May 25, 1927|
New York City, New York, U.S.
|Died||March 12, 2001
Naples, Florida, U.S.
|Pen name||Jonathan Ryder, Michael Shepherd|
|Alma mater||Wesleyan University|
|Genre||Thriller, spy fiction, mystery|
|Notable works||The Bourne Trilogy|
|Children||3 (two sons and a daughter)|
Robert Ludlum (May 25, 1927 – March 12, 2001) was an American author of 27 thriller novels. The number of copies of his books in print is estimated between 290 million and 500 million. They have been published in 33 languages and 40 countries. Ludlum also published books under the pseudonyms Jonathan Ryder and Michael Shepherd.
- 1 Life and career
- 2 Writing analysis and criticism
- 3 Selected bibliography
- 4 Filmography
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 External links
Life and career
Early life and education
Ludlum was born in New York City, the son of Margaret (née Wadsworth) and George Hartford Ludlum. His maternal grandparents were English. He was educated at The Rectory School then Cheshire Academy and Wesleyan University in Middletown, Connecticut were he earned a B.A. in Drama. While at Wesleyan, Ludlum joined the Alpha Delta Phi fraternity. After becoming an author later in life, Ludlum would set his mystery novel Matlock Paper at the fictitious Carlyle University in Connecticut, a thinly-disguised Wesleyan.
Prior to becoming an author, he had been a United States Marine, a theatrical actor and producer. In the 1950's, he produced shows at the Grant Lee theater in Fort Lee, NJ. From 1960 to 1970, he managed and produced shows at the Playhouse on the Mall in Paramus, NJ.  His theatrical experience may have contributed to his understanding of the energy, escapism and action that the public wanted in a novel. He once remarked: "I equate suspense and good theater in a very similar way. I think it's all suspense and what-happens-next. From that point of view, yes, I guess, I am theatrical."
Many of Ludlum's novels have been made into films and mini-series, including The Osterman Weekend, The Holcroft Covenant, The Apocalypse Watch, The Bourne Identity, The Bourne Supremacy and The Bourne Ultimatum. Covert One: The Hades Factor, a book co-written with Gayle Lynds, was originally conceived as a mini-series; the book evolved from a short treatment Ludlum wrote for NBC. The Bourne movies, starring Matt Damon in the title role, have been commercially and critically successful (The Bourne Ultimatum won three Academy Awards in 2008), although the story lines depart significantly from the source material.
Writing analysis and criticism
Ludlum's novels typically feature one heroic man, or a small group of crusading individuals, in a struggle against powerful adversaries whose intentions and motivations are evil and who are capable of using political and economic mechanisms in frightening ways. The world in his writings is one where global corporations, shadowy military forces and government organizations all conspire to preserve (if it is good) or undermine (if it is evil) the status quo.
Ludlum's novels were often inspired by conspiracy theories, both historical and contemporary. He wrote that The Matarese Circle was inspired by rumors about the Trilateral Commission, and it was published only a few years after the commission was founded. His depictions of terrorism in books such as The Holcroft Covenant and The Matarese Circle reflected the theory that terrorists, rather than being merely isolated bands of ideologically motivated extremists, are actually pawns of governments or private organizations who are using them to facilitate the establishment of authoritarian rule.
- The Scarlatti Inheritance (1971)
- The Osterman Weekend (1972)
- The Matlock Paper (1973)
- Trevayne (1973, writing under the pen-name Jonathan Ryder)
- The Cry of the Halidon (1974, writing under the pen-name Jonathan Ryder)
- The Rhinemann Exchange (1974)
- The Road to Gandolfo (1975, writing under the pen-name Michael Shepherd)
- The Gemini Contenders (1976)
- The Chancellor Manuscript (1977)
- The Holcroft Covenant (1978)
- The Matarese Circle (1979)
- The Bourne Identity (1980)
- The Parsifal Mosaic (1982)
- The Aquitaine Progression (1984)
- The Bourne Supremacy (1986)
- The Icarus Agenda (1988)
- The Bourne Ultimatum (1990)
- The Road to Omaha (1992)
- The Scorpio Illusion (1993)
- The Apocalypse Watch (1995)
- The Matarese Countdown (1997)
- The Prometheus Deception (2000)
Credited to Ludlum, published posthumously
- The Sigma Protocol (2001, the last novel written entirely by Ludlum)
- The Janson Directive (2002)
- The Tristan Betrayal (2003)
- The Ambler Warning (2005)
- The Bancroft Strategy (2006)
Written by other authors.
- The Hades Factor (by Gayle Lynds) (2000)
- The Cassandra Compact (by Philip Shelby) (2001)
- The Paris Option (by Gayle Lynds) (2002)
- The Altman Code (by Gayle Lynds) (2003)
- The Lazarus Vendetta (by Patrick Larkin) (2004)
- The Moscow Vector (by Patrick Larkin) (2005)
- The Arctic Event (by James H. Cobb) (2007)
- The Ares Decision (by Kyle Mills) (2011)
- The Janus Reprisal (by Jamie Freveletti) (2012)
- The Utopia Experiment (by Kyle Mills) (2013)
- The Geneva Strategy (by Jamie Freveletti) (2015)
- The Patriot Attack (by Kyle Mills) (2015)
- The Janson Directive (2002)
- The Janson Command (by Paul Garrison) (2012)
- The Janson Option (by Paul Garrison) (2014)
- The Janson Equation (by Douglas Corleone) (2015)
Sequels to Ludlum books
- The Bourne Legacy (by Eric Van Lustbader) (2004)
- The Bourne Betrayal (by Eric Van Lustbader) (2007)
- The Bourne Sanction (by Eric Van Lustbader) (2008)
- The Bourne Deception (by Eric Van Lustbader) (2009)
- The Bourne Objective (by Eric Van Lustbader) (2010)
- The Bourne Dominion (by Eric Van Lustbader) (2011)
- The Bourne Imperative (by Eric Van Lustbader) (2012)
- The Bourne Retribution (by Eric Van Lustbader) (2013)
- The Bourne Ascendancy (by Eric Van Lustbader) (2014)
- The Bourne Enigma (by Eric Van Lustbader) (TBA)
Some of Ludlum's novels have been made into films and mini-series, although the story lines might depart significantly from the source material. In general, a miniseries is more faithful to the original novel on which it is based.
- 1977 – The Rhinemann Exchange — miniseries — Stephen Collins as David Spaulding, Lauren Hutton as Leslie Jenner Hawkewood
- 1983 – The Osterman Weekend — film — Rutger Hauer as John Tanner, Sam Peckinpah directed
- 1985 – The Holcroft Covenant — film — Michael Caine as Noel Holcroft
- 1988 – The Bourne Identity — miniseries — Richard Chamberlain as Jason Bourne, Jaclyn Smith as Marie St. Jacques
- 1997 – The Apocalypse Watch — miniseries — Patrick Bergin as Drew Latham
- 2002 – The Bourne Identity — film — Matt Damon as Jason Bourne and Franka Potente as Marie Helena Kreutz
- 2004 – The Bourne Supremacy — film — Matt Damon as Jason Bourne
- 2006 – Covert One: The Hades Factor — miniseries — Stephen Dorff as Jon Smith
- 2007 – The Bourne Ultimatum — film — Matt Damon as Jason Bourne
- 2012 - The Bourne Legacy — film — starring Jeremy Renner, Rachel Weisz and Edward Norton
- TBA – The Chancellor Manuscript — film — Leonardo DiCaprio as Peter Chancellor1
1 announced/in development
- Williams, John (March 14, 2001). "Robert Ludlum". The Guardian. Retrieved February 23, 2014.
- Ludlum, Robert, Prometheus Deception, 2000. Preface by the publisher, Orion Publishing.
- "The Ludlum conspiracy" at Legacy.com.
- Kearns, Kenneth (March 6, 2011). "The Ludlum Conspiracy". Daily Mail (London).
- Robert Ludlum at Kirjasto.sci.fi.
- Gina Macdonald, "The Life of Robert Ludlum", Robert Ludlum: A Critical Companion, Greenwood Press, 1997, p. 1.
- "Ludlum" at Genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com.
- "United Kingdom" at Dallasnews.com.
- "Robert Ludlum" at Soccer.msg.com.
- Adrian, Jack (March 4, 2001). "Obituary: Robert Ludlum". The Independent.
- "List of notable United States Marines". Wikipedia.
- Garvie, Glenn. "Remembering Playhouse on the Mall". www.bergencounty.com. (201) Magazine. Retrieved 25 March 2015.
- Klemsrud, Judy (July 10, 1977). "Behind the Best Sellers: Robert Ludlum". The New York Times. Retrieved March 30, 2011. "He writes for six or seven hours in an office in his house in Leonia."
- "The Times obituary Robert Ludlum". The Times (London). August 15, 2007.
- Kearns, Kenneth (March 6, 2011). "The Ludlum Conspiracy: Was the master storyteller and creator of the blockbuster Bourne movies murdered by his gold-digging wife?". Daily Mail (London).
- "The Robert Ludlum controversy: nephew raises questions about top thriller writer's death". The Australian. February 21, 2011.
- "Robert Ludlum". Fantastic Fiction. Retrieved 2015-04-23.
- Cogdill, Oline. "Douglas Corleone and Robert Ludlum". Mystery Scene Magazine. Retrieved April 15, 2014.
- "Bourne news!". Robert Ludlum Books. 2014-11-20. Retrieved 2015-04-23.
- "Marc Forster to Direct Robert Ludlum’s The Chancellor Manuscript". slashfilm.com. January 15, 2010. Retrieved July 17, 2013.
- Official Robert Ludlum website
- Robert Ludlum at the Internet Movie Database
- Robert Ludlum at the Internet Book List
- Works by or about Robert Ludlum in libraries (WorldCat catalog)