Robert Keilway (also Kellway or Kaylway) (1497–1581) was an English politician and court official.
He was Surveyor of the Court of Wards and Liveries, Custos Rotulorum of Berkshire, the Member of Parliament for Bristol and legal advisor to the Lord Protector of England, Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset. He lived at Minster Lovell Hall in Oxfordshire. He married Cecily, the daughter of Edward Bulstrode of Hedgerley in Buckinghamshire and widow of Sir Alexander Unton of Wadley House in Faringdon, Berkshire (now Oxfordshire). He was therefore the step-father of Sir Edward Unton.
By his wife Cecily, Robert Keilway was the father of Anne Keilway (c.1554–1620), who married John Harington, 1st Baron Harington of Exton.