 1946.
Frank Rayner, who had been with the Company since 1887, and had served as its engineer and later general manager since 1896, died in December 1945. Sir Ernest Jardine, who as vice-chairman had partly funded the first lock at Cromwell in 1908, died in 1947, and the company ceased to exist in 1948, when the waterways were nationalised. The last act of the directors was to pay a 7.5 per cent dividend on the shares in 1950. Having taken over responsibility for the waterway, the Transport Commission enlarged Newark Town lock in 1952, and the flood lock at Holme was removed to reduce the risk of flooding in Nottingham. More improvements followed between 1957 and 1960. The two locks at Cromwell became one, capable of holding eight Trent barges, dredging equipment was updated, and several of the locks were mechanised. Traffic rose from 620,000 tonnes in 1951 to 1,017,356 tonnes in 1964, but all of this was below Nottingham. Commercial carrying above Nottingham ceased during the 1950s, to be replaced by pleasure cruising.
Although commercial use of the river has declined, the lower river between Cromwell and Nottingham can still take large motor barges up to around 150 feet (46 m) in length with a capacity of approx 300 tonnes. Barges still transport gravel from pits at Girton and Besthorpe to Goole and Hull.
The river is legally navigable for some 117 miles (188 km) below Burton upon Trent. However for practical purposes, navigation above the southern terminus of the Trent and Mersey Canal (at Shardlow) is conducted on the canal, rather than on the river itself. The T&M canal connects the Trent to the Potteries and on to Runcorn and the Bridgewater Canal.
Down river of Shardlow, the non-tidal river is navigable as far as the Cromwell Lock near Newark, except in Nottingham (Beeston Cut & Nottingham Canal) and just west of Nottingham, where there are two lengths of canal, Sawley and Cranfleet cuts. Below Cromwell lock, the Trent is tidal, and therefore only navigable by experienced, well-equipped boaters. Navigation lights and a proper anchor and cable are compulsory. Associated British Ports, the navigation authority for the river from Gainsborough to Trent Falls, insist that anyone in charge of a boat must be experienced at navigating in tidal waters.
Experience is especially necessary at Trent Falls, a lonely spot where the Trent joins the Yorkshire Ouse, to form the Humber estuary. The timetables of flows and tides of the two rivers and the estuary are very complex here, and vary through the lunar cycle. Boats coming down the Trent on an ebbing tide often have to anchor or beach themselves (sometimes in the dark) at Trent Falls to wait for the next incoming tide to carry them up the Ouse.
Trent Aegir 
At certain times of the year, the lower tidal reaches of the Trent experience a moderately large tidal bore (up to five feet (1.5m) high), commonly known as the Trent Aegir (named for the Norse sea god). The Aegir occurs when a high spring tide meets the downstream flow of the river. The funnel shape of the river mouth exaggerates this effect, causing a large wave to travel upstream as far as Gainsborough, Lincolnshire, and sometimes beyond. The Aegir cannot travel much beyond Gainsborough as the shape of the river reduces the Aegir to little more than a ripple, and weirs north of Newark-on-Trent, Nottinghamshire stop its path completely.
The literal North/South divide 
The Trent historically marked the boundary between Northern England and Southern England. For example the administration of Royal Forests was subject to a different Justice in Eyre north and south of the river, and the jurisdiction of the medieval Council of the North started at the Trent. Some traces of the former division remain: the Trent marks the boundary between the provinces of two English Kings of Arms, Norroy and Clarenceux. This divide was also described in Michael Drayton's epic topographical poem, Poly-Olbion, The Sixe and Twentieth Song, 1622:
And of the British floods, though but the third I be,
Yet Thames and Severne both in this come short of me,
For that I am the mere of England, that divides
The north part from the south, on my so either sides,
that reckoning how these tracts in compasse be extent,Men bound them on the north, or on the south of Trent 
On 7 October 2009 the government announced that the Trent had suffered a serious pollution incident when cyanide and ammonia from partially treated sewage found its way into the river, killing thousands of fish.
Places along the Trent 
Cities and towns on or close to the river include:
- Burton upon Trent
- Castle Donington
- Long Eaton
- Dunham Bridge – A57 Swing Toll bridge
Power stations 
The River and Trent Valley provides cooling water to a large number of current coal- and later gas-fired electricity power stations along its route. Starting from the source to the sea, those adjacent power stations that continue to use, or have used the river as their source of coolant are: Meaford Power Station (1948–1996), Rugeley Power Station (opened 1963), Drakelow Power Station (1955–2003), Willington Power Station, Castle Donington Power Station, Ratcliffe-on-Soar Power Station, Wilford Power Station (1950s–1990s), Staythorpe Power Station (1950–1994, reopened 2011), High Marnham Power Station (1959–2003), Cottam Power Station (opened 1969), West Burton Power Station (commissioned 1968) and Keadby Power Station (commissioned 1996). Fuel in the form of coal was mainly supplied from the Nottinghamshire and Yorkshire coalfields via Toton Marshalling Yards—this being now replaced by imported coal brought by ship from abroad.
Although Spenser endowed the 'The beauteous Trent' with 'thirty different streams'[c] the river is joined by more than twice that number of different tributaries, of which the largest in terms of flow is the Tame which drains most of the West Midlands, including Birmingham and the Black Country. The second and third largest are the Derwent and the Dove respectively; together these two rivers drain the majority of Derbyshire and Staffordshire, including the upland areas of the Peak District.
The Soar which drains the majority of the county of Leicestershire, could also be considered as the second largest tributary, as it has a larger catchment area than the Dove or Derwent, but its discharge is significantly less than the Derwent, and lower than the Dove.
In terms of rainfall the Derwent receives the highest annual average rainfall, whereas the Devon, which has the lowest average rainfall is the driest catchment of those tabulated.
|Statistics of the Trent’s largest tributaries|
|Name||County [d]||Length||Catchment Area||Discharge||Rainfall [e]||Max. Altitude||Refs|
List of Tributaries 
|Tributaries of the Trent|
Alphabetical listing of tributaries, extracted from the Water Framework Directive list of water bodies for the River Trent:
See also 
- Barber, Charles (1993). The English Language: a historical introduction. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-78570-9.
- Cumberlidge, Jane (1998). Inland Waterways of Great Britain (7th Ed.). Imray Laurie Norie and Wilson. ISBN 0-85288-355-2.
- Hadfield, Charles (1970). The Canals of the East Midlands. David and Charles. ISBN 0-7153-4871-X.
- Hadfield, Charles (1985). The Canals of the West Midlands. David and Charles. ISBN 0-7153-8644-1.
- Koch, J.T. (15 Mar 2006). Celtic Culture: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-85109-440-0.
- May, Jeffrey (1977). Prehistoric Lincolnshire (History of Lincolnshire). Lincoln: History of Lincolnshire Committee. ISBN 978-0-902668-00-3.
- Nicholson (2006). Nicholson Guides Vol 6: Nottingham York and the North East. Harper Collins. ISBN 978-0-00-721114-2.
- Owen, C.C. (1978). Burton on Trent: the development of industry. Chichester: Phillimore. ISBN 978-0-85033-218-6.
- Stone, Richard (2005). The River Trent. Phillimore. ISBN 1-86077-356-7.
- Recorded at 1230hrs on 8 November 2000 – highest discharge since 1 September 1958.
- Recorded 23–24 August 1976.
- In the epic poem the The Faerie Queene 
- Indicative county shown
- Rainfall is Annual Average 1961–90 for the catchment to the Gauging Station
- Blithe measured at Hamstall Ridware
- Devon measured at Cotham – Altitude from Ordnance Survey Map
- Blithe measured at Church Wilne
- Dove measured at Marston on Dove
- Erewash measured at Sandiacre
- Greet measured at Southwell
- Idle measured at Mattersey
- Leen measured at Triumph Road, Lenton
- Soar measured at Kegworth
- Sow measured at Milford
- Tame measured at Hopwas
- Torne measured at Auckley
- Tributary names from Ordnance Survey maps added where list amalgamated river reaches
- River Order – 1 being closest to Trent Falls
- Trent River Authority. Official Handbook of the Trent River Authority. Cheltenham and London:Ed. J. Burrow and Co. Ltd, 1972.
- "28009 – Trent at Colwick". The National River Flow Archive. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology. Retrieved 24 March 2013.
- "Hi Flows UK". Environment-agency.gov.uk. Retrieved 4 March 2013.
- University of Wales Online Dictionary
- Barber 1993, p. 101.
- Koch 2006
- Posnansky, M. The Pleistocene Succession in the Middle Trent Basin. Proc. Geologists' Assoc 71 (1960), pp.285–311
- May 1977.
- "Historical channel-floodplain dynamics along the River Trent". Hislibrary.com. Retrieved 24 March 2013.
- "Medieval Timber Bridge Unearthed". The Independent. Retrieved 24 March 2013.
- Ripper, S. and Cooper L.P., 2009, The Hemington Bridges: "The Excavation of Three Medieval Bridges at Hemington Quarry, Near Castle Donington, Leicestershire", Leicester Archaeology Monograph
- "The Trent Valley: palaeochannel mapping from aerial photographs". Trent Valley GeoArchaeology. Retrieved 28 March 2013.
- William Shakespeare, Henry IV, Pt.I., Act III, Sc. I
- Complete Works of William Shakespeare, William Shakespeare, p433, 2007, ISBN 1-84022-557-2, accessed May 2009
- "Get-a-map online". Ordnance Survey. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
- "Littleborough". Trentvale.co.uk. Retrieved 7 April 2013.
- "Owston Ferry". isleofaxholme.net. Retrieved 7 April 2013.
- "West Butterwick". The Isle of Axholme Family History Society. Retrieved 7 April 2013.
- "East Stockwith". Lincolnshire.gov. Retrieved 7 April 2013.
- Hadfield 1985, pp. 15–17
- Cumberlidge 1998, p. 230
- Hadfield 1970, pp. 42–46
- Owen 1978, pp. 13–20.
- UK CPI inflation numbers based on data available from Lawrence H. Officer (2010) "What Were the UK Earnings and Prices Then?" MeasuringWorth.
- Hadfield 1970, pp. 74–78
- Hadfield 1970, pp. 198–207
- British Waterways, River Trent Water Freight Feasibility Study, p11, accessed 9 January 2010
- Nicholson 2006, p. 128.
- Stone 2005, p. 9, 124.
- "Justices in Eyre 1509–1840". Institute of Historical Research. Retrieved 29 March 2013.
- "'Norroy King of Arms', Survey of London Monograph 16: College of Arms, Queen Victoria Street (1963), pp. 101–118.". British History Online. Retrieved 29 March 2013.
- "'Clarenceux King of Arms', Survey of London Monograph 16: College of Arms, Queen Victoria Street (1963), pp. 74–101.". British History Online. Retrieved 29 March 2013.
- The Travellers' Dictionary of Quotations: Who Said What, about Where?, Peter Yapp, p372, 1983, ISBN 9780710009920, accessed 1 April 2013
- "Cyanide sparks River Trent pollution probe" independent.co.uk, accessed 8 October 2009
- "Faerie Queene. Book IV. Canto XI.". spenserians.cath.vt.edu. Retrieved 21 April 2013.
- "Water Framework Directive Surface Water Classification Status and Objectives 2012 csv file". Environment Agency.gov.uk. 26 November 2012. Retrieved 10 March 2013.
- "National River Flow Archive". Centre for Ecology and Hydrology. Retrieved 7 May 2013.
- Photographs along the Trent in Nottingham from Nottingham21
- Catchment Tributaries of the River Trent English Heritage and University of Birmingham research project.
- Predictive Modelling of Multi-Period Geoarchaeological Resources at a River Confluence English Heritage, University of Birmingham and University of Exeter research project.
- Trent Valley GeoArchaeology
- River Trent through Nottingham. Pictures & slide show.