Riverside Drive (Manhattan)
Riverside Drive is a scenic north-south thoroughfare in the Manhattan borough of New York City. The boulevard runs on the west side of Manhattan, generally parallel to the Hudson River from 72nd Street to near the George Washington Bridge at 181st Street. North of 96th Street, Riverside Drive is a wide divided boulevard; at other points it divides to provide a serpentine local street with access to the residential buildings. Some of the most coveted addresses in New York are located along its route.
History and description
Riverside Drive was designed by landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted as part of his concept for Riverside Park; the 191 acres (0.77 km2) of land from 72nd to 125th Streets were undeveloped prior to construction of the Hudson River Railroad, built in 1846 to connect New York City to Albany. The first proposal to convert the riverside precipice into a park was contained in a pamphlet written by William R. Martin, a parks commissioner, in 1865. In 1866, a bill introduced into the Legislature by commissioner Andrew Green was approved, the first segment of park was acquired through condemnation in 1872, and construction began.
At the same time, Riverside Drive was being developed as a scenic parkway. Olmsted drew up the plan for the joint Riverside Park and Riverside Drive project. Afterward, several architects started work on the project. Based on Central Park, the new project consisted of "a tree-lined driveway curving around the valleys and rock outcroppings and overlooking the [Hudson] river". From 1875 to 1910, architects and horticulturalists such as Calvert Vaux and Samuel Parsons laid out the stretch of park/road between 72nd and 125th Streets according to the English gardening ideal, creating the appearance that the park was an extension of the Hudson River Valley. Primary construction of the project was completed in about 1910.
In the 1930s, New York Central Railroad's rail track north of 72nd Street was covered in a Robert Moses project called the West Side Improvement. The project, which was bigger than the Hoover Dam project, created the Henry Hudson Parkway and buried the West Side Line under the Freedom Tunnel. It was so skillfully done that many believe the park and road are set on a natural slope. Moses' biographer Robert Caro envisaged Moses surveying the area before his project, finding:
a wasteland six miles (10 km) long, stretching from where he stood all the way north to 181st street...The 'park' was nothing but a vast low-lying mass of dirt and mud. Unpainted, rusting, jagged wire fences along the tracks barred the city from its waterfront...The engines that pulled trains along the tracks burned coal or oil; from their smokestacks a dense black smog rose toward the apartment houses, coating windowsills with grit...[a stench] seemed to hang over Riverside Drive endlessly after each passage of a train carrying south to the slaughterhouses in downtown Manhattan carload after carload of cattle and pigs.
In the 1980s Donald Trump owned the 57 acres (230,000 m2) of land just south of Riverside Park that had been the Penn Central freight rail yard. Inspired by six civic groups (Municipal Art Society, Natural Resources Defense Council, New Yorkers for Parks, Regional Plan Association, Riverside Park Fund, and Westpride), which all opposed his massive development plan, Trump agreed in 1990 to a scaled-down plan that would also expand Riverside Park by 23 acres (93,000 m2). This new Riverside Park South, stretching between 72nd and 59th streets, is the central element of the Riverside South development, the biggest private real estate venture under construction in New York City. Portions of the former rail yard, such as the New York Central Railroad 69th Street Transfer Bridge, are incorporated into the new park. The Riverside Drive was extended to the south as an avenue named "Riverside Boulevard".
Today, Riverside Drive passes through the Manhattan neighborhoods of the Upper West Side, Morningside Heights, over Manhattanville in West Harlem by way of the Riverside Drive Viaduct and through Washington Heights. Riverside Drive starts at 72nd Street as a narrow parkway and a continuation of Riverside Boulevard; the latter stretches through Riverside Park South (a.k.a. Trump Place, for its developer) to 62nd Street.
Only a few stretches of Riverside Drive were built along an older road; due to the hilly terrain, Riverside Drive passes over 96th Street, Tiemann Place and 135th Street, and 158th Street on viaducts. At Tiemann Place and 135th Street, and at 158th Street, an old alignment is present, also named Riverside Drive, while the viaduct portion or main route is officially named and signed "Riverside Drive West". The viaduct between Tiemann Place and 135th Street is called the "Riverside Drive Viaduct", as it is the most notable of the Riverside Drive viaducts.
At its north end, Riverside Drive merges with the northbound lanes of the Henry Hudson Parkway. In 2005, the retaining wall of Castle Village collapsed onto both Riverside Drive and the northbound lanes of the Henry Hudson Parkway. The wall was repaired and the roadway reopened in March 2008.
Riverside Drive terminated at Grant's Tomb in a cul-de-sac, prior to the construction of the Manhattan Valley viaduct, spanning 125th Street, completed in 1900. North of 158th Street the right of way which currently carries the name Riverside Drive was known as Boulevard Lafayette, which led to Plaza Lafayette in Hudson Heights. The section exiting the parkway at the Dyckman Street exit and ending at Broadway is still known as Riverside Drive.
Riverside Park, part of the Manhattan Waterfront Greenway, is a scenic waterfront public park on a narrow 4 miles (6.4 km) strip of land between the Hudson River and Riverside Drive. It is approximately 266.971 acres (108 ha).
125th Street viaduct
The elevated steel highway of the 12th Street viaduct, called the Riverside Drive Viaduct, between Tiemann Place and 135th Street and rising over Twelfth Avenue, is shouldered by masonry approaches. The viaduct proper was made of open hearth medium steel, comprising twenty-six spans, or bays, whose hypnotic repetition is much appreciated from underneath at street level. The south and north approaches are of rock-faced Mohawk Valley limestone with Maine granite trimmings, the face work being of coursed ashlar. The girders over Manhattan Street (now 125th Street) were the largest ever built at the time. The broad plaza effect of the south approach was designed to impart deliberate grandeur to the natural terminus of much of Riverside Drive’s traffic as well as to give full advantage to the vista overlooking the Hudson River and New Jersey Palisades to the west.
F. Stuart Williamson was the chief engineer for the viaduct, which constituted a feat of engineering technology. Despite the viaduct's important utilitarian role as a highway, the structure was also a strong symbol of civic pride, inspired by America’s late 19th-century City Beautiful movement. The viaduct’s original roadway, wide pedestrian walks and overall design were sumptuously ornamented, creating a prime example of public works that married form and function. An issue of the Scientific American magazine in 1900 remarked that the Riverside Drive Viaduct's completion afforded New Yorkers “a continuous drive of ten miles along the picturesque banks of the Hudson and Harlem Rivers.” The viaduct underwent a two-year long reconstruction in 1961 and another in 1987.
Buildings and monuments
The eastern side of Riverside Drive, once a series of luxuriously finished rowhouses interspersed with free-standing nineteenth century mansions set in large lawns, today is lined with luxury apartment buildings and some remaining town houses from 72nd to 118th Streets.
The brick-faced Schwab House occupies the site of "Riverside", built for steel magnate Charles M. Schwab, formerly the grandest and most ambitious house ever built on the island of Manhattan. Among the more eye-catching apartment houses are the curved facades of The Colosseum and The Paterno and the Cliff-Dwellers Apartments at 96th Street, with mountain lions and buffalo skulls on its friezes. The Henry Codman Potter house at 89th Street is one of the few remaining mansions on Riverside Drive; it houses Yeshiva Chofetz Chaim. 310 Riverside Drive, a landmarked 24-story art Deco skyscraper, is near Columbia University and the 370 Riverside Drive building, which was erected in 1922–23 for approximately $800,000 by Simon Schwartz and Arthur Gross. Also, the Nicholas Roerich Museum is on 107th Street and Riverside Drive. The Riverside Church is located at 120th Street and Riverside Drive.
Among the monuments, sights, and institutions along its route are the Eleanor Roosevelt statue by Penelope Jencks, the Soldiers and Sailors Monument, Anna Hyatt Huntington's Joan of Arc, the Fireman's Memorial at 100th Street (a focus of spontaneous dedications of flowers and teddy bears after the September 11 attacks) Grant's Tomb, The Interchurch Center, Riverside Church, Sakura Park, Riverbank State Park, Trinity Church Cemetery, Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center, and Fort Washington Park. Across from the Henry Codman Potter house is the Soldiers and Sailors Monument (1902). At 99th Street is a memorial to Beaux-Arts architect John Merven Carrère by his partner Thomas Hastings. The Firefighters' Memorial at 100th Street was sculpted by Attilio Piccirilli. It was installed in 1913 and restored in the late 20th Century.
- Paul Krugman bought an apartment with his Nobel Prize in economics money.
- Grantland Rice, American sportswriter
- Jim Rogers, investor and financial commentator
- Damon Runyon, American newspaper man and author
- George Gershwin occupied a penthouse at 33 Riverside Drive.
- Sergei Rachmaninoff owned a townhouse at 33 Riverside Drive.
- Serge Sabarsky, art dealer and art expert, lived at 110 Riverside Drive
- William Randolph Hearst owned a five story penthouse in the Clarendon at 137 Riverside Drive.
- J. Robert Oppenheimer and his family lived at 155 Riverside Drive on 88th Street.
- Babe Ruth, lived at 173 Riverside Drive, then moved to 110 Riverside Drive from 1942 until his death in 1948.
- Uwe Johnson, German author, lived with his family from 1966 till 1968 at 243 Riverside Drive, today The Cliff Dwelling apartments
- Saul Bellow, lived at 333 Riverside Drive in the 1950s.
- Ralph Ellison, American writer, longtime resident of 730 Riverside Drive
370 Riverside Drive
Many famous people have lived in 370 Riverside Drive; notable residents include:
- Hannah Arendt, political theorist; lived in the building from 1959 until her death in 1975.
- Lawrence Blochman, American detective story writer and translator
- Seymour C.Y. Cheng, diplomat
- Grace Zia Chu, landmark culinary figure and a cookbook author advertised "Madame Chu's Chinese Cooking Classes" as listed at 370 Riverside drive, 6B.
- Shelby Millard Harrison, director of the Russell Sage Foundation and also in charge of the Babe Ruth Foundation, and an author
- C. J. Lebel, held 10 patents, including a patent on fluorescent lamp
- Morris Lichtenstein, rabbi, co-founder of the Society of Jewish Science, husband of Tehilla Lichtenstein, also co-founder of SJS
- Henry Pfeiffer, president of William R. Warner & Co. (later known as Warner-Lambert), pharmaceutical manufacturer and philanthropist
- Norman Mills Price, American illustrator, lived in the building as well
- Evelyn John Strachey, British Secretary of State for War, writer and British politician, circa 1935
- Robert G. Thompson, received Distinguished Service Cross for valor in World War II and the chairman of the Communist Party in New York State
- Frank H. Warder, New York State Superintendent of Banks
- Robert Kurt Woetzel, professor of international law (circa 1961)
- Ernst Hunter Wright, professor at Columbia, a chairman of English Institute at Columbia (1942–1946)
- Martin Gutzwiller, quantum and particle physicist
In popular culture
- The living room of Oscar Madison's "large eight-room affair on Riverside Drive in the upper eighties" is the setting of the 1965 Neil Simon comedy, The Odd Couple.
- In the movie Death Wish, architect Paul Kearsey (Charles Bronson) lives at 33 Riverside Drive.
- Bob Randall's play 6 Rms Riv Vu, tells the story of a married advertising copywriter and a discontented housewife who both end up looking at the same Riverside Drive apartment. The door is locked accidentally, trapping them inside, and a connection slowly develops as they begin to share the details of their respective lives.
- In the concert Liza with a Z, Liza Minnelli performs the number 'Ring The Bells' about a woman who meets her dream man while traveling in Europe despite the fact that, initially unbeknownst to them, they'd been living next door to each other at 5 Riverside Drive.
- In the sitcom Will & Grace, Will lives at 155 Riverside Drive, as do Grace and Jack (Sean Hayes) at times throughout the series.
- Liz Lemon (Tina Fey) of the sitcom 30 Rock lives at 168 Riverside Drive.
- In the novel Illuminatus, the character, Joe Malik, lives in a brownstone on Riverside Drive.
- In the movie You've Got Mail, Joe Fox lives at 152 Riverside Drive using the screen name NY152.
- In the TV show Mad Men, copywriter Freddy Rumsen lives at 152 Riverside Drive.
- The hard rock band Tora Tora have a song called "Riverside Drive" on their debut album Surprise Attack.
- In the USA Network series White Collar, Neal Caffrey (Matt Bomer) lives in the 4th floor studio of a mansion owned by elderly widow June (Diahann Carroll), located 351 Riverside Drive (the Schinasi Mansion)
- The part of the drive over its eponymous viaduct has been seen in the 2012 movie The Amazing Spider-Man.
- Riverside Drive on the viaduct is also seen during the climax of Lady Gaga's music video for "Marry the Night".
- Park history, riversideparknyc.org. Retrieved August 26, 2014.
- Stern et al., pp. 696 - 698.
- Stern et al., pp. 698 - 700.
- Robert A. Caro, The Power Broker: Robert Moses and the Fall of New York, 1974, pp. 65-6
- "Board of Inquiry Report – Castle Village Retaining Wall Collapse" (PDF). New York City Department of Buildings. April 2007. Retrieved April 2, 2010.
- Teal, Brett (23 November 2010). "Castle Village residents’ 5-year reconstruction ordeal finally ends". Northattan. Retrieved 30 April 2014.
- John W. Ripley, C.E., Principal Assistant Engineer Riverside Viaduct, Transactions of the Association of Civil Engineers of Cornell University, 1901, "Riverside Viaduct," p. 95-105.
- Eric K. Washington, Manhattanville: Old Heart of West Harlem, Arcadia - Images of America, 2002, ISBN 0-7385-0986-8
- Riverside Drive Viaduct New York Scientific American, 1900-07-21
- NYC Landmarks Preservation Commission Report on the Master Apartments (1989)
- "370 Riverside Drive, New York City". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 2012-10-30.
- Eleanor Roosevelt Memorial; Penelope Jencks
- Joan of Arc
- NYC Parks Dept.: Historical Signs: Fireman's Memorial; New York Times
- "Serge Sabarsky, 83, Art Dealer And Expert on Expressionism - New York Times". The New York Times. 1996-02-26. Retrieved 2013-09-07.
- Broad, William J., "Why They Called It the Manhattan Project", New York Times, October 30, 2007. "Oppenheimer and his parents lived at 155 Riverside Drive, an elegant apartment building at West 88th Street. The superintendent, Joe Gugulski, said the family lived on the 11th floor, overlooking the Hudson River."
- Literary New York: a history and guide, Susan Edmiston, Linda D. Cirino, Houghton Mifflin, 1976 p. 268
- "Hannah Arendt: Biographical data". Hannaharendt.nt. Retrieved 2012-10-30.
- "New York Times:Obituary". Select.nytimes.com. Retrieved 2012-10-30.
- Who lived where: a biographical guide to homes and museums - John Eastman - Google Books. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2012-10-30.
- Who's Who in Foreign Correspondence - Overseas Press Club of America - Google Books. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2012-10-30.
- The New York Times Biographical Service - Google Books. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2012-10-30.
- "DR. SEYMOUR C. Y. CHENGi - Obituary - NYTimes.com". Select.nytimes.com. 2012-06-10. Retrieved 2012-10-30.
- "Contemporary Authors: Biography - Chu,Grace Zia (1899-1999): Amazon.com: Books". Amazon.com. 2005-03-08. Retrieved 2012-10-30.
- "Chu, Grace Zia. Papers of Grace Zia Chu, 1941-1986: A Finding Aid". Oasis.lib.harvard.edu. Retrieved 2012-10-30.
- "The Pleasures of Chinese Cooking. Illus. by Grambs Miller. Foreword by Craig Claiborne: Grace Zia Chu: Amazon.com: Books". Amazon.com. Retrieved 2012-10-30.
- Madame Chu's Chinese Cooking School. "Madame Chu's Chinese Cooking School: G chu: 9780671242091: Amazon.com: Books". Amazon.com. Retrieved 2012-10-30.
- "Cooking Schools in the City - It's Mouth-Watering Array - Article - NYTimes.com". Select.nytimes.com. 2012-06-10. Retrieved 2012-10-30.
- "Those Proliferating Cooking Schools - A Selection of the Best - Article - NYTimes.com". Select.nytimes.com. 2012-06-10. Retrieved 2012-10-30.
- Harvard Alumni Directory - Google Books. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2012-10-30.
- "CJ LeBel obituary". Aes.org. Retrieved 2012-10-30.
- "C. J. LeBel, Sound Specialist i And Inventor, Is Dead at 59 - Obituary - NYTimes.com". Select.nytimes.com. 2012-06-10. Retrieved 2012-10-30.
- Official gazette of the United States Patent Office - United States. Patent Office - Google Books. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2012-10-30.
- "Guide to the Pfeiffer-Merner Family Collection". Library.pfeiffer.edu. Retrieved 2012-10-30.
- Druggists' Circular - Google Books. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2012-10-30.
- American art directory - American Federation of Arts - Google Books. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2012-10-30.
- [dead link]
- "STRACHEY TO LEAVE FOR CHICAGO TODAY - Hays, Who Will Defend Him at Deportation Hearing, Says Free Speech Is Issue. - Article - NYTimes.com". Select.nytimes.com. 2012-06-10. Retrieved 2012-10-30.
- "STATE SAYS WARDER GOT BRIBE IN PERSON - Prosecutor Tells Jury Bank Head Received $10,000 From Ferrari Agent in Home. TRACES COURSE OF CASH Also Promises to Prove That Gratuity Won Immunity for Books of City Trust Co. DEFENSE SPEECH WITHHELD Former Aide of Accused Man on Stand Tells of Failure to Make Examinations. Describes Transfer of Money. Defense Speech Withheld. Traces Bank Reports". Select.nytimes.com. 2012-06-10. Retrieved 2012-10-30.
- New York Times:Jackle-Warder
- Proceedings of the American Society of International Law at its annual meeting - American Society of International Law - Google Books. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2012-10-30.
- "Ernest Hunter Wright Collection, 1892-1968 (Bulk Dates: 1924-1968)". Columbia.edu. Retrieved 2012-10-30.
- New York Times:ERNEST WRIGHT, TAUGHT ENGLISH; Ex-Chairman of Department at Columbia Dies at 86
- Harvard: Workshop on Quantum Nonintegrability: Molecular Systems and General Theory April 30 - May 2, 1998
- Mad Men, Season 2, Episode 9, Six Month Leave
- Pesce, Nicole Lyn (July 2, 2012). "‘The Amazing Spider-Man’ brings the Big Apple to the big screen: From Broadway to Brooklyn". Daily News (New York City). Retrieved July 3, 2012. Print edition: July 3, 2012, pp. 40-41
- Robert A.M. Stern, Gregory Gilmartin, Thomas Mellins, "New York 1930", Rizzoli, 2009.
- Media related to Riverside Drive (Manhattan) at Wikimedia Commons