Robert Daniel Murphy
|Robert Daniel Murphy|
Murphy arrives for Potsdam conference July 15, 1945
October 28, 1894|
|Died||January 9, 1978
Borough of Manhattan, New York, New York
|Organization||U.S. Department of State|
|Height||6 ft 4 in (1.93 m)|
Board member of
|Spouse(s)||Mildred Claire (née Taylor) (1921-1974, her death)|
Born in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, Murphy began his career federal career at the U.S. Post Office (1916) then moved to be cipher clerk at the American Legation in Bern, Switzerland (1917). He was admitted to the U.S. Foreign Service in 1921. Among the several posts he held were Vice-Consul in Zurich and Munich, consul in Seville, consul in Paris from 1930 to 1936, and chargé d’affaires to the Vichy government. He was also the one-time State Department specialist on France.
In February 1941, Murphy negotiated the Murphy-Weygand Agreement, which allowed the United States to export to French North Africa in spite of the British blockade and trade restrictions against the Vichy-governed area.
In autumn of 1942, at President Roosevelt's behest, Murphy investigated conditions in French North Africa in preparation for the Allied landings - Operation Torch, the first major Allied ground offensive during World War II. He was appointed the President’s personal representative with the rank of Minister to French North Africa. Murphy made contact with various French army officers in Algiers and recruited them to support the Allies when the invasion of French North Africa came.
Prior to the November 8 invasion, Murphy, along with US General Mark Wayne Clark, had worked to gain the important blessing of the anti-British French General Henri Giraud for the attack. This blessing could be deployed if necessary against Governor François Darlan in order to gain his cooperation for the invasion. Darlan's cooperation was formalised on November 22; the Governor of French North Africa was assassinated little more than a month later.
Diplomatic career after World War II
- 1949 Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary, Belgium
- 1952 Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary, Japan
- 1953 Assistant Secretary for United Nations Affairs
- 1953 Deputy Under Secretary for Political Affairs (Assistant Secretary)
- 1955 Deputy Under Secretary for Political Affairs
- 1956 Career Ambassador
- 1958 Personal representative of President Eisenhower during the Lebanon Crisis of 1958
- 1959 Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs
After government service
Murphy retired from the U.S. State Department in December 1959, but became an adviser to Presidents Kennedy, Johnson, and Nixon. He served on President Gerald Ford's Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board.
- "The Bases of Peace", [Washington] United States Department of State, 1958
- "Diplomat among Warriors", [1st ed.], Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday, 1964.
- Roberts, Chalmers M. (February 11, 1978). "Robert D. Murphy: Loyal Soldier of the Cold War". Washington Post (Washington, D.C). p. A13. ISSN 0190-8286. ProQuest document ID 146953198. Retrieved 2014-08-22.
- "Robert D(aniel) Murphy". Contemporary Authors Online. Detroit: Gale. 2001. GALE|H1000071527. Retrieved 2014-08-22. Biography in Context.
- "Robert D. Murphy, Diplomat, Dies at 83; Planned Allied Invasion of North Africa; Breath-Taking Moment De Gaulle Not Informed Studied Law While Working Envoy to Belgium Ranking "Old Pro"". New York Times. January 11, 1978. p. B9. Retrieved 2014-08-23. (subscription required)
- Fox, Margalit (July 10, 2014). "Rosemary Murphy, 89, Emmy Winner Familiar to Broadway, Dies". New York Times. Retrieved 2014-08-23.
- Vaughan, Hal (2006). FDR's 12 apostles : the spies who paved the way for the invasion of North Africa. Guilford, Conn.: Lyons Press. ISBN 9781592289165. LCCN 2006022143. Retrieved 2014-08-23.
- "Office of Strategic Services Society". Falls Church, VA. Retrieved 2014-08-23.
- "Robert D. Murphy". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 2014-08-23.
- "Robert Daniel Murphy". Dictionary of American Biography. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. 1995. GALE|BT2310006918. Retrieved 2014-08-22. Biography in Context.
- "Robert Daniel Murphy Papers, Biographical Note". Stanford, California: Hoover Institution Archives. Retrieved 2014-08-22.
- Weil, Martin (January 10, 1978). "Robert D. Murphy Dies; Longtime U.S. Diplomat Played Key Role in WWII". The Washington Post. p. C6. ProQuest document ID 146964448.
- Gabriel Kolko (1968; 1990 edition with new afterword), The Politics of War: The World and United States Foreign Policy, 1943-1945, ASIN B0007EOISO. Chapter 4.
- Atkinson, Rick (2002). An army at dawn : the war in North Africa, 1942-1943 (First ed.). New York, NY: Henry Holt & Co. pp. 45–46, 48–91, 61, 72, 89, 93–96, 107, 115, 118–119, 121–123, 158, 251, 252. ISBN 0805062882. LCCN 2002024130. Retrieved 2014-08-23.
- "Former Steering Committee Members". bilderbergmeetings.org. Bilderberg Group. Retrieved 2014-02-08.
- "USPS Stamp News: SIX DISTINGUISHED DIPLOMATS HONORED ON U.S. POSTAGE STAMPS". U.S. Postal Service. May 30, 2006. Archived from the original on 2006-10-27. Retrieved 2014-08-23.
- Langer, William L. (1947). Our Vichy Gamble.
- Brands, H. W. (1988). Cold Warriors: Eisenhower's Generation and American Foreign Policy.
- "Editorial, “Gentleman and Diplomat”". Foreign Service Journal. January 1960. Retrieved 2014-08-22.
- Murphy, Robert (March 1954). "Remarks of The Honorable Robert Murphy". Foreign Service Journal. Retrieved 2014-08-22.
- Murphy, Robert (May 1952). "The Soldier and the Diplomat". Foreign Service Journal. Retrieved 2014-08-22.
- Robert Daniel Murphy at Find a Grave
- The Papers of Dwight David Eisenhower, Volume XX
- A film clip "Longines Chronoscope with Robert Murphy" is available for free download at the Internet Archive [more]
- "Register of the Robert Daniel Murphy Papers, 1913-1977". Stanford, California: Hoover Institution Archives. Retrieved 2014-08-22.
John D. Hickerson
|Assistant Secretary of State for International Organization Affairs
March 20, 1953 – November 30, 1953
David McK. Key
|Sylvanus Thayer Award recipient
W. Averell Harriman