Robert Morris (cryptographer)
July 25, 1932|
|Died||June 26, 2011
Lebanon, New Hampshire
|Institutions||National Security Agency, Bell Labs|
Family and education 
Morris was born in Boston, Massachusetts. His parents were Walter W. Morris, a salesman, and Helen Kelly Morris. He received a bachelor's degree in mathematics from Harvard University in 1957 and a master's degree in applied mathematics from Harvard in 1958.
Bell Labs 
From 1960 until 1986, Morris was a researcher at Bell Labs and worked on Multics and later Unix. Morris's contributions to early versions of Unix include the math library, the bc programming language, the program
crypt, and the password encryption scheme used for user authentication. The encryption scheme was based on using a trapdoor function (now called a key derivation function) to compute hashes of user passwords which were stored in the file
/etc/passwd; analogous techniques, relying on different functions, are still in use today.
National Security Agency 
In 1986, Morris began work at the National Security Agency (NSA). He served as chief scientist of the NSA's National Computer Security Center, where he was involved in the production of the Rainbow Series of computer security standards, and retired from the NSA in 1994. He once told a reporter that, while at the NSA, he helped the FBI decode encrypted evidence.
There is a description of Morris in Clifford Stoll's book The Cuckoo's Egg. Many readers of Stoll's book remember Morris for giving Stoll a challenging mathematical puzzle (originally due to John H. Conway) in the course of their discussions on computer security: What is the next number in the sequence 1 11 21 1211 111221? (known as the look-and-say sequence). Stoll chose not to include the answer to this puzzle in The Cuckoo's Egg, to the frustration of many readers.
Robert Morris died in Lebanon, New Hampshire.
- Never underestimate the attention, risk, money and time that an opponent will put into reading traffic.
- Rule 1 of cryptanalysis: check for plaintext.
- The three golden rules to ensure computer security are: do not own a computer; do not power it on; and do not use it.
Selected publications 
- (with Fred T. Grampp) UNIX Operating System Security, AT&T Bell Laboratories Technical Journal, 63, part 2, #8 (October 1984), pp. 1649–1672.
- Markoff, John (29 June 2011). "Robert Morris, Pioneer in Computer Security, Dies at 78". New York Times. Retrieved 30 June 2011.
- Dabbling in the Cryptographic World--A Story, Dennis Ritchie, May 5, 2000, Bell Labs. Accessed on line November 29, 2007.
- Password Security: A Case History by Robert Morris and Ken Thompson (1978)
- The data encryption standard—Retrospective and prospects, R. Morris, IEEE Communications 16, #6 (November 1978), pp. 11–14.
- IEEE Electronic CIPHER 9 (1995-09-18)
- AUUG 98 Conference Information and Registration Form, accessed on line November 29, 2007.
- United States v. Morris (1991), 928 F.2d 504, 505 (2d Cir. 1991).
- FAQ about Morris Number Sequence
- "Notes on Crypto '95 invited talks by R. Morris and A. Shamir" by Jim Gillogly and Paul Syverson
- p. 1, Inside Java 2 Platform Security: Architecture, API Design, and Implementation, Li Gong, Gary Ellison, and Mary Dageforde, Boston: Addison-Wesley, 2003, 2nd ed., ISBN 0-201-78791-1.