Robert E. Kraut

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Robert E. Kraut
Robert E Kraut 2.jpg
Born (1946-08-30) August 30, 1946 (age 68)[1]
Residence Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Citizenship United States United States
Nationality United States United States
Fields Social psychology, Human-Computer Interaction
Institutions Carnegie Mellon University
(1993– )
Bell Communications Research (1984–1993)
Princeton University (1983–1988)
Bell Labs (1980–1983)
Cornell University (1974–1981)
University of Pennsylvania (1972–1974)[1]
Alma mater Lehigh University (B.A., 1968)
Yale University (Ph.D., 1973)
Notable awards Golden Fleece Award, CHI Academy, Fellow Association for Psychological Science

Robert E. Kraut (born 30 August 1946) is an American social psychologist who studies human-computer interaction, online communities, internet use, group coordination, computers in organizations, and the role of visual elements in interpersonal communication. He is a Herbert Simon Professor of Human-computer Interaction at the Human-Computer Interaction Institute at Carnegie Mellon University.


Robert Kraut graduated Phi Beta Kappa from Lehigh University in 1968 and received his Ph.D. in social psychology from Yale University in 1973.[1] He joined the sociology faculty at the University of Pennsylvania in 1972 and moved to Cornell University in 1974.

In 1980, Kraut joined Bell Labs as a visiting scientist and departed Cornell in 1981 to become a full-time scientist working in Bell's Interface Planning group. Following the 1984 Bell System divestiture, he worked in the Behavioral Science research group at Bell Communications Research (Bellcore) and later became the director of the Interpersonal Communication research. During his tenure at Bell, Kraut was also a visiting lecturer and fellow at Princeton University. In 1993, Kraut left Bellcore and accepted a full-time faculty appointment at Carnegie Mellon University as a professor of social psychology and human computer interaction. Kraut was named the Herbert A. Simon Professor of Human-computer Interaction in 2000.[1]

He was elected to the CHI Academy in 2003. He is board member of the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board of the US National Academy of Sciences and a fellow of the American Psychological Society and of the Association for Computing Machinery (2011).[2]


He has published more than 100 articles, papers and books. His most recent work examines factors influencing the success of online communities and ways to apply psychology theory to their design. This includes academic studies about Wikipedia, for example, research with Aniket Kittur on the condition that lead to better quality in Wikipedia articles and with Moira Burke in predicting successful candidates for Wikipedia administrators.[3][4]

In 1979, Dr. Kraut and his Cornell psychology colleague Robert E. Johnston published an article studying smiling behavior among bowlers, hockey fans, and pedestrians. Their findings suggested that smiling emerges in response to social motivations rather than emotional experience and serves an important role in nonverbal communication.[5] Although it substantiated theories in the emerging field of evolutionary psychology, Wisconsin Senator William Proxmire identified this federally sponsored research as an instance of wasteful government spending and highlighted it in March 1980 with a "Golden Fleece Award".[6][7][8]



  • Hartmann, Heidi I.; Kraut, R. E.; Tilly, Louise A. (1986). Computer Chips and Paper Clips: Technology and Women's Employment. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. ISBN 0-585-26155-5. 
  • Kraut, Robert E., ed. (1987). Technology and The Transformation of White-Collar Work. Hillsdale,NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. ISBN 0-89859-633-5. 
  • Galegher, J.; Kraut, R. E.; Egido, C., eds. (1990). Intellectual Teamwork: Social and Technological Bases for Cooperative Work. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. ISBN 0-8058-0534-6. 
  • Turner, J.; Kraut, R. E., eds. (1992). Sharing Perspectives: Proceedings of the Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work. New York: Association of Computing Machinery. ISBN 0-89791-542-9. 
  • Committee on Telecommuting and Technology (1994). Research Recommendations to Facilitate Distributed Work. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. ISBN 0-309-05185-1. 
  • Kraut,, Robert E.; Brynin, Malcolm; Kiesler, Sara, eds. (2006). Computers, phones, and the Internet: Domesticating information technology. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-517963-3. 
  • Kraut,, Robert E.; Resnick, P. (2013) (eds.). Building successful online communities: Evidence-based social design. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. 

Highly cited articles[edit]

  • Kraut, Robert E.; Johnston, Robert E. (September 1979). "Social and emotional messages of smiling: An ethological approach". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 37 (9): 1539–1553. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.37.9.1539. 
  • Kraut, Robert E.; Fish, Robert S.; Root, Robert W.; Chalfonte, Barbara L.; Oskamp, I. S. (1990). "Informal communication in organizations: Form, function, and technology". In Oskamp, S.; Spacapan, S. Human reactions to technology: Claremont symposium on applied social psychology. 
  • Fish, Robert S.; Kraut, Robert E.; Root, Robert W.; Rice, Ronald E. (January 1993). "Video as a technology for informal communication". Communications of the ACM 36 (1): 48–61. doi:10.1145/151233.151237. 
  • Kraut, Robert E.; Streeter, Lynn A. (March 1995). "Coordination in software development". Communications of the ACM 38 (3): 69–81. doi:10.1145/203330.203345. 
  • Kraut, Robert E.; Rice, Ronald E.; Cool, Colleen; Fish, Robert S. (1998). "Varieties of Social Influence: The Role of Utility and Norms in the Success of a New Communication Medium". Organization Science 9 (4): 437–453. doi:10.1287/orsc.9.4.437. JSTOR 2640271. 
  • Subrahmanyam, Kaveri; Kraut, Robert E.; Greenfield, Patricia M.; Gross, Elisheva F. (2000). "The Impact of Home Computer Use on Children's Activities and Development". The Future of Children 10 (2): 123–144. doi:10.2307/1602692. JSTOR 1602692. PMID 11255703. 
  • Bennen, Gerard; Ling, Kimberly; Wang, Xiaoqing; Chang, Klarissa; Frankowski, Dan; Resnick, Paul; Kraut, Robert E. (2004). "Using social psychology to motivate contributions to online communities". Proceedings of the 2004 ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work: 212. doi:10.1145/1031607.1031642. 


  1. ^ a b c d "Curricula Vitae" (PDF). Carnegie Mellon University. Retrieved July 12, 2010. 
  2. ^
  3. ^ Kittur, Aniket; Kraut, Robert E. (2008). "Harnessing the Wisdom of Crowds in Wikipedia: Quality Through Coordination". Proceedings of 2008 ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work: 37. doi:10.1145/1460563.1460572. 
  4. ^ Burke, Moira; Kraut, Robert E. (2008). "Taking up the mop: identifying future Wikipedia administrators". Proceedings of 2008 ACM Conference on Computer-Human Interaction: 3441. doi:10.1145/1358628.1358871. 
  5. ^ Kraut, Robert E.; Johnston, Robert E. (September 1979). "Social and emotional messages of smiling: An ethological approach". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 37 (9): 1539–1553. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.37.9.1539. 
  6. ^ Diener, Ed (2006). "Why Robert Kraut Smiles". Observer (Association for Psychological Science). 
  7. ^ Nell Greenfieldboyce, 'Shrimp On A Treadmill': The Politics Of 'Silly' Studies, NPR, August 23, 2011

External links[edit]