Robert Huber at the 2010 Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting
February 20, 1937 |
|Notable students||Peter Colman (postdoc)|
|Known for||Cyanobacteria Crystallography|
Education and early life
He was born 20 February 1937 in Munich where his father, Sebastian, was a bank cashier. He was educated at the Humanistisches Karls-Gymnasium from 1947 to 1956 and then studied chemistry at the Technische Hochschule, receiving his diploma in 1960. He stayed, and did research into using crystallography to elucidate the structure of organic compounds.
In 1988 he received the Nobel Prize for Chemistry jointly with Johann Deisenhofer and Hartmut Michel. The trio were recognized for their work in first crystallizing an intramembrane protein important in photosynthesis in purple bacteria, and subsequently applying X-ray crystallography to elucidate the protein's structure. The information provided the first insight into the structural bodies that performed the integral function of photosynthesis. This insight could be translated to understand the more complex analogue of photosynthesis in cyanobacteria which is essentially the same as that in chloroplasts of higher plants.
Since 2005 he has been doing research at the Center for medical biotechnology of the University of Duisburg-Essen.
Huber was one of the original editors of the Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry
Awards and honours
In addition to winning the Nobel Prize for Chemistry, Huber was elected a Foreign Member of the Royal Society (ForMemRS) in 1993. His nomination reads:
|“||Huber has built up, led and still leads the most productive protein crystallography laboratory in Europe. His own contributions to crystallography, made over a period of some 25 years, are prodigious. For his Ph. D. thesis he solved the chemical formula of the important insect hormone ectyson which had eluded the chemists. He then demonstrated that the tertiary fold of the polypeptide chain in the haemoglobin of the fly larva chironomus closely resembled that in Kendrew's sperm whale myoglobin, indicating for the first time that this fold had been preserved throughout evolution.
Huber's next achievement was the solution of the structure of trypsin inhibitor and the demonstration that in its complex with trypsin it mimicked the tetrahedral transition state of the enzyme's substrate. Since then he has determined the structures of many other proteinases, their inactive precursors and their inhibitors, and has established himself as the world authority in this field. Outstanding structures are tgise if oricarboxypeptidase, which led to the discovery of the remarkable activation mechanism of this enzyme, and of the complex of thrombin with hirudin, which showed the molecular mechanism of inhibition of blood clotting by this leech toxin. In parallel with this work, Huber solved the structures of several immunoglobulin fragments. He was the first to determine the structure of the complement-activating F-fragment, which was alkso the first variable and the first constant domains in Fab-fragments. Huber's structure of citrate synthase revealed a striking example of aconformational change undergone by an enzyme on combinationwith its substrate bya process of induced fit. Huber shared the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1988 with Michel and Deisenhofer for their detrermination of the remarkable and supremely important structures of thephotchemical reaction centre of Rhodopseudomonas viridis and of phycocyanin, the light harvesting protein of the blue-green alga Mastiglocadus laminosus. This protein binds linear tetrapyrroles in a tertiary fold reminiscent of the globins, which brought Huber back full circle to his first structure, erythrocruerin, Huber has also determined the structures of several copper-containing electron-transfer proteins, including that of ascorbate oxidase, and of other metallo-enzymes. These studies have thrown new light on electron-transfer systems and on zinc coordination in proteins. He has also solved the structure of an important class of calcium binding proteins - the annexins. Finally his very accurate structures have provided important insights into the different degrees of mobility within protein molecules. Huber has published some 400 papers.
Huber is married with four children.
- Huber, R; Deisenhofer, J; Colman, P. M.; Matsushima, M; Palm, W (1976). "Crystallographic structure studies of an IgG molecule and an Fc fragment". Nature 264 (5585): 415–20. doi:10.1038/264415a0. PMID 1004567.
- Huber, R; Deisenhofer, J; Colman, P. M.; Epp, O; Fehlhammer, H; Palm, W (1976). "Proceedings: X-ray diffraction analysis of immunoglobulin structure". Hoppe-Seyler's Zeitschrift fur physiologische Chemie 357 (5): 614–5. PMID 964922.
- Colman, P. M.; Deisenhofer, J; Huber, R (1976). "Structure of the human antibody molecule Kol (immunoglobulin G1): An electron density map at 5 a resolution". Journal of molecular biology 100 (3): 257–78. PMID 1255713.
- "EC/1999/43: Huber, Robert". London: The Royal Society. Archived from the original on 2014-10-12.
- Engh, R. A.; Huber, R. (1991). "Accurate bond and angle parameters for X-ray protein structure refinement". Acta Crystallographica Section a Foundations of Crystallography 47 (4): 392. doi:10.1107/S0108767391001071.
- Groll, M; Ditzel, L; Löwe, J; Stock, D; Bochtler, M; Bartunik, H. D.; Huber, R (1997). "Structure of 20S proteasome from yeast at 2.4 a resolution". Nature 386 (6624): 463–71. doi:10.1038/386463a0. PMID 9087403.
- Deisenhofer, J.; Epp, O.; Miki, K.; Huber, R.; Michel, H. (1984). "X-ray structure analysis of a membrane protein complex". Journal of Molecular Biology 180 (2): 385. doi:10.1016/S0022-2836(84)80011-X.
- Robert Huber autobiographical information at www.nobel.org
- Huber, R.; Swanson, R. V.; Deckert, G.; Warren, P. V.; Gaasterland, T.; Young, W. G.; Lenox, A. L.; Graham, D. E.; Overbeek, R.; Snead, M. A.; Keller, M.; Aujay, M.; Feldman, R. A.; Short, J. M.; Olsen, G. J. (1998). Nature 392 (6674): 353. doi:10.1038/32831.
- Deisenhofer, J.; Epp, O.; Miki, K.; Huber, R.; Michel, H. (1985). "Structure of the protein subunits in the photosynthetic reaction centre of Rhodopseudomonas viridis at 3Å resolution". Nature 318 (6047): 618. doi:10.1038/318618a0.
- Guskov, A.; Kern, J.; Gabdulkhakov, A.; Broser, M.; Zouni, A.; Saenger, W. (2009). "Cyanobacterial photosystem II at 2.9-Å resolution and the role of quinones, lipids, channels and chloride". Nature Structural & Molecular Biology 16 (3): 334. doi:10.1038/nsmb.1559.