Robert Ardrey

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Robert Ardrey
Robert Ardrey.jpg
Robert Ardrey, c. 1960
Born (1908-10-16)October 16, 1908
Chicago, Illinois, United States
Died January 14, 1980(1980-01-14) (aged 71)
Kalk Bay, South Africa
Occupation Writer, screenwriter, and playwright
Nationality American
Alma mater University of Chicago, Phi Beta Kappa, 1930
Mentor was Thornton Wilder
Notable works
Notable awards
Spouses Helen Johnson
(m. 1938–1960; divorced)
Berdine Grunewald
(m. 1960–1980; his death)

Robert Ardrey (October 16, 1908, Chicago, Illinois – January 14, 1980, South Africa) was an American playwright and screenwriter who returned to his academic training in anthropology and the behavioral sciences in the 1950s.[1][2]

African Genesis (1961) and The Territorial Imperative (1966), two of Robert Ardrey's most widely read works, as well as Desmond Morris' The Naked Ape (1967), were key elements in the public discourse of the 1960s that challenged earlier anthropological assumptions. Ardrey's ideas notably influenced Arthur C. Clarke and Stanley Kubrick in the development of 2001: A Space Odyssey,[3][4][5][6] as well as Sam Peckinpah, to whom Strother Martin gave copies of two of Ardrey's books.[7][8][9][10][11]

Life[edit]

Robert Ardrey was born on October 16, 1908 to Robert Leslie Ardrey and Marie Haswell. His father died in 1919 from pneumonia during the influenza epidemic and he was raised by his mother.[12]:2 He grew up on the South Side of Chicago and attended the nearby University of Chicago, graduating Phi Beta Kappa.[13] While in attendance, he studied creative writing with Thornton Wilder, who would become his lifelong mentor.[12]:4[13][14]:12–3, 15

His first play, Star Spangled, opened on Broadway in 1935 and lasted only a few days, but resulted in the award of a Guggenheim Fellowship.[13] The award granted Ardrey the financial independence to focus on writing plays. Several of his subsequent plays, including Casey Jones, How to Get Tough About It, and his most famous play, Thunder Rock, were subsequently produced on Broadway.[13]

In 1938 he moved to Hollywood to work as a screenwriter for Metro Goldwyn Mayer.[13] There he wrote many screenplays, including those for adaptations such as The Three Musketeers[15] (1948, with Gene Kelly), Madame Bovary [16] (1949),The Secret Garden [17] (1949), and The Wonderful Country[18] (1959, with Robert Mitchum). He also wrote original screenplays, including the screenplay for Khartoum (1966, directed by Basil Dearden, starring Charlton Heston and Laurence Olivier) for which he was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Writing, Story, and Screenplay.[13][19]

During the 1950s Ardrey became increasingly disenchanted with Hollywood and what he saw as the growing role money had started to play in creative decisions.[20][21][22] At the same time and largely by accident, he renewed his interest in human origins and human behavior, which he had studied at the University of Chicago.[13] In the summer of 1956 he moved with his wife and two sons to Geneva. He spent the following years traveling in Southern and Eastern Africa, conducting research for what was to become his first book on the subject, African Genesis (1961), ultimately an international bestseller. Subsequently, he went on to write a total of four books in his widely read Nature of Man series, including his best known book The Territorial Imperative (1966).[13]

In October 1960 he moved with his second wife to Trastevere, Rome, where they lived for 17 years. In 1977 they moved to a small town named Kalk Bay just outside Cape Town, South Africa.[13] He continued to publish influential works until his death on January 14, 1980. His ashes, along with those of his wife, are interred in the Holy Trinity Church overlooking False Bay.[12]:1[13]

Theater and Film Career[edit]

After graduating from the University of Chicago, under the continuing mentorship of Thornton Wilder, Ardrey wrote a novel, several plays, and many short stories, all of which remained unpublished.[14]:15 It was Wilder's rule that "A young author should not write for market until his style [has] 'crystalized'"[14]:14–15 Wilder and Ardrey agreed that this moment came with the writing of the play Star Spangled.

Star Spangled opened on Broadway in 1935. It was a comedy that brought to life the classic struggles of an immigrant family living on the South Side of Chicago. It received largely negative reviews and lasted only a few days. However it did catch the attention of notable playwright Sidney Howard, whom Ardrey claims was instrumental in the resulting award of a Guggenheim fellowship for promise as a young playwright.[13][14]:18 The award allowed Ardrey the financial independence to remain in Chicago and focus on writing plays.

While in Chicago Ardrey wrote two more plays. The first, Casey Jones, was a play about railroad men and their love for their machines. The second, How to Get Tough About It, Ardrey describes as "A proletarian love story of pleasant dimensions."[14]:18 In 1938 Guthrie McClintic presented How to Get Tough About It and Elia Kazan directed Casey Jones.[14]:19[23] The plays opened ten days apart and were massive failures. In his preface to Plays of Three Decades Ardrey writes:

No author in Broadway memory had attained two such failures on a scale quite so grand on evenings quite so close together. Had they opened six months apart, none would have noticed. Coming as they did, I became a kind of upside-down white-headed boy, a figure thundering toward literary glory in reverse gear. Hollywood, incapable of resisting the colossal, bid lavishly for my services. And Samuel Goldwyn, buyer of none but the best, bought me.[14]:19

Ardrey signed a contract with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer and moved for the first time to Hollywood to work as a screenwriter. He worked on several projects, including Samuel Goldwyn's notorious boondoggle remake of Graustark, which was cancelled, and a western called The Cowboy and the Lady, from which he was dropped (though he later used most of the plot for his smash success Lady Takes A Chance).[12]:53–8 While in Los Angeles he would meet and work with Samuel Goldwyn, Clarence Brown, Pandro Berman, Garson Kanin, Gene Fowler, Lillian Hellman, Sidney Howard, and S.N. Behrman.[12]:53–60[14]:19

In 1938, however, he received word that his Broadway agent, Harold Freedman, had sold the film rights to his play How to Get Tough About It. Ardrey decided to use the opportunity to take time off to write a play. He travelled to Tucson where he married Helen Johnson with famed Hollywood director Garson Kanin as his best man. Following his wedding, he sent a note to Samuel Goldwyn which read: "Dear Mr. Goldwyn. I fear that I am wasting your money, and I'm sure you are wasting my time."[12]:60 He moved with his new wife back to the east coast and set to work, first on a minor project which he would abandon, and then on the play that would become Thunder Rock.[12]:60[23]

Thunder Rock[edit]

Main article: Thunder Rock (play)

Robert Ardrey wrote Thunder Rock during the period of escalation in Europe which would lead to World War II. Despairing of the growing isolationism among Americans, Ardrey became convinced that American involvement in the war was a moral necessity.[12]:62 However he did not intend to write a play about the conflict until he was struck by a moment of inspiration during a performance of Swan Lake, in which he conceived of "the play from beginning to end, complete with first, second, and third act curtains."[12]:63 (quoted)[14]:23

In his autobiography, Ardrey gives the following summary of the play:

My story was that of a renowned journalist who having experienced the disillusionments of the 1930's had given up all hope of influencing man toward a better world. In his depths, he takes a job as keeper of a lonely lighthouse on a rock in Lake Michigan. On that rock, a century earlier, had been wrecked a ship carrying immigrants to the New World. It was a time of legitimate hope – he thought. And there – within this lighthouse, symbolically the shape of his mind – he recreated a little world populated by the hopeful immigrants to the New World. The play consists of the journalist-lightkeeper and the long-dead people of his own resurrection, his relations with characters existing only in his own mind. Yet in the probing of his own creations, his integrity catches up with him. They were as much escaping problems of their world as he was of his. In the end he returns to reality.[12]:63

Thunder Rock, an anti-isolationist play, opened on Broadway in November, 1939 to isolationist critics and a public wary of war. It received largely negative reviews and a poor reception.[12]:66 In the introduction to Plays of Three Decades, Ardrey writes that it opened "to the worst reviews I have ever received. Our most eminent critic deplored a play containing so much thunder and so little rock." [14]:24

During the summer of 1940 Ardrey discovered, when he read a syndicated column from Britain, that unbeknownst to him Thunder Rock had been having a massively successful run in London.[12]:66 In the column Vincent Sheehan wrote that it had become so emblematic as to be "London's Chu Chin Chow of World War II."[24] The British rights had been sold to Herbert Marshall, who had launched a production starring Michael Redgrave. The play had been so successful that the British Minister of Information, Duff Cooper, arranged to have the Treasury department fund a production at the Globe Theatre in London's West End.

The play deeply resonated with a British public under siege. Eminent theater critic Harold Hobson wrote of Thunder Rock:

"The theatre… did a great deal to keep the morale of the British people high. One intellectual play had an enormous effect in keeping alight a spirit of hope at a time when it was nearer to extinction than it had ever been, either before or after. This was Thunder Rock, by Robert Ardrey. What he accomplished for the British people at a moment of supreme despair… merits their lasting gratitude. … He, more quietly but equally effectively as Churchill, urged us never to surrender."[25]

Following its success in London, Thunder Rock has had a lasting legacy. Later in 1940 the BBC broadcast a live radio version,[26] and in 1946 they produced an adaption for television.[27] In 1942, Thunder Rock was turned into a film, directed by the Boulting Brothers, also starring Michael Redgrave. (See Thunder Rock (film))

Shortly following the war, productions of Thunder Rock were quickly launched in Vienna, Prague, Budapest, and, most famously, in Allied-occupied Berlin where it was the first modern play to go up in the American zone.[12]:67[14]:24–6 It continues to be commonly produced in American university theaters and productions have gone up all around the globe, including in Harare (formerly Salisbury), Zimbabwe, and Nairobi, Kenya.[12]:66

Hollywood 1939-1946[edit]

After Thunder Rock quickly closed on Broadway, Ardrey returned to Hollywood. His first official credit was the screenplay for the adaptation of Sidney Howard's Pulitzer Prize-winning play They Knew What They Wanted (1939). It was directed by Garson Kanin, starred Carole Lombard and Charles Laughton, and was shot on location in Napa Valley.[12]:68 In 1946, after a series of talks with RKO, Ardrey and his new agent Harold Norling Swanson negotiated the first-ever independent contract with a major Hollywood studio for him to write the screen adaptation of the A. J. Cronin novel The Green Years.[12]:76 The contract stipulated that Ardrey could work at his home in Brentwood - an unprecedented studio concession - and he was not to be bothered until he completed the screenplay in around six weeks.[12]:89–90 The Green Years debuted to record profits and went on to be one of the highest grossing films of 1946.[12]:90, 96[28]

Following these successes in Hollywood, Ardrey returned to New York to reengage the theater. There he wrote Jeb.

Jeb[edit]

Main article: Jeb (play)

Jeb was a play about a disabled African American soldier returning to his home in the rural south after having fought in the war in the Pacific. He has lost one leg, but gained the ability to run an adding machine. Seeking out employment, he is faced with the bigotry of his countrymen. Jeb opened in New York in 1946.[29] It received largely positive reviews (famed American theatre critic George Jean Nathan called it the best play on the topic of civil rights) and found small but enthusiastic audiences.[12]:95 However, due to factors including high production costs and relatively low revenues, the play had to close after a run of only one week.[12]:95–6[30] The critical consensus, which Ardrey came to agree with, was that Jeb was far ahead of its time.[12]:96[31][32][33]

Hollywood 1946-1966[edit]

Following the short run of Jeb Ardrey moved back to Hollywood and signed a two picture deal with MGM. In 1946 and '47 he wrote The Secret Garden.[17] In 1947 he wrote the screenplay for The Three Musketeers, (which would become the second-highest grossing film of 1948.[28]) starring Lanna Turner and Gene Kelly. This became Gene Kelly's favorite non-musical role.[15] In 1949, Ardrey wrote the screenplay for Gustave Flaubert's classic novel Madame Bovary. The film starred Jennifer Jones with James Mason playing the role of Flaubert.[34] The novel was originally tried for obscenity in France and Ardrey used this as a device to frame the story and allow for a commentator.[12]:103

In 1947, Ardrey, amid growing persecution of Hollywood by the House Un-American Activities Committee, was elected to the board of the Screen Writers Guild and made chairman of its Political Advisory Committee.[12]:106 Following the foundation of the Committee for the First Amendment, Ardrey flew to Washington, along with Lauren Bacall, Humphrey Bogart, Gene Kelly, Danny Kaye, and John Huston to defend The Hollywood Ten.[12]:107 Later, on behalf of the Guild, Ardrey worked with Thurman Arnold to lodge a suit against the blacklist with the Supreme Court. The suit came up for review four years later, but the Guild dropped it.[12]:108–9, 112

In the early '50s, partly due to its enforcement of the blacklists and partly due to the increasing role banks were playing in creative decisions, Ardrey began to feel a growing dissatisfaction with Hollywood[20][21][22] and started to travel abroad. He travelled to Paris, Madrid, Barcelona, the Riviera, Venice, Yugoslavia, where he spent a month living in Belgrade, Greece, Istanbul, and Munich. He later described these travels as "necessary exercises" for his book African Genesis.[12]:114–5

In 1952 Ardrey joined the Adlai Stevenson campaign against Richard Nixon as a part of the group "Hollywood for Stevenson".[12]:110–1 The group sponsored an investigator to go to Nixon's hometown for research. While there he discovered, in the high school newspaper archives, that Richard Nixon had been known as Tricky Dick.[12]:111

In 1954 Ardrey wrote the adaptation of John Master's novel Bhowani Junction.[35] Due in part to the intervention of the banks financing the film, Ardrey entered into contested negotiations over rewrites. Eventually he quit and took his name off the film.[36]

Ardrey turned his attention toward Africa. He was soon to begin his pioneering work in paleoanthropology, but he also continued his career as a screenwriter. In 1964 he wrote the first screenplay adaptation of Isak Dinesen's novel Out of Africa.[37][38] In 1966 he wrote another screenplay set in Africa, the Academy Award-nominated Khartoum.

Khartoum[edit]

Main article: Khartoum (film)

Khartoum was written and produced in 1966, directed by Basil Dearden. The film is based on historical accounts of of British Gen. Charles "Chinese" Gordon's defense of the Sudanese city of Khartoum from the forces of the Mahdist army during the Siege of Khartoum.[39]

Khartoum starred Charlton Heston as General Gordon and Laurence Olivier as the Mahdi (Muhammad Ahmed). Heston, in his autobiography, wrote about his decision to take the role: "It's a good part, presents the challenge of doing a mystic, as well as the English thing. Also, it's a helluva good script."[40]

The Academy agreed with Heston's assessment of the script. In 1967 Khartoum earned Ardrey a nomination for the Oscar for Best Original Screenplay.[41][42]

Africa[edit]

In 1955, when Ardrey was considering a trip to Africa, Max Ascoli, publisher of The Reporter, offered to buy anything that Ardrey would write there.[12]:119 At the same time Ardrey renewed an acquaintance with prominent geologist Richard Foster Flint. Because of Ardrey's background in geology and paleontology, Flint arranged for Ardrey to investigate claims made by Raymond Dart about a specimen of Australopithecus africanus.[12]:119

This trip would serve as the beginning of Ardrey's renewed interest in the human sciences and the initiation of his groundbreaking work in Paleoanthropology.

Paleoanthropology[edit]

As a science writer for the informed non-specialist reader in paleoanthropology, which encompasses anthropology, ethology, paleontology, zoology and[43] human evolution, Robert Ardrey was among the proponents of the hunting hypothesis and the killer ape theory.

Ardrey postulated that precursors of Australopithecus survived millions of years of drought in the Miocene and Pliocene epochs, as the savannah spread and the forests shrank, by adapting the hunting ways of carnivorous species. Changes in survival techniques and social organisation gradually differentiated pre-humans from other primates. Concomitant changes in diet potentiated unique developments in the human brain.

The killer ape theory posits that aggression, a vital factor in hunting prey for food, was a fundamental characteristic which distinguished prehuman ancestors from other primates.

These themes have also been investigated in academia by, among others:

Researchers[edit]

Some of the scientists whose research particularly informed Robert Ardrey's scientific investigations, and with several of whom Ardrey consulted at length while developing his four major works in Africa from the 1940s through the 1970s, include:

Books[edit]

Fiction

  • World's Beginning (1944) (Cited in Everett F. Bleiler's The Checklist of Fantastic Literature, 1948.)
  • The Brotherhood of Fear (1952)
  • Plays of Three Decades: Thunder Rock / Jeb / Shadow of Heroes (1968) (Includes an autobiographical preface)

Nonfiction

Plays[edit]

Screenplays[edit]

Honors[edit]

Additional Resources[edit]

There are a number of university libraries that house Robert Ardrey's papers. The primary archive for the Robert Ardrey Collection is at the Howard Gotlieb Archival Research Center in the Mugar Memorial Library at Boston University.[47] There are also additional collections of Robert Ardrey's works held at UCLA,[48] Rutgers,[49] and the University of Chicago.[50]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Finding Aid for the Robert Ardrey Papers, 1935-1960". Online Archive of California. 
  2. ^ a b Bruce Eder. "Robert Ardrey". Allmovie (The New York Times). Equally comfortable dealing with literary editors such as Bennett Cerf or moguls like Darryl F. Zanuck, he also retained his credibility in the intellectual realm by authoring texts on anthropology, history, and sociology that remain widely respected decades after their publication. The widening dates between Ardrey's film projects came as a result of his increasing literary activity, as he began generating screenplays and novels on his own in the early 1950s and subsequently returned to his academic training in anthropology and the behavioral sciences. From the end of the 1950s, he kept his oar in both fields, film and academia, and occupied a virtually unique position in the Hollywood pecking order because of his dual career. In 1962, he took on the daunting task of turning the World War I-era novel The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse into relevant entertainment for the early 1960s, authoring the screenplay for Vincente Minnelli's gargantuan 1962 all-star release. 
  3. ^ Clarke, Arthur C. (1972). "2001 Diary (excerpts)". The Lost Worlds of 2001. New American Library (New York). 
  4. ^ Stanley Kubrick (February 27, 1972). "Letter to the editor". The New York Times. Kubrick Site. 
  5. ^ Richard D. Erlich et al. (1997–2005). "Strange Odyssey: From Dart to Ardrey to Kubrick and Clarke". English studies/Film theory course, Science fiction and Film. Miami University. 
  6. ^ Daniel Richter (2002). "Moonwatcher's Memoir: A Diary of 2001, a Space Odyssey". New York City: Carroll & Graf. ISBN 978-0-7867-1073-7. …the longest flash forward in the history of movies: three million years, from bone club to artificial satellite, in a twenty-fourth of a second. (From the Foreword by Arthur C. Clarke.) 
  7. ^ "Peckinpah: Primitive Horror". Time. December 20, 1971. 
  8. ^ David Weddle. If They Move . . . Kill 'Em!: The Life and Times of Sam Peckinpah (p. 396). 1994 first edition: Grove Press, ISBN 0-8021-3776-8, ASIN 0802137768.
  9. ^ Paul Cremean (23 May 2006). "Peckinpah's West vs. Mann's Metropolis". Grover Watrous' Golden Egg. Drawing heavily from the work of Robert Ardrey, controversial sociologist and author of ‘African Genesis’ and ‘The Territorial Imperative,’ Peckinpah ascribed to the belief that man is by nature territorial, brutal and elementally animal. 
  10. ^ Garner Simmons. Peckinpah: A Portrait in Montage (p. 128). 1982 first edition: University of Texas Press, ISBN 0-292-76493-6, ASIN 0292764936. 2004 paperback edition: Limelight, ISBN 978-0-87910-273-9, ASIN 087910273X.
  11. ^ Marshall Fine. Bloody Sam: The Life and Films of Sam Peckinpah. 1991 first edition: Dutton Books, ISBN 1-55611-236-X, ISBN 978-1-55611-236-2. 2006 paperback edition: Miramax Books, ISBN 1-4013-5972-8, ISBN 978-1-4013-5972-0.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad Ardrey, Robert; Ardrey, Daniel (ed.). "The Education of Robert Ardrey: An Autobiography" (unpublished manuscript ca. 1980, available through Howard Gotteleib Archival Research Center)
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k The Robert Ardrey Estate Website. [1] "About"
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Ardrey, Robert. Plays of Three Decades, Introduction. New York: Atheneum. 1968. Print
  15. ^ a b The Three Musketeers' at the Internet Movie Database
  16. ^ Madame Bovary' at the Internet Movie Database
  17. ^ a b The Secret Garden' at the Internet Movie Database
  18. ^ The Wonderful Country' at the Internet Movie Database
  19. ^ Khartoum' at the Internet Movie Database
  20. ^ a b Ardrey, Robert. "What Happened to Hollywood?" The Reporter 24 January 1957: 19-22. Print
  21. ^ a b Ardrey, Robert. "Hollywood's Fall into Virtue." The Reporter 21 February 1957: 13-7. Print
  22. ^ a b Ardrey, Robert. "Hollywood: The Toll of the Frenzied Forties." The Reporter 21 March 1957: 29-33. Print
  23. ^ a b Aldgate, Anthony et. al. Britain Can Take It: The Britisch Cinema in the Second World War 2nd ed. London: I.B. Tauris, 2007. p. 171. Print.
  24. ^ Quoted in Anderson, John. "London's Hit May Test Tempo for Our Season" Journal American August 25, 1940. Print.
  25. ^ Hobson, Harold. Theatre in Britain: A Personal View. Oxford: Phaidon, 1984. pp. 117-8. Print
  26. ^ BBC Genome Project. http://genome.ch.bbc.co.uk/2b7a2614481348ef92324ad4d6a18b70
  27. ^ BBC Genome Project. http://genome.ch.bbc.co.uk/e6f5920c71594a48ae4d497a117afece http://genome.ch.bbc.co.uk/e6f5920c71594a48ae4d497a117afece
  28. ^ a b The Eddie Mannix Ledger, Los Angeles: Margaret Herrick Library, Center for Motion Picture Study.
  29. ^ Jeb at the Internet Broadway Database
  30. ^ Wertheim, Albert Staging the War: American Drama and World War II 2004. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press. p. 267. Print
  31. ^ Kissel, Howard. David Merrick, the Abominable Showman: The Unauthorized Biography 1993. New York: Applause Books. p. 71.
  32. ^ Deane, Pamela S. James Edwards: African American Hollywood Icon Jefferson, NC: McFarland. p. 4. Print.
  33. ^ See especially Wertheim 2004, p. 267: "Jeb shows how the participation of African Americans in World War II and the occupational training they received in the armed forces prepare them in the postwar period to dress for battle in a new war to end racial discrimination and oppression at home. This is heady and unsettling stuff in 1946 for Broadway audiences and for society trying to return to prewar 'normalcy' and to put returning white soldiers back into the work force. It is no small wonder that Jeb, with its incisive unveiling of racism’s economic underpinnings and with its militant ending, closed after six performances."
  34. ^ Madame Bovary at the Internet Movie Database
  35. ^ http://hgar-srv3.bu.edu/collections/collection?id=121500
  36. ^ Bhowani Junction' at the Internet Movie Database
  37. ^ Brief description from Royal Books
  38. ^ Ardrey, Daniel. Preface to Ardrey, Robert; Ardrey, Daniel (ed.). "The Education of Robert Ardrey: An Autobiography" (unpublished manuscript ca. 1980, available through Howard Gotteleib Archival Research Center)
  39. ^ Khartoum at the Internet Movie Database
  40. ^ Quoted in Khartoum Film Article at Turner Classic Movies
  41. ^ Oscars website, 1967 ceremony
  42. ^ Khartoum at TCMDb
  43. ^ African Genesis
  44. ^ "Robert Ardrey (10/16/1908 - 1/14/1980) Other Credits". AMC (TV network) website. 
  45. ^ The Schumann Story (1950) at the Internet Movie Database
  46. ^ "Robert Ardrey Filmography". DVDEmpire.com. Most Worked With: 1. Peter Ustinov 2. Pandro S. Berman 3. Raoul Walsh 4. Van Heflin 5. Angela Lansbury 6. Christopher Kent 7. Frank Allenby 8. Gene Kelly 9. George Sidney 10. Gladys Cooper 
  47. ^ "Ardrey, Robert". Howard Gotlieb Archival Research Center (HGARC), Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University. 
  48. ^ http://www.oac.cdlib.org/findaid/ark:/13030/tf5w1006sq/entire_text/
  49. ^ http://ejbe.libraries.rutgers.edu/index.php/jrul/article/viewFile/1654/3094
  50. ^ https://www.lib.uchicago.edu/e/scrc/findingaids/view.php?eadid=ICU.SPCL.ARDREYR

External links[edit]

General

Plays and screenplays

Paleoanthropology