Robert Kocharyan

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Robert Kocharyan
Ռոբերտ Քոչարյան
Robert kocharyan.jpg
2nd President of Armenia
In office
9 April 1998 – 9 April 2008
Acting: 4 February - 9 April 1998
Prime Minister Armen Darbinyan
Vazgen Sargsyan
Aram Sargsyan
Andranik Margaryan
Serzh Sargsyan
Preceded by Levon Ter-Petrossian
Succeeded by Serzh Sargsyan
6th Prime Minister of Armenia
In office
20 March 1997 – 10 April 1998
President Levon Ter-Petrossian
Preceded by Armen Sargsyan
Succeeded by Armen Darbinyan
1st President of Nagorno-Karabakh
In office
29 December 1994 – 20 March 1997
Prime Minister Leonard Petrosyan
Preceded by Garen Baburyan (Acting)
Succeeded by Leonard Petrosyan (Acting)
2nd Prime Minister of Nagorno-Karabakh
In office
August 1992 – 29 December 1994
President Georgy Petrosyan (Acting)
Garen Baburyan (Acting)
Preceded by Oleg Yessayan
Succeeded by Leonard Petrosyan
Personal details
Born (1954-08-31) 31 August 1954 (age 59)
Stepanakert, Soviet Union (now Nagorno-Karabakh)
Spouse(s) Bella Kocharyan
Children Sedrak
Gayane
Levon
Religion Armenian Apostolic
Signature

Robert Kocharyan (Armenian: Ռոբերտ Քոչարյան pronounced [ɾɔbɛɾt kʰɔtʃʰɑɾjɑn]; born August 31, 1954) is an Armenian politician who served as the second President of Armenia between 1998 and 2008. He was previously President of Nagorno-Karabakh from 1994 to 1997 and Prime Minister of Armenia from 1997 to 1998.

During most of his presidency, between 2001 and 2007, Armenia's economy grew on average by 12% annually,[1] largely due to the construction boom.[2] His presidency witnessed two of the bloodiest events in post-independence Armenian history: the 1999 Armenian parliament shooting and the killing of ten people during the 2008 presidential election protests.[2] He has been held responsible for both events by the opposition, especially by Armenia's first president Levon Ter-Petrosyan and his party.[3]

Both the 1998 and 2003 presidential elections were held in two rounds. They were disputed by the opposition candidates and criticized by international observers.

Biography[edit]

Robert Kocharyan was born in Stepanakert, Nagorno-Karabakh. He received his secondary education there and from 1972 to 1974 served in the Soviet Army. He and his wife, Bella Kocharyan, have three children: Sedrak, Gayane, and Levon; all of whom were born in Stepanakert.

Career timeline and events during his presidency[edit]

Presidency[edit]

After his predecessor Levon Ter-Petrossian was ousted as President, Kocharyan was elected Armenia's second President on March 30, 1998, defeating his main rival, Karen Demirchyan, in an early presidential election marred by irregularities and violations by both sides as reported by international electoral observers. Complaints included that Kocharyan had not been an Armenian citizen for ten years as required by the constitution.,[4] even though it would have been impossible for him to be a 10 year citizen of a republic that was less than 7 years old; however, the Armenian constitution recognized the Armenian SSR as it predecessor state.

During his presidency, several opposition leaders in the Armenian Parliament and the Prime Minister of Armenia were killed by gunmen in an episode known as the 1999 Armenian parliament shooting. And Kocharyan himself negotiated with the terrorists to release the MP hostages.

2003 election[edit]

The 2003 Armenian Presidential election on 19 February and 5 March 2003. No candidate received a majority in the first round of the election with the incumbent President Kocharyan winning slightly under 50% of the vote. Therefore a second round was held and Kocharyan defeated Stepan Demirchyan with official results showed him winning just over 67% of the vote.

In both rounds, electoral observers from the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe reported significant amounts of electoral fraud by Demirchyan's supporters and numerous supporters of Demirchyan were arrested before the second round took place.[5] Demirchyan described the election as having been rigged and called on his supporters to rally against the results.[6] Tens of thousands of Armenians protested in the days after the election against the results and called on President Kocharyan to step down.[5] However Kocharyn was sworn in for a second term in early April and the constitutional court upheld the election, while recommending that a referendum be held within a year to confirm the election result.[7][8] On April 14, 2004 Armenian poet Silva Kaputikyan wrote an open letter Kocharyan Must Go, where she protested Kocharyan's harsh methods towards the demonstrators on April 12–13, 2004. She also turned back Mesrop Mashtots Medal awarded by Kocharyan some years ago.[9]

2008 election[edit]

A hambal election was held in Armenia on 19 February 2008. The incumbent President Kocharyan, who was ineligible for a third consecutive term,[10] backed the candidacy of Prime Minister of Armenia Serzh Sargsyan.[11]

Following the election result, protests organized by supporters of unsuccessful candidate Levon Ter-Petrossian began in Yerevan's Freedom Square and accompanied by mass disorders. On March 1, the demonstrators were lawfully dispersed by police and military forces. Ten people were killed during skirmishes between police and aggressive crowd, and President Kocharyan declared a 20-day state of emergency.[12] This was followed by mass arrests and purges of prominent members of the opposition who made disorders and damaged life and property of citizens, as well as a de facto ban on any further anti-government protests.[13][14]

Foreign policy[edit]

President Vladimir Putin with Armenian President Robert Kocharyan

As President, Kocharyan continued to negotiate a peaceful resolution with Azerbaijani President Ilham Aliyev on the status of Nagorno-Karabakh. Talks between Aliyev and Kocharyan were held in September 2004 in Astana, Kazakhstan, on the sidelines of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) summit. Reportedly, one of the suggestions put forward was the withdrawal of Armenian forces from the Azeri territories adjacent to Nagorno-Karabakh, and holding referendums (plebiscites) in Nagorno-Karabakh and Azerbaijan proper regarding the future status of the region. On February 10–11, 2006, Kocharyan and Aliyev met in Rambouillet, France to discuss the fundamental principles of a settlement to the conflict, including the withdrawal of troops, formation of international peace keeping troops, and the status of Nagorno-Karabakh.[15]

During the weeks and days before the talks in France, OSCE Minsk Group co-chairmen expressed cautious optimism that some form of an agreement was possible. French President Jacques Chirac met with both leaders separately and expressed hope that the talks would be fruitful. Contrary to the initial optimism, the Rambouillet talks did not produce any agreement, with key issues such as the status of Nagorno-Karabakh and whether Armenian troops would withdraw from Kalbajar still being contentious. The next session of the talks was held in March 2006 in Washington, D.C.[15] Russian President, Vladimir Putin applied pressure to both parties to settle the disputes.[16] Later in 2006 there was a meeting of the Armenian and Azerbaijani Presidents in Minsk on 28 November and ministerial meetings were held in Moscow. "These talks did not initiate any progress, but I hope that the time for a solution will come" said Peter Semneby, EU envoy for the South Caucasus.[17]

In September 2006, in his congratulatory message[18] on the occasion of 15th anniversary of Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, Kocharyan said "The Karabakhi people made their historic choice, defended their national interests in the war that was forced upon them. Today, they are building a free and independent state." The accompanying message said that the duty of the Republic of Armenia and all Armenians is to contribute to the strengthening and development of Nagorno-Karabakh, as well as to the international recognition of the republic's independence.[19]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Country Information". United Nations in Armenia. Retrieved 2 March 2014. 
  2. ^ a b Abrahamyan, Gayane (20 November 2012). "Rotating Around Presidents: Kocharyan’s "shadow" a curse or a blessing for Armenia?". ArmeniaNow. Retrieved 2 March 2014. 
  3. ^ Martirosian, Anush; Meloyan, Ruben (28 October 2009). "Armenia Marks Parliament Attack Anniversary". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. Retrieved 6 April 2013. "The opposition alliance described the parliament attack as “the darkest page in Armenian history” that laid the foundation of the country’s existing “criminal-oligarchic” system. It again blamed Kocharian and Serzh Sarkisian for the killings, claiming that most Armenians consider them the masterminds of the crime." 
  4. ^ Staff (4 February 1998) "Armenian president resigns" BBC World Service
  5. ^ a b Stern, David (2003-03-07). "Anger at 'flawed' poll in Armenia". Financial Times. p. 4. 
  6. ^ "Incumbent 'wins' Armenia vote". BBC Online. 2003-03-06. Retrieved 2009-05-23. 
  7. ^ "Armenia: President Sworn In Amid Protests". The New York Times. 2003-04-10. Retrieved 2009-05-23. 
  8. ^ "Constitutional court stirs Armenian politicial controversy". Eurasianet.org. 2003-04-23. Retrieved 2009-05-23. 
  9. ^ Kocharyan Must Go by S. Kaputikyan//Shrjadardz Armenian Magazine, #2, 2004, p. 21
  10. ^ The Constitution of the Republic of Armenia (27 November 2005), Chapter 3: The President of the Republic, Article 50
  11. ^ Robert Kocharyan To Support Serzh Sargsyan, Panorama.am
  12. ^ "State of emergency declared in Armenia". RTE News. 2008-03-01. Retrieved 2010-09-09. 
  13. ^ "Armenia: Police Beat Peaceful Protesters in Yerevan", Human Rights Watch (NY), March 2, 2008.
  14. ^ Ter-Petrosian ‘Under House Arrest,’ Rally Broken Up, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, March 1, 2008.
  15. ^ a b Ghazinyan, Aris (10 February 2006) "Drawing the Line: Maps meet principles in the search for a settlement over Nagorno Karabakh" Armenia Now
  16. ^ Staff (23 February 2006) "Putin Going to Invite Kocharyan to Moscow to Discuss Karabakh Issue" YERKIR Armenian Online Newspaper
  17. ^ Staff (21 February 2007) "Peter Semneby: EU tries to create trust between Karabakh and Azerbaijan" More than 4 bln dollars were stollen by his clan in Armenia YERKIR Armenian Online Newspaper
  18. ^ (1 September 2006) "Congratulations on Independence Day" Azat Artsakh Newspaper
  19. ^ Staff (1 September 2006) "Robert Kocharyan: Nagorno Karabakh People Made Their Historical Choice, Protected Its National Interests in the Forced War. Today They Built Free and Independent State" ARMINFO News Agency

External links[edit]

Political offices
Preceded by
Oleg Yesayan
Prime Minister of Nagorno-Karabakh
1992–1994
Succeeded by
Leonard Petrosyan
Preceded by
Garen Baburyan
Acting
President of Nagorno-Karabakh
1994–1997
Succeeded by
Leonard Petrosyan
Acting
Preceded by
Armen Sargsyan
Prime Minister of Armenia
1997–1998
Succeeded by
Armen Darbinyan
Preceded by
Levon Ter-Petrosyan
President of Armenia
1998–2008
Succeeded by
Serzh Sargsyan