Russian federal highways

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A map of the major Russian highways

Russian federal highways (Russian: Автомобильные дороги федерального значения Российской Федерации or Avtomobil'nye dorogi federal'nogo znacheniya Rossiyskoy Federatsii, meaning "Highways of federal importance in Russian Federation") are the most important highways in Russia which are the federal property. The following motorways are designated as federal.[1][2]

  • All highways
    • which connect Moscow with the capitals of the neighbouring countries and with the administrative centres of the subjects of the Russian Federation. They are identified by the prefix "M" in the national route signs;
    • which are parts of the international road networks: European and Asian, identified by prefixes "E" and "AH" in the international route signs used simultaneously with the national route signs.
  • Some highways
    • which connect administrative centers of the subjects of the Russian Federation with each other (national route sign prefix "P")
    • which are branching and bridging roads (national prefix "A"):
      • access roads that lead to major transportation nodes and special objects
      • access roads from the administrative centers of the subjects of the Russian Federation which has no highway connection with Moscow to the nearest sea and river ports and to the international borders.
      • which interlink other federal highways.

The federal highways are classified in Russia into two categories: "motorways/Avtomagistral" (Russian: магистральная автомобильная дорога, автомагистраль, not the same as the English term motorway) and "other".

Federal motorways[edit]

Other federal highways[edit]

M56 "Kolyma"
M54 "Yenisei"
M10 "Rossiya"
M9 "Baltiya"

Original list[edit]

In the order of the 1991 document:[3]

  • M-5: Moscow - Ryazan’ - Penza - Samara - Ufa - Chelyabinsk
  • M-11 "Narva": Saint Peterburg to the border with Estonia (onto Tallinn); redesignated as A180 in 2010
  • M-13: Bryansk - Novozybkov to the border with Belarus (onto Gomel, Pinsk, Kobryn); redesignated as A240
  • M-19: Novoshakhtinsk - Maisky (from Kiev through Poltava, Kharkiv) from the border with Ukraine to route M4 "Don"; redesignated as A270
  • M-20: Saint Petersburg - Pskov - Pustoshka - Nevel to the border with Belarus; redesignated as P23
  • M-21: Volgograd - Kamensk-Shakhtinsky to the border with Ukraine (onto Dnipropetrovsk, Chişinău); redesignated as A260
  • M-23: Rostov-on-Don - Taganrog to the border with Ukraine (onto Kharkiv, Odessa); redesignated as A280
  • M-25: Novorossiysk - Kerch Strait (onto Simferopol); redesignated as A290
  • M-27: Dzhubga - Sochi to the border with Abkhazia/Georgia (disputed) (onto Tbilisi, Baku); redesignated as A147
  • M-32: Samara - Bol. Chernigovka to the border with Kazakhstan (onto Oral, Aktobe, Kyzylorda, Shymkent); redesignated as A300
  • M-36: Chelyabinsk - Troitsk to the border with Kazakhstan (onto Kostanay, Karaganda, Balqash, Almaty); redesignated as A310
  • M-38: Omsk - Cherlak to the border with Kazakhstan (onto Pavlodar, Semey, Maikapchagai)); redesignated as A320
  • M-51 "Irtysh": Chelyabinsk - Novosibirsk (through Kurgan, Ishim, and Omsk); redesignated as P254
  • M-53 "Siberia": Novosibirsk - Kemerovo - Krasnoyarsk - Irkutsk, entrance to the city of Tomsk; redesignated as P255
  • M-54 "Yenisei": Krasnoyarsk - Abakan - Kyzyl to the border with Mongolia; redesignated as P257
  • M-55: Irkutsk - Ulan-Ude - Chita; redesignated as P258
  • P-20: Route A17 - Dzhankoy to the border with Ukraine
  • P-21 "Kola": Saint Petersburg - Petrozavodsk - Murmansk - Pechenga - border with Norway; former M18
  • P-22 "Caspian": Kashira - Tambov - Volgograd - Astrakhan, entrance to the cities of Tambov, Saratov and Elista; former M6
  • P-23: Saint Petersburg - Pskov - Pustoshka - Nevel to the border with Belarus; former M20
  • P-25: Syktyvkar - Yemva - Ukhta
  • P-56: Novgorod-Pskov (in Soltsy, Porkhov); former A116
  • P-92: Kaluga - Peremyshl’ - Belev - Orel
  • P-93: Medyn - Kondrovo - Kaluga
  • P-105: Moscow - Kasimovo
  • P-119: Orel - Livny - Elets - Lipetsk - Tambov
  • P-120: Orel - Bryansk - Smolensk to the border with Belarus, entrance to the city of Smolensk; former A141
  • P-132: Kaluga - Tula - Mikhaylov - Ryazan’, bypass for M3 "Ukraine"
  • P-137:
  • P-156: Nizhny Novgorod, Arzamas-Saransk
  • P-158: Nizhny Novgorod - Saransk - Saratov
  • P-159:
  • P-162: Rabotki - Poretskoe
  • P-176 "Vyatka": Cheboksary - Yoshkar-Ola - Kirov - Syktyvkar, entrance to the city of Kirov; former A119
  • P-178: Saransk - Sura - Ulyanovsk to route M5 "Ural"
  • P-179:
  • P-180: Saransk to route M5 "Ural"
  • P-193: Voronezh - Tambov
  • P-200:
  • P-208: Tambov - Penza
  • P-209: Kirsanov - Penza; became a portion of P208
  • P-215: Astrakhan - Kochubey - Kizlyar - Makhachkala
  • P-216: Astrakhan - Liman; became a portion of P215
  • P-216: Astrakhan - Elista - Stavropol; former A154
  • P-217 "Kavkaz": Route M4 "Don" - Pavlovskaya - Vladikavkaz - Groznyy - Makhachkala to the border with Azerbaijan (onto Baku); former M29
  • P-226: Samara - Saratov - Volgograd
  • P-227: Syzran - Shigony - Usolye
  • P-228: Syzran - Saratov - Volgograd
  • P-231:
  • P-234:
  • P-239: Kazan - Orenburg, entrance to Kazan Airport
  • P-240: Ufa - Orenburg; former P314
  • P-241: Kazan - Ulyanovsk - Buinsk
  • P-242: Perm - Ekaterinburg
  • P-253: Maikop - Ust-Labinsk - Korenovsk; redesignated as A160
  • P-254 "Irtysh": Chelyabinsk - Kurgan - Omsk - Novosibirsk; former M51
  • P-254: Maikop - Guzeripl’ - Caucasian state Biosphere Reserve; redesignated as A159
  • P-255 "Siberia": Novosibirsk - Kemerovo - Krasnoyarsk - Irkutsk; former M53
  • P-256 "Chuysky Trakt": Novosibirsk - Barnaul - Gorno-Altaysk to the border with Mongolia; former M52
  • P-257 "Yenisei": Krasnoyarsk - Abakan - Kyzyl to the border with Mongolia; former M54
  • P-258 "Baikal": Irkutsk - Ulan-Ude - Chita; former M55
  • P-263: Neftekumsk - Zelenokumsk - Mineral’nye Vody; became a portion of A167
  • P-285: Kochubey - Neftekumsk; became a portion of A167
  • P-289: Prokhladnyy - Baksan; became a portion of A158
  • P-291: Kizlyar - Makhachkala; became a portion of P215
  • P-291: Route M29 (Urvan’) - Verkhnyaya Balkariya - Ushtulu; redesignated as A154
  • P-297: Alagir - Nizhniy Zaramag - South Ossetia; became a portion of A164
  • P-297: Vladikavkaz - Alagir; redesignated as A162
  • P-297 "Amur": Chita - Never - Svobodnyy - Arkhara - Birobidzhan - Khabarovsk; former M58
  • P-298: Kardzhin - Alagir; became a portion of A164
  • P-298: Kursk - Voronezh to route P22 "Caspian"; former A144
  • P-301: Vladikavkaz - Nizhniy Lars to the border with Georgia, redesignated as A161
  • P-314: Ufa - Orenburg (including Ufa bypass); redesignated as P240
  • P-351: Yekaterinburg - Tyumen
  • P-354: Yekaterinburg - Shadrinsk - Kurgan
  • P-402: Tyumen - Yalutorovsk - Ishim - Omsk
  • P-404: Tyumen - Tobol’sk - Khanty-Mansiysk
  • P-418: Irkutsk - Ust-Ordynskiy; redesignated as A332
  • P-419: Route M53 "Baikal" - Bratsk - Ust’-Kut - Mirnyy - Yakutsk; redesignated as A331
  • P-488: Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk - Korsakov; redesignated as A391
  • P-495: Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk - Kholmsk; redesignated as A392
  • P-504 "Kolyma": Yakutsk - Magadan; former M56 "Kolyma"
  • P-600: Kostroma - Ivanovo; former A113
  • -: Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, Kholmsk
  • A-17: Kerch - Feodosia - Dzhankoy - Simferopol - Alushta - Yalta
  • A-18: Dzhankoy - Armiansk to the border with Ukraine (onto Kherson, Nikolaev, Odessa)
  • A-101: Moscow - Maloyaroslavets - Roslavl to the border with Belarus (onto Bobruisk, Slutsk); redesignated as A130
  • A-103 "Shchëlkovskoe shosse": Moscow - Shchëlkovo to route A107, entrances to Shchëlkovo and Star City
  • A-104: Moscow - Dmitrov - Dubna
  • A-105: Moscow - Domodedovo Airport
  • A-105: Rublevo-Uspenskoe shosse; redesignated as A106
  • A-106 "Novorizhskoe Highway": Rublevo-Uspenskoe shosse
  • A-107: Route A104 to route A104 (Moscow Small Ring Road)
  • A-108: Dmitrov - Dmitrov (Moscow Large Ring Road)
  • A-109: Il’inskoe shosse (with special access roads)
  • A-110: Semenovskoe to route A108
  • A-111: State complex "Zavidovo" to route M10 "Scandinavia/Russia"
  • A-112: Chepelëvo - Vel'yaminovo
  • A-113: Kostroma - Ivanovo; redesignated as P600
  • A-113: Circular roadway under construction in Moscow Oblast
  • A-114: Vologda - Vologda - Tikhvin to route P21 "Kola"
  • A-116: Novgorod-Pskov (in Soltsy, Porkhov); redesignated as P56
  • A-118: Beltway around St. Petersburg
  • A-119: Medvezhyegorsk - Pudozh - Vitegra - Vologda; former P5
  • A-120: Kirovsk - Mga - Gatchina - Bol’shaya Izhora (Saint Petersburg Southern Half Ring Road)
  • A-121: Saint Petersburg - Sortavala to route P21 "Kola"; former A129
  • A-129: Saint Petersburg - Priozersk - Sortavala - Petrozavodsk; redesignated as A121
  • A-130: Moscow - Maloyaroslavets - Roslavl to the border with Belarus; former A101
  • A-131: Access roads from route A130 to holiday resort "Arkhangelsk"; to household plot "Voskresenskoe"; to the sanatorium and holiday resort "Desna"
  • A-132: Smolensk to route M1 "Belarus"
  • A-133: Lipetsk to route M4 "Don"
  • A-134: Voronezh to route M4 "Don"
  • A-135: Rostov-on-Don to route M4 "Don"
  • A-136: Krasnodar to route M4 "Don"
  • A-138: Murmansk - Sputnik - Pechenga
  • A-141: Orel-Bryansk highway to route M3 "Ukraine"
  • A-141: Bryansk - Smolensk to the border with Belarus (onto Rudnev, Vitebsk), Entrance to the city of Smolensk; redesignated as P120
  • A-142: Trosna - Kalinovka
  • A-144: Kursk - Voronezh - Borisoglebsk to route M6 "Caspian"; redesignated as P298
  • A-146: Krasnodar - Verkhnebakanskiy
  • A-147: Dzhubga - Sochi - border with Georgia (Abkhazia); former M27
  • A-148 "Understudy Resort Prospect": Route A147 - Sochi, a motorway under construction
  • A-148: Route M27 (Adler) - Krasnaya Polyana; redesignated as A149
  • A-149: Adler - Krasnaya Polyana; former A148
  • A-151: Tsivilsk - Ulyanovsk
  • A-153: Nytva - Kudymkar; former P344
  • A-154: Urvan’ - Verkhnyaya Balkariya - Ushtulu; former P291
  • A-154: Astrakhan - Elista - Stavropol; redesignated as P216
  • A-155 "Sukhumi Military Road": Vladikavkaz - Karachaevsk - Dombay - border with Georgia (onto Abkhazia)
  • A-156: Lermontov - Cherkessk; redesignated as A165
  • A-156: Access roads from A155 to international holiday resort "Arkhyz" and the specialized Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences
  • A-157: Mineral’nye Vody Airport - Kislovodsk
  • A-158: Prokhladnyy - Baksan - El’brus
  • A-159: Maikop - Guzeripl’ - Caucasian state Biosphere Reserve; former P254
  • A-160: Maikop - Ust’-Labinsk - Korenovsk; former P253
  • A-161: Vladikavkaz - Nizhniy Lars to the border with Georgia; former P301
  • A-162: Vladikavkaz - Alagir; former P297
  • A-163: Vladikavkaz Airport to route P217 "Kavkaz"
  • A-164: Kultuk - Mondy to the border with Mongolia; redesignated as A333
  • A-164: Kardzhin - Alagir - Nizhniy Zaramag - South Ossetia; former P297 and P298
  • A-165: Route P297 "Baikal" (Ulan-Ude) - Kyakhta to the border with Mongolia; redesignated as A340
  • A-165: Lermontov - Cherkessk; former A156
  • A-166: Chita-Zabaikalsk to the border with the People's Republic of China; redesignated as A350
  • A-167: Kochubey - Neftekumsk - Zelenokumsk - Mineral’nye Vody; former P263 and P285
  • A-180 "Narva": Saint Petersburg - Ivangorod to the border with Estonia; former M11 "Narva"
  • A-181 "Scandinavia": Saint Petersburg - Vyborg to the border with Finland; also designated as M10
  • A-212: Pskov - Izborsk to the border with the Republic of Estonia (onto Riga)
  • A-216: Gvardeisk - Neman to the border with Lithuania (onto Siauliai, Jelgava, Rigu)
  • A-229 Kaliningrad - Chernyakhovsk - Nesterov to the border with Lithuania (onto Vilnius, Minsk, route M1 "Belarus")
  • A-240: Bryansk - Novozybkov to the border with Belarus (onto Homel, Pinsk, Kobrin); former M13
  • A-260: Volgograd - Kamensk-Shakhtinskiy to the border with Ukraine (onto Dnipropetrovsk, Kishinev); former M21
  • A-270: Route M4 "Don" - Novoshakhtinsk to the border with Ukraine (onto Poltava, Kiev); former M19
  • A-280: Rostov-on-Don - Taganrog to the border with Ukraine (onto Kharkiv, Odessa); former M23
  • A-290: Novorossiysk - Kerchenskiy proliv to the border with Ukraine (onto Simferopol); former M25
  • A-295: Yoshkar-Ola - Zelenodol’sk to route M7 "Volga"; former P175
  • A-300: Samara - Bol’shaya Chernigovka to the border with Kazakhstan (onto to Ural’sk, Aktyubinsk, Kzyl-Orda, Shymkent); former M32
  • A-305: Orenburg - Ilek to the border with Kazakhstan (onto Ural’sk); former P335
  • A-310: Chelyabinsk - Troitsk to the border with Kazakhstan (onto Kostanay, Karaganda, Balkhash, Almaty); former M36
  • A-320: Omsk - Cherlak to the border with Kazakhstan (onto Pavlodar, Semipalatinsk, Maykapchigay); former M38
  • A-322: Barnaul - Rubtsovsk to the border with Kazakhstan (onto Semipalatinsk); former A349
  • A-331 "Vilyuy": Tulun - Bratsk - Ust’-Kut - Mirnyy - Yakutsk; former P419
  • A-332: Irkutsk - Ust’-Ordynskiy; former P418
  • A-333: Kultuk - Mondy to the border with Mongolia; former A164
  • A-340: Ulan-Ude - Kyakhta to the border with Mongolia; former A165
  • A-349: Barnaul - Rubtsovsk to the border with Kazakhstan (onto Semipalatinsk); redesignated as A322
  • A-350: Chita - Zabaykal’sk to the border with China; former A166
  • A-360 "Lena": Never - Yakutsk; former M56 "Lena"
  • A-361: Route A360 "Lena" to the border with China
  • A-370 "Ussuri": Khabarovsk - Vladivostok, former M60
  • A-375 "Vostok": Khabarovsk - Krasnyy Yar - Ariadnoe - Chuguevka - Nakhodka, a motorway under construction
  • A-381: Nar'yan-Mara - Nar'yan-Mar Airport
  • A-382: Dudinka - Norilsk (Alykel Airport)
  • A-383: Tura - Tura Airport (Gornyy)
  • A-384: Anadyr - Anadyr Airport
  • A-385: Ust'-Palana - Palana Airport
  • A-391: Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk - Korsakov; former P488
  • A-392: Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk - Kholmsk; former P495
  • A-401: Port of Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy - Elisovo Airport

Access roads to ports, airports and railroad stations from cities Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, Anadyr, Dudinka, Naryan-Mar, Salekhard, Khanty-Mansiysk and from the urban-type settlements of Palana and Tura.

Regional roads[edit]

  • P-1: Brin-Navolok - Mirnyy - Kargopol' - Pesok - Prokshino
  • P-2: Dolmatovo - Nyandoma - Kargopol'
  • P-5: Vologda - Vitegra - Pudozh - Medvezhyegorsk, redesignated as A119
  • P-6: Cherepovets - Belozyorsk - Lipin Bor
  • P-7: Chekshino - Tot'ma - Nikolsk
  • P-8: Ustyuzhna - Valdai
  • P-18: Byelomorsk to route M18 "Kola"
  • P-19: Petrozavodsk - Voznesen'ye
  • P-37: Lodeynoye Pole - Vytegra; redesignated as 41K-001 and 19K-013
  • P-72: Vladimir - Murom - Arzamas
  • P-81: Kineshma - Elnat - Yuryevets - Puchezh - Tchkalovsk
  • P-84: Tver - Bezhetsk - Krasnyy Kholm - Vesegonsk - Ustyuzhna
  • P-85: Vishny Volochek - Maksatikha - Bezhetsk - Sonkovo
  • P-87: Rzhev - Selizharovo - Ostashkov
  • P-89: Ostashkov - Volgoverkhovye
  • P-90: Route M1 "Belarus" - Tver
  • P-96:
  • P-98: Kostroma - Sudislavl' - Makar'yev - Manturovo - Georgiyevskoye - Verkhnespasskoye
  • P-100: Sudislavl - Galich - Chuhloma - Soligalich
  • P-104: Sergiev Posad - Kalyazin - Uglich - Myshkin - Poshekhon'ye - Rybinsk - Cherepovets
  • P-105 "Kasimovskoye Highway": Moscow - Kasimovo
  • P-124: Shatsk - Sasovo - Pitelino - Kasimov; redesignated as 61K-012
  • P-134: Smolensk - Vyaz'ma - Zubtsov
  • P-125: Nizhny Novgorod - Ryazhsk
  • P-139: Belyov - Odoev - Tula
  • P-152: Rostov - Ivanovo - Shuya - Nizhny Novgorod
  • P-157: Uren - Shar'ya - Nikolsk - Veliky Ustyug - Kotlas
  • P-159: Nizhny Novgorod - Krasnyye Baki - Shakhun'ya - Yaransk
  • P-175: Yoshkar-Ola - Zelenodolsk to route M7 "Volga"; redesignated as A295
  • P-194: Route A144 to Ostrogozhsk - Rossosh - Kantemirovka
  • P-196: Route P194 to Podgorensky to route M4
  • P-221: Volgograd - Elista
  • P-224: Samara - Busuluk - Orenburg
  • P-225: Samara - Buguruslan
  • P-226: Samara - Engels - Volzhskiy
  • P-246: Bugul'ma - Buguruslan - Busuluk to the border with Kazakhstan
  • P-253: Maikop - Korenovsk
  • P-285: Kotchoubey - Neftekumsk - Zelenokumsk - Mineralnye Vody
  • P-291: Route M29 (Urvan’) - Verkhnyaya Balkariya - Ushtulu; redesignated as A154
  • P-301: Entrance to Vladikavkaz Airport
  • P-316: Sterlitamak - Beloretsk - Magnitogorsk
  • P-317: Birsk - Tastuba - Satka
  • P-322: Izhevsk - Sarapul
  • P-330: Shadrinsk to route P254 "Irytsh"
  • P-335: Orenburg - Ilek to the border with Kazakhstan (onto Uralsk); redesignated as A305
  • P-336: Orenburg - Orsk
  • P-337: Sara - Yuldybaevo
  • P-344: Nyvta - Kudymkar, redesignated as A153
  • P-352: Ekaterinburg - Serov
  • P-380: Novosibirsk - Kamen-na-Obi - Barnaul
  • P-384: Novosibirsk - Zhuravlyovo - Leninsk-Kuznetsk - Kemerovo - Yurga
  • P-384-1: Leninsk-Kuznetsk - Novokuznetsk
  • P-400: Tomsk - Mariinsk
  • P-401: Tyumen - Roshino Airport
  • P-409 "Yeniseyskiy trakt": Krasnoyarsk - Eniseisk
  • P-436: Ulan-Ude - Romanivka - Chita
  • P-437: Romanovka - Bagdarin
  • P-438 "Barguzinskiy trakt": Ulan-Ude - Kurumkan
  • P-440 "Dzhidinskiy trakt": Gusinoozyorsk - Zakamensk
  • P-441: Mukhorshibir - Bichura - Kyakhta
  • P-447: Nakhodka - Lazo - Kavalerovo
  • P-448: Lazo - Preobrazheniye
  • P-449: Route M60 to Lesozavodsk - Gornyye Klyuchi to route M60
  • P-454: Khabarovsk - Komsomolsk-on-Amur
  • P-455: Birobidzhan - Leninskoye - Dezhnevo
  • P-456: Birofeld - Amurzet
  • P-487: Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk - Okha
  • A-100 "Mozhayskoe Road": Moscow to route P90
  • A-102: Moscow - Lyubertsy - Zhukovsky - Ramenskoye
  • A-115: Route M10 "Scandinavia" to Novaya Ladoga
  • A-117: Opochka to the border with Belarus
  • A-122 "Vyborg Highway": Saint Petersburg to route M10 "Scandinavia"
  • A-123: Zelenogorsk - Primorsk - Vyborg; redesignated as 41A-082
  • A-128: Saint Petersburg - Vsevolozhsk - Mor'ye; redesignated as 41K-064
  • A-129: Saint Petersburg - Sortavala
  • A-143: Tambov - Morshansk - Shatsk
  • A-182: Route A370 "Ussuri" - Khorol' - Kamen'-Rybolov - Turiy Rog
  • A-183: Route A370 "Ussuri" - Yaroslavsky - Zharikovo - Kommissarovo
  • A-184: Ussuriysk - Galenki - Lipovtsy to the border with the People's Republic of China
  • A-188: Uglovoye - Artem - Fokino - Nakhodka
  • A-189: Razdolnoe - Barabash - Kraskino - Hasan, border crossing into North Korea
  • A-301 "Georgian Military Road": Beslan - Vladikavkaz - Nizhniy Lars to the border with Georgia (onto Tbilisi)

Recent additions[edit]

  • Уфа - Оренбург и Западный обход г. Уфы. (published December 24, 2008, to be in force since January 1, 2010)[4]

References[edit]

  1. ^ A February 7, 2007 order of the Russian Ministry of Transportation about highway ID numbers (Приказ Министерства транспорта Российской Федерации (Минтранс России) от 7 февраля 2007 г. N 16 г. Москва "Об утверждении Правил присвоения автомобильным дорогам идентификационных номеров") (Russian)
  2. ^ A Russian decree of December 24 1991 (RSFSR) about the list of federal highways, with subsequent amendments by the Russian Federation (Постановление Правительства РСФСР от 24 декабря 1991 г. N 62 "Об утверждении перечней федеральных дорог в РСФСР" (Russian)
  3. ^ [1]
  4. ^ [2]