Robert II (archbishop of Rouen)

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Robert II
RobertNorm.jpg
Archbishop of Rouen
Tenure 989-1037
Predecessor Hugh III
Successor Mauger
Count of Évreux
Reign c. 989-1037
Predecessor New creation
Successor Richard
Spouse Herlevea
Issue Richard, Count of Évreux
Ralph de Gacé
William d'Évreux
House House of Normandy
Father Richard I, Duke of Normandy
Mother Gunnora
Born bef. 989
Died 1037
Religion Roman Catholicism

Robert II, Archbishop of Rouen (bef. 989–1037),[a] and Count of Évreux was a powerful and influential prelate, and a family member of and supporter of five dukes of Normandy.

Life[edit]

Robert was a son of Richard I, Duke of Normandy and his second wife, Gunnora.[1] He was a younger brother of duke Richard II and uncle of duke Robert I.[1] He had been appointed Archbishop of Rouen by his father c. 989–990 and had been given the countship of Évreux at the same time.[2] Robert was well aware he was destined for the church and seemingly accepted his role as both archbishop and count willingly.[3] But he had always been involved in Norman politics and was a powerful adherent of the Norman dukes.[4] Robert had proved himself a powerful ecclesiastical ally of his father, Richard I, as well as his brother, Richard II, and at the latter's death effectively became the senior male adviser to the ducal clan.[5] But his nephew Richard III had a turbulent and short reign of just over a year and when replaced by his brother Robert I, as Duke of Normandy, the prelate Robert had a great deal of trouble restraining the new duke.[6] In 1028 he found himself besieged and then banished by his young nephew.[6] Duke Robert I then besieged Hugh d'Ivry, Bishop of Bayeux who, along with Archbishop Robert had apparently questioned his authority as duke.[7] From exile in France, Archbishop Robert excommunicated his nephew Duke Robert and placed Normandy under an interdict.[7]

The Archbishop and Duke finally came to terms and to facilitate the lifting of the interdict and excommunication, Duke Robert restored the Archbishop to his see, to his countship of Evereux, and returned all his properties.[8] To further illustrate his change of heart towards the church, Duke Robert restored property that he or his vassals had confiscated, and by 1034 had returned all church properties including those taken from Fécamp Abbey.[8] By 1033 Duke Robert was mounting a major campaign against his double cousin Alan III, Duke of Brittany.[9] He and Alan had been raiding back and forth but finally a peace was negotiated between them by the returned Archbishop Robert, their mutual uncle.[9]

In his last years Robert, realizing his past mistakes, began giving freely to the poor and undertook to rebuild the cathedral church at Rouen.[10] in 1035 Duke Robert had decided on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem.[11] After making his illegitimate son William his heir and arranging for the archbishop to watch over and protect young William, Duke Robert set out on his pilgrimage never to return to Normandy.[11] Archbishop Robert fulfilled his promise and effectively ruled Normandy as regent for William[11] until Robert's death in 1037, which almost immediately caused an increase in lawlessness in Normandy.[12]

Orderic Vitalis relates of a richly illustrated great psalter given to Archbishop Robert by his sister Queen Emma, wife of king Æthelred.[13] In a catalog of books in the Cathedral of Rouen created during the twelfth century, a reference was found to a particular book, the Benedictionarius Roberti archiepiscopi, which was given to the church of Rouen by Archbishop Robert of Normandy. Since that time it became the property of the city of Rouen, where it is preserved (No. 27) as the Benedictional of Æthelgar, possibly for the prayers it contained at the end for the coronation of the Anglo-Saxon kings and queens.[b][14]

Family[edit]

Robert married Herlevea [1] and they had the following children:

Ancestry[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ At that point in time the marriage of a secular Bishop was recognized, if not the usual practice. See: Douglas, William the Conqueror (1964), p. 119 n. 1
  2. ^ A description of this benedictionarius is found in: John Gage, A description of a benedictional, or pontifical, called "Benedictionarius Roberti archi-episcopi", an illuminated manuscript of the tenth century, in the public library at Rouen; communicated as an accompaniment to St. Æthelwold's benedictional (London, 1832).

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f Detlev Schwennicke, Europäische Stammtafeln: Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der Europäischen Staaten, Neue Folge, Band II (Marburg, Germany: Verlag von J. A. Stargardt, 1984), Tafel 79
  2. ^ David Crouch, The Normans; The History of a Dynasty (London & New York: Hambledon Continuum, 2007), p. 21
  3. ^ David Crouch, The Normans; The History of a Dynasty (London & New York: Hambledon Continuum, 2007), p. 41
  4. ^ David C. Douglas, William the Conqueror (Berkeley & Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1964), p. 119
  5. ^ The Normans in Europe, Trans. & Ed. Elisabeth van Houts (Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press, 2000), p. 22
  6. ^ a b David C. Douglas, William the Conqueror (Berkeley & Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1964), p. 32
  7. ^ a b François Neveux, The Normans, Trans. Howard Curtis (London: Constable & Robinson, Ltd., 2008), p. 100
  8. ^ a b François Neveux, The Normans, Trans. Howard Curtis (London: Constable & Robinson, Ltd., 2008), p. 102
  9. ^ a b David Crouch, The Normans; The History of a Dynasty (London & New York: Hambledon Continuum, 2007), p. 52
  10. ^ Ordericus Vitalis, The Ecclesiastical History of England and Normandy, Trans. Thomas Forester, Vol. II (, London: Henry G. Bohn, 1854), p.160
  11. ^ a b c The Gesta Normannorum Ducum of William of Jumièges, Orderic Vitalis, and Robert of Torigni, Ed. & Trans. Elizabeth M.C. Van Houts, Vol. I (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1992), pp. 80-5
  12. ^ David C. Douglas, William the Conqueror (Berkeley & Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1964), p. 164
  13. ^ Ordericus Vitalis, The Ecclesiastical History of England and Normandy, Trans. Thomas Forester, Vol. I (London: Henry G. Bohn, 1853), pp. 401-2
  14. ^ M.J.B Silvestre, Universal Palaeography: Latin writing of modern Europe, Trans. & Ed. Frederic Madden, Vol. II (London: Henry G. Bohn, 1849), p. 630
  15. ^ Anselme de Sainte-Marie, Histoire de la Maison Royale de France, et des grands officiers (Paris: Compagnie des Libraires, 1726), p. 478
  16. ^ Detlev Schwennicke, Europäische Stammtafeln: Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der Europäischen Staaten, Neue Folge, Band II (Marburg, Germany: Verlag von J. A. Stargardt, 1984), Tafel 206


Preceded by
Hugh III
Archbishop of Rouen
(989–1037)
Succeeded by
Mauger
Preceded by
new cr.
Count of Évreux
(c. 989–1037)
Succeeded by
Richard