Robert John Simmons
First Sergeant Robert John Simmons was a Bermudian who served in the 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry Regiment during the American Civil War. He died in August 1863, as a result of wounds received in an attack on Fort Wagner, near Charleston, South Carolina.
A former clerk, probably from St. George's, Simmons joined the 54th on March 12, 1863. (Many black and white Bermudians fought for the Union, mostly in the US Navy. Many more, like Thomas Leslie Outerbridge, profiteered from the war by smuggling arms to the blockaded South.)
The black regiment was raised in March 1863 by the Governor of Massachusetts, John A. Andrew. Commanded by Colonel Robert Gould Shaw, it sprang to life after the passage of the Emancipation Proclamation. Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton decided white officers would be in charge of all "colored" units. Colonel Shaw was hand picked by Governor John Andrew. Governor Andrew also selected Norwood Penrose "Pen" Hallowell as the unit's second in command.
Simmons was introduced to Francis George Shaw, father of Colonel Shaw, by William Wells Brown, a prominent abolitionist lecturer, novelist, playwright, historian and former slave, who described him as "a young man of more than ordinary abilities who had learned the science of war in the British Army". In his book, The Negro in the American Rebellion, Brown wrote that "Francis George Shaw remarked at the time that Simmons would make a 'valuable soldier'. Col. Shaw also had a high opinion of him".
The regiment gained recognition on July 18, 1863, when it spearheaded an assault on Fort Wagner near Charleston, South Carolina. Colonel Shaw was killed, along with one-hundred and sixteen of his men. Another hundred and fifty-six were wounded or captured. The total casualties of 272 would be the highest total for the 54th in a single engagement during the war. Although they were not able to capture the fort, the 54th was widely acclaimed for its valor, and the event helped encourage the further enlistment and mobilization of African-American troops, a key development that President Abraham Lincoln once noted as helping to secure the final victory.
A letter written by First Sergeant Simmons shortly before the attack on Battery Wagner was published in the New York Tribune on the 23rd of December, 1863.
Folly Island, South Carolina
July 18, 1863;
We are on the march to Fort Wagner, to storm it. We have just completed our successful retreat from James Island; we fought a desperate battle there Thursday morning. Three companies of us, B, H, and K, were out on picket about a good mile in advance of the regiment. We were attacked early in the morning. Our company was in the reserve, when the outposts were attacked by rebel infantry and cavalry. I was sent out by our Captain in command of a squad of men to support the left flank. The bullets fairly rained around us; when I got there the poor fellows were falling down around me, with pitiful groans. Our pickets only numbered about 250 men, attacked by about 900. It is supposed by the line of battle in the distance, that they were supported by reserve of 3,000 men. We had to fire and retreat toward our own encampment. One poor Sergeant of ours was shot down along side of me; several others were wounded near me. God has protected me through this, my first fiery, leaden trial, and I do give Him the glory, and render my praises unto His holy name. My poor friend [Sergeant Peter] Vogelsang is shot through the lungs; his case is critical, but the doctor says he may probably live. His company suffered very much. Poor good and brave Sergeant (Joseph D.) Wilson of his company [H], after killing four rebels with his bayonet, was shot through the head by the fifth one. Poor fellow! May his noble spirit rest in peace. The General has complimented the Colonel on the galantry and bravery of his regiment.
First Sergeant Simmons was among the casualties of the battle for Fort Wagner. He was wounded and captured by the Confederates. An article in the July 28, 1863 edition of the Weekly Columbus Enquirer, described him as "a brave man and of good education. He was wounded and captured. Taken to Charleston, his bearing impressed even his captors. After suffering amputation of the arm, he died there." The newspaper also described him as saying that he fought "for glory".
Although Simmons was not mentioned by name, he was described as a Bermudian sergeant, leaving no doubt as to his identity: One of the negroes is a remarkably sprightly fellow from Bermuda where he was educated as a soldier. His position is that of an Orderly Sergeant, but he has lost an arm, and probably one leg will go. A third of the `glory' for which he says he came to fight, being thus amputated, he will in the future be a wiser man. The others are a mongrel set of trash and very fair representatives of the common type of free Northern negro. 
Simmons also received special mention by Shaw's successor, Colonel Hallowell, brother of Norwood Hallowell, and was awarded a private medal. He died of his wounds in August, 1863, at the age of 26.
By 1989, Robert Simmons was a forgotten footnote of the history of the 54th Massachusetts. His having fought for glory was not known to the filmmakers who, that year, released the Academy Award-winning film Glory, which told the story of the unit. The film starred Matthew Broderick as Shaw, Denzel Washington, Morgan Freeman, Cary Elwes, and Andre Braugher. The film re-established the now-popular image of the combat role African-Americans played in the Civil War, and the unit, often represented in historical battle reenactments, now has the nickname The Glory Regiment. First Sergeant Simmons is mentioned repeatedly in a documentary narrated by Glory actor Morgan Freeman, The True Story of Glory.
- "Fighting to save America's soul". The Royal Gazette. August 9, 2008. Retrieved 2008-08-10.
- The Royal Gazette: Unknown soldier is identified May 31, 2002 (Outerbridge.com)
- Emilio, Luis F. (1995). A Brave Black regiment: the history of the Fifty-fourth Regiment of Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry, 1863-1865. New York: Da Capo Press. p. 4. ISBN 0-306-80623-1.
- "Exhibit: 54th Mass Casualty List". National Archives and Records Administration. 1996. Retrieved 2008-07-18.
- 54th Mass.org
- "Historian hopes to write 'Glory' book" (Newspaper article). The Royal Gazette. June 14, 2002.
- Shaw's Special Mention
- Tri Star Pictures: The True Story of Glory. Narrated by Morgan Freeman (on YouTube)