Robert Lefkowitz in Stockholm 2012
|Born||Robert Joseph Lefkowitz
April 15, 1943
New York City, New York, USA
Howard Hughes Medical Institute
|Alma mater||Columbia University|
|Known for||G protein coupled receptors
|Notable awards||National Medal of Science (2007)
Nobel Prize in Chemistry (2012)
Robert Joseph Lefkowitz (born April 15, 1943) is an American physician-scientist best known for his work with G protein-coupled receptors, for which, with Brian Kobilka, he was awarded the 2012 Nobel Prize for Chemistry. He is currently an Investigator with the Howard Hughes Medical Institute as well as a James B. Duke Professor of Medicine and Professor of Biochemistry and Chemistry at Duke University.
Early life 
Lefkowitz was born on April 15, 1943, in The Bronx, New York to Jewish parents Max and Rose Lefkowitz. Their families had immigrated to the United States from Poland in the late 19th century.
He graduated from Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons in 1966 with an M.D. Degree. After serving an internship and one year of general medical residency at the College of Physicians and Surgeons, he served as Clinical and Research Associate at the National Institutes of Health from 1968 to 1970.
Upon completing his medical residency and research and clinical training in 1973, he was appointed Associate Professor of Medicine and Assistant Professor of Biochemistry at the Duke University Medical Center. In 1977 he was promoted to Professor of Medicine and in 1982 to James B. Duke Professor of Medicine at Duke University. He is also Professor of Biochemistry. He has been an Investigator of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute since 1976 and was an Established Investigator of the American Heart Association from 1973-1976.
Lefkowitz studies receptor biology and signal transduction and is most well known for his detailed characterizations of the sequence, structure and function of the β-adrenergic and related receptors and for the discovery and characterization of the two families of proteins which regulate them, the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) kinases and β-arrestins.
Lefkowitz made a remarkable contribution in the mid-1980s when he and his colleagues cloned the gene first for the β-adrenergic receptor, and then rapidly thereafter, for a total of 8 adrenergic receptors (receptors for adrenaline and noradrenaline). This led to the seminal discovery that all GPCRs (which include the β-adrenergic receptor) have a very similar molecular structure. The structure is defined by an amino acid sequence which weaves its way back and forth across the plasma membrane seven times. Today we know that about 1,000 receptors in the human body belong to this same family. The importance of this is that all of these receptors use the same basic mechanisms so that pharmaceutical researchers now understood how to effectively target the largest receptor family in the human body. Today, as many as 30 to 50 percent of all prescription drugs are designed to "fit" like keys into the similarly structured locks of Lefkowitz' receptors—everything from anti-histamines to ulcer drugs to beta blockers that help relieve hypertension, angina and coronary disease. Lefkowitz is among the most highly cited researchers in the fields of biology, biochemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, and clinical medicine according to Thomson-ISI.
Personal life 
Lefkowitz is married to Lynn. He has five children and five grandchildren. He was previously married to Arna Brandel.
Lefkowitz has received numerous awards including:
- 2012 Nobel Prize in Chemistry (shared with Brian Kobilka)
- 2009 BBVA Foundation Frontiers of Knowledge Awards, in the Biomedicine Category.
- 2009 Research Achievement Award, American Heart Association
- 2007 National Medal of Science 
- 2007 The Shaw Prize in Life Science and Medicine 
- 2007 Albany Medical Center Prize in Medicine and Biomedical Research 
- 2003 Fondation Lefoulon – Delalande Grand Prix for Science – Institut de France 
- 2001 Jessie Stevenson Kovalenko Medal of the USA - The National Academy of Sciences 
- 1992 Bristol-Myers Squibb Award for Distinguished Achievement In Cardiovascular Research 
- 1988 Gairdner Foundation International Award 
- 1978 John Jacob Abel Award in Pharmacology 
- "Second Jewish Nobel Laureate of 2012". The Jewish Miracle. 2012-10-10. Retrieved 2013-01-14.
- Ralph Snyderman (2011-10-03). "Introduction of Robert J. Lefkowitz". Jci.org. Retrieved 2012-10-12.
- Jay Price (2012-12-30). "Dr. Robert Lefkowitz, Nobel in hand, still shapes young researchers". News & Observer. Retrieved 2013-01-17.
- Newman, Andy (October 10, 2012). "Another Nobel for Bronx Science, This One in Chemistry". New York Times.
- "HHMI Investigators - Robert J. Lefkowitz, M.D.". Howard Hughes Medical Institute. Retrieved 2013-01-14.
- "Pioneers of cell receptor research share America's top prize in medicine". Albany Medical Center Website.
- "Highly Cited Research - Research Analytics - Thomson Reuters". Hcr3.webofknowledge.com. 2011-12-31. Retrieved 2012-10-12.
- "Biomedicine 2009 Robert J. Lefkowitz". BBVA Foundation Frontiers of Knowledge Awards. Retrieved 2013-01-14.
- "North Carolina scientist wins American Heart Association award for discovering receptors' role as specific targets for drug therapy". American Heart Association. 2009-11-15. Retrieved 2013-01-14.
- "Robert Lefkowitz receiving the National Medal of Science". Duke University. 2008-09-28. Retrieved 2013-01-14. - YouTube video of the ceremony
- Duke Medicine News and Communications (2008-09-28). "Duke Medicine Physician-Scientist Receives National Medal of Science". Duke Health.org. Retrieved 2013-01-14.
- "Announcement and Citation". The Shaw Prize. 2007-06-12. Retrieved 2013-01-14.
- "Albany Medical Center Prize". Albany Medical College (in 英語). Retrieved 2013-01-14.
- "Fondation Lefoulon Delalande - Historique des prix". Fondation Lefoulon - Delalande. Retrieved 2013-01-14.
- "Jessie Stevenson Kovalenko Medal". National Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 2013-01-14.
- "Grants and Awards Program Fact Sheet" (PDF). Bristol-Myers Squibb. Retrieved 2013-01-14.
- "Robert J. Lefkowitz". Gairdner. Retrieved 2013-01-14.
- "Previous Winners of Society Awards" (PDF). American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Retrieved 2013-01-14.
- "Lefkowitz Lab". Retrieved 2013-01-14. - Web site of his lab.
- "HHMI Investigators - Robert J. Lefkowitz, M.D.". Howard Hughes Medical Institute. Retrieved 2013-01-14. - His biography.
- Robert J. Lefkowitz Papers at Duke University Medical Center Archives
- Video of Lefkowitz talking about his work, from the National Science & Technology Medals Foundation]