Born in Jersey City, New Jersey, he received a BFA from the School of Visual Arts in 1982. Casilla has illustrated biographies of Martin Luther King Jr., John F. Kennedy, Jackie Robinson, and Eleanor Roosevelt. Casilla has a Hispanic background that is reflected in his style of illustration. He has illustrated various multicultural children books. His parents are native from Puerto Rico. Casilla was recorded to have been interested in drawing ever since he was a child. He attended school in Puerto Rico in the fourth grade. He currently resides in New Fairfield, Connecticut. He lives with his wife and two children. He has three cats and one dog.
Robert Casilla has worked as a freelance illustrator for magazines, book publishers, and educational publishers. He has illustrated over 25 children's books. He currently teaches art to children and he visits schools to talk to students about his process of illustrating books and biographies.  He studied under the artists Marshal Arisman, Jim McMullan, Baron Storey and Julian Allen.
Robert Casilla has illustrated the following books:
- The Little Painter of Sabana Grande
- Jalapeño Bagels
- The Legend of Mexicatl
- First Day in Grapes
Robert Casilla has illustrated the biographies of the following:
- Martin Luther King, Jr.
- John F. Kennedy
- Eleanor Roosevelt
- Rosa Parks
- Jackie Robinson
- Jesse Owens
- Simon Bolivar
Robert Casilla has been featured in the following exhibitions:
- Connecticut Watercolor Society Group Show November 2010
- Connecticut Watercolor Society Group Show June 2010
- Connecticut Watercolor Society Group Show December 2009: Honorable Mention- El Yunque Rain Forest Three Years After Hurricane.
- Connecticut Watercolor Society Group Show May 2009
- Society of Illustrators Annual Group Show 51- March 2009
- Society of Illustrators Traveling Exhibition- 1994
- Society of Illustrators Annual Group Show 36- February 1994
- The Art of the Baseball Card Group Exhibition 1991
- Pelham Art Center Children's Book Show 1989
- Society of Illustrators Annual Group Show 28- April 1986
Robert Casilla has received the following awards:
- Highlights for Children, Illustration of the Year Award
- Society of Illustrators Annual #28, #36
- American Literacy Corporation Illustrator Choice Award 2006
- "Birthdat Bios: Robert Casilla" Children's Literature Network Accessed 5 April 2011
- "Profile". Robert Casilla. Retrieved 2 November 2013.
- "Robert Castilla". PaperTigers. Retrieved 2 November 2013.
- "Robert Casilla Fine Art". Robert Casilla Fine Art. Retrieved 2 November 2013.
- "Robert Casilla". Children's Literature Network. Retrieved 2 November 2013.
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