|Female Kryptolebias marmoratus|
G. S. Myers, 1925
The Rivulidae are a family of killifishes in the order Cyprinodontiformes. They are commonly known as rivulids, South American killifish or New World killifish. The latter names are slightly misleading, however, as they are neither restricted to South America – though most are in fact found there –, nor are they the only killifishes from the Americas. Occasionally, they are still referred to as rivulines, a term dating back to when they were considered a subfamily of the Aplocheilidae.
The subfamilial name "Rivulinae" was already established for noctuid moths by Augustus Radcliffe Grote in 1895. That name, though it is the senior homonym, may be suppressed because the name Rivulinae for the fish subfamily is widespread, whereas the moth taxon is little used.
Much change has occurred in the classification of the rivulines, much of it the work of Wilson J. E. M. Costa. The following list is derived from FishBase with the addition of recent work by Costa and Huber:
- Yssolebias - probably extinct
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- Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2012). "Rivulidae" in FishBase. October 2012 version.
- Costa, W. J. E. M. 2011. Hypsolebias nudiorbitatus, a new seasonal killifish from the Caatinga of northeastern Brazil, Itapicuru River basin (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae). Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 22 (no. 3): 221-226.
- Costa, W. J. E. M., 2011. Phylogenetic position and taxonomic status of Anablepsoides, Atlantirivulus, Cynodonichthys, Laimosemion and Melanorivulus (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae). Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 22 (no. 3): 233-249.
- Huber, J. H. (2012): Description of Yssolebias, nov. gen., a new monotypic fish genus for an old and phantom species of Colombia. Killi-Data Series 2012, 26-31.
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