|22nd United States Secretary of Labor|
January 20, 1993 – January 20, 1997
|Preceded by||Lynn Morley Martin|
|Succeeded by||Alexis Herman|
|Born||Robert Bernard Reich
June 24, 1946
Scranton, Pennsylvania, U.S.
|Spouse(s)||Clare Dalton (Married 1973; Separated 2005; Divorced 2012)|
|Alma mater||Dartmouth College
University College, Oxford
Robert Bernard Reich (//; born June 24, 1946) is an American political economist, professor, author, and political commentator. He served in the administrations of Presidents Gerald Ford and Jimmy Carter and was Secretary of Labor under President Bill Clinton from 1993 to 1997.
Reich is currently Chancellor's Professor of Public Policy at the Goldman School of Public Policy at the University of California, Berkeley. He was formerly a professor at Harvard University's John F. Kennedy School of Government and professor of social and economic policy at the Heller School for Social Policy and Management of Brandeis University. He has also been a contributing editor of The New Republic, The American Prospect (also chairman and founding editor), Harvard Business Review, The Atlantic, The New York Times, and The Wall Street Journal.
Reich is a political commentator on programs including Hardball with Chris Matthews, This Week with George Stephanopoulos, CNBC's Kudlow & Company, and APM's Marketplace. In 2008, Time magazine named him one of the Ten Best Cabinet Members of the century, and The Wall Street Journal in 2008 placed him sixth on its list of the "Most Influential Business Thinkers". He was appointed a member of President-elect Barack Obama's economic transition advisory board.
He has published 14 books, including the best-sellers, The Work of Nations, Reason, Supercapitalism, Aftershock: The Next Economy and America's Future, and a best-selling e-book, Beyond Outrage. He is also chairman of Common Cause and writes his own blog about the political economy at Robertreich.org. The Robert Reich – Jacob Kornbluth film Inequality for All won a U.S. Documentary Special Jury Award for Achievement in Filmmaking at the 2013 Sundance Film Festival in Utah.
Early life and career
Reich was born in Scranton, Pennsylvania, the son of Mildred Dorf (née Freshman) and Edwin Saul Reich, who owned a women's clothing store. As a child, Reich was bullied, and sought out the protection of older boys; one of them was Michael Schwerner, who would be murdered by the Ku Klux Klan in 1964 for registration of African-American voters. Reich cites this event as an inspiration to "fight the bullies, to protect the powerless, to make sure that the people without a voice have a voice."
He attended John Jay High School in Cross River, New York. He attended Dartmouth College, graduating with an A.B. summa cum laude in 1968 and winning a Rhodes Scholarship to study Philosophy, Politics, and Economics at the University of Oxford. Reich was drafted to serve in the Vietnam war, but did not pass the physical as he was under the required minimum height of five feet. Reich subsequently earned a J.D. from Yale Law School, where he was an editor of the Yale Law Journal. At Yale, he was classmates with Bill Clinton, Hillary Clinton, Clarence Thomas, Michael Medved and Richard Blumenthal. He first met Bill Clinton when they both were Rhodes Scholars at Oxford. Before Hillary and Bill met each other, he allegedly went on a date with Hillary Clinton.
From 1973 to 1974 he served as law clerk to Judge Frank M. Coffin, Chief Judge of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the First Circuit, and from 1974 to 1976 was Assistant to the U.S. Solicitor General, Robert Bork. In 1977, President Jimmy Carter appointed him Director of the Policy Planning Staff at the Federal Trade Commission.
From 1980 until 1992, Reich taught at the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University, where he wrote a series of influential books and articles, including The Next American Frontier and The Work of Nations. In The Next American Frontier he blamed the nation's lagging economic growth on "paper entrepreneurialism"—financial and legal gamesmanship that drained the economy of resources needed for better products and services.
In The Work of Nations he argued that a nation's competitiveness depends on the education and skills of its people and on the infrastructure connecting them with one another, rather than on the profitability of companies headquartered within it. Private capital, he said, was increasingly global and footloose, while a nation's people—its human capital—constituted the one resource on which the future standard of living of a nation uniquely depended. He urged policy makers to make such public investments the cornerstone of economic policy.
Bill Clinton incorporated Reich's thinking into his 1992 campaign platform, "Putting People First," and after being elected invited Reich to head his economic transition team. Reich later joined the administration as Secretary of Labor. During his tenure, he implemented the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA), successfully promoted increasing the minimum wage, successfully lobbied to pass the School-to-Work Jobs Act, and launched a number of job training programs.
In addition, Reich used the office as a platform for focusing the nation's attention on the need for American workers to adapt to the new economy. He advocated that the country provide more opportunities for workers to learn more technology.
Reich was born with multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, also known as Fairbanks disease, and as a result is 4 feet 10.5 inches (148.6 cm) tall. He has at times frankly discussed this fact about himself, often with a twist of humor. He once appeared with the 6 ft 4 in (193 cm) Conan O'Brien in a sketch on Late Night with Conan O'Brien.
In 2012, Reich divorced British-born Clare Dalton, whom he married in 1973, and with whom he has two children, Sam and Adam.
After the Clinton administration
In 1996, between Clinton's re-election and second inauguration, Reich decided to leave the department to spend more time with his sons, then in their teen years. He published his experiences working for the Clinton administration in Locked in the Cabinet. After publication of the book, Reich received criticism for embellishing events with invented dialogue. The paperback release of the memoir revised or omitted the inventions.
Reich became a professor at Brandeis University, teaching courses for undergraduates as well as in the Heller School for Social Policy and Management. In 2003, he was elected the Professor of the Year by the undergraduate student body.
In 2002, he ran for Governor of Massachusetts. He also published an associated campaign book, I'll Be Short. Reich was the first Democratic candidate for a major political office to support same-sex marriage. He also pledged support for abortion rights and strongly condemned capital punishment. His campaign staff was largely made up of his Brandeis students. Although his campaign had little funding, he surprised many and came in a close second out of six candidates in the Democratic primary with 25% of the vote.
In 2004, he published Reason: Why Liberals Will Win the Battle for America, a book on how liberals can forcefully argue for their position in a country increasingly dominated by what he calls "radcons", or radical conservatives.
In addition to his professorial role, he is a weekly contributor to the American Public Media public radio program Marketplace, and a regular columnist for the American Prospect, which he co-founded in 1990. He is also a frequent contributor to CNBC's Kudlow & Company and On the Money.
In early 2005, there was speculation that Reich would once again seek the Democratic nomination for Governor of Massachusetts. He instead endorsed the then-little-known candidacy of Deval Patrick, who had previously served as Assistant Attorney General for Civil Rights in the Clinton Administration. Patrick won the party's endorsement, a three-way primary with nearly 50% of the vote, and the general election in November 2006.
On January 1, 2006 Reich joined the faculty of UC Berkeley's Goldman School of Policy. Since then, he has taught a popular course called Wealth and Poverty, which he developed during his tenure at Brandeis. In addition to his professorship, Reich is also a Member of the Board of Trustees for the Blum Center for Developing Economies at the University of California, Berkeley. The Center is focused on finding solutions to address the crisis of extreme poverty and disease in the developing world.
Two years later his book Supercapitalism: The Transformation of Business, Democracy, and Everyday Life was published. In it he argued turbo-charged corporate competition, fueled by consumers and investors seeking the best possible deals from anywhere in the world, was generating severe social problems. But governments were failing to address them because big corporations and Wall Street firms were also seeking competitive advantage over one another through politics, thereby drowning out the voices of ordinary citizens. The answer was to keep corporations focused on making better products and services and keep them out of politics. "Corporate Social Responsibility" is essentially forbearance from activities that undermine democracy.
During the 2008 primaries, Reich published an article that was extremely critical of the Clintons, referring to Bill Clinton's attacks on Barack Obama as "ill-tempered and ill-founded," and accusing the Clintons of waging "a smear campaign against Obama that employs some of the worst aspects of the old politics."
In September 2010, his book Aftershock: The Next Economy and America's Future was published. In it, Reich explained how America's widening inequality had contributed to the great recession and made it difficult for the economy to recover, by undermining the purchasing power of the middle class relative to the nation's productive capacity. In April 2012, his book Beyond Outrage was published as an e-book. In Beyond Outrage Reich focused on why an increasing portion of the public felt the game was rigged in favor of those with wealth and power, why the "regressive right" was nonetheless able to persuade many that taxes should be lowered even further on corporations and the wealthy while many public services should be cut, and what average people could do to take back the economy and reclaim democracy.
Reich has been an active user of social media. He has personally maintained a presence on Tumblr, Blogspot and Facebook. In September 2011 he created an account on the internet forum reddit and opened an 'ask me anything' thread.
Political and philosophical stances
In an interview with The New York Times, he explained that "I don't believe in redistribution of wealth for the sake of redistributing wealth. But I am concerned about how we can afford to pay for what we as a nation need to do...[Taxes should pay] for what we need in order to be safe and productive. As Oliver Wendell Holmes once wrote, “taxes are the price we pay for a civilized society.”
In response to a question as to what to recommend to the incoming president regarding a fair and sustainable income and wealth distribution, Reich said, "Expand the Earned Income Tax Credit — a wage supplement for lower-income people, and finance it with a higher marginal income tax on the top five percent. For the longer term, invest in education for lower income communities, starting with early-childhood education and extending all the way up to better access to post-secondary education."
Reich is pro-union, saying "Unionization is not just good for workers in unions, unionization is very, very important for the economy overall, and would create broad benefits for the United States."
- 2012: Beyond Outrage: What has gone wrong with our economy and our democracy and how to fix it ISBN 978-0345804372
- 2010: Aftershock: The Next Economy and America's Future ISBN 978-0-307-59281-1
- 2007: Supercapitalism: The Transformation of Business, Democracy, and Everyday Life ISBN 0-307-26561-7
- 2004: Reason: Why Liberals Will Win the Battle for America ISBN 1-4000-7660-9
- 2002: I'll Be Short: Essentials for a Decent Working Society ISBN 0-8070-4340-0
- 2000: The Future of Success: Working and Living in the New Economy ISBN 0-375-72512-1
- 1997: Locked in the Cabinet ISBN 0-375-70061-7
- 1991: The Work of Nations: Preparing Ourselves for 21st Century Capitalism ISBN 0-679-73615-8
- 1990: Public Management in a Democratic Society ISBN 0-13-738881-0
- 1990: The Power of Public Ideas (editor) ISBN 0-674-69590-9
- 1989: The Resurgent Liberal: And Other Unfashionable Prophecies ISBN 0-8129-1833-9
- 1987: Tales of a New America: The Anxious Liberal's Guide to the Future ISBN 0-394-75706-8
- 1985: New Deals: The Chrysler Revival and the American System (with John Donahue) ISBN 0-14-008983-7
- 1983: The Next American Frontier ISBN 0-8129-1067-2
- 1982: Minding America's Business: The Decline and Rise of the American Economy (with Ira Magaziner) ISBN 0-394-71538-1
- The Trap (television documentary series), BBC documentary featuring Reich
- 2008–2009 Keynesian resurgence
- "NLS/BPH: Other Writings, Say How? Key to Pronunciation". Loc.gov. February 16, 2011. Retrieved May 26, 2012.
- Longworth, R.C (December 6, 1992). "Clinton's top economic adviser likes the unusual". Chicago Tribune (Lakeland Ledger). Retrieved June 20, 2011.
- "Robert Reich - Top 10 Best Cabinet Members". TIME. November 13, 2008. Retrieved October 24, 2013.
- White, Erin (May 5, 2008). "Quest for Innovation, Motivation Inspires the Gurus". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved October 24, 2013.
- Reich, Robert (November 7, 2008). "Obama's Transition Economic Advisory Board: the Full List". US News and World Report. Retrieved October 24, 2013.
- Peter Vidani. "Robert Reich". Robert Reich. Retrieved October 24, 2013.
- "'Inequality for All' wins Sundance award". Ecointersect.com. Retrieved October 24, 2013.
- "Exposing the lies at the heart of U.S. capitalism". The Observer / The Japan Times. Retrieved October 24, 2013.
- Newsmakers: the people behind today's headlines : 1995 cumulation, includes ... – Louise Mooney Collins, Gale Research Inc – Google Books. Books.google.ca. Retrieved November 9, 2012.
- Robert Reich (November 18, 2011). "Transcript: Robert Reich’s speech at Occupy Cal". The Daily Californian. Retrieved September 11, 2013.
- Turco, Al. "Democrat Robert Reich says he’s prepared to make a difference in Mass.", Stoneham Independent, March 20, 2002. Accessed April 21, 2008. "Reich started out as a graduate of John Jay High School, a regional public high school in small-town Cross River, New York. Reich then earned a bachelor’s degree from Dartmouth College in 1968 and won a Rhodes Scholarship to study at Oxford where he received degrees in philosophy, politics and economics."
- Maraniss, David. First in His Class: A Biography of Bill Clinton. Simon and Schuster. 1995.
- "Interviews – Robert Reich | The Clinton Years | FRONTLINE". PBS. January 16, 2001. Retrieved May 26, 2012.
- Newell, Jim (August 7, 2007). "Hillary’s Dartmouth Lovahh Reveals Himself > Dartmouth, Hillary Clinton, Oxford, Robert Reich | IvyGate". Ivygateblog.com. Retrieved May 26, 2012.
- Anderson Cooper, "Interview with Andy Borowitz, Robert Reich," (On Subject of FDA Approval of Growth Hormone for Short Children), CNN, June 24, 2003.
- Mark Leibovich (March 14, 2002). "The True Measure of a Man: Robert Reich Rises Above the Height Issue in His Run for Governor". Washington Post. Retrieved October 24, 2013.
- David Usborne (June 12, 1994). "Profile: Small guy, big deal: Robert Reich: Can this man get the West to work again? David Usborne on an economist with charisma - Voices". The Independent. Retrieved October 24, 2013.http://adamreich.org/2013/11/02/will-you-help-my-parents-get-divorced-on-google/
- Carvajal, Doreen (February 24, 1998). "Now! Read the True (More or Less) Story!; Publishers and Authors Debate the Boundaries Of Nonfiction". The New York Times. Retrieved May 22, 2010.
- "Foundation VIZE 97 - Laureates". Vize.cz. Retrieved October 24, 2013.
- "About Us". Prospect.org. Retrieved May 26, 2012.
- "University of California – UC Newsroom | Robert Reich to join School of Public Policy". Universityofcalifornia.edu. July 22, 2005. Retrieved May 26, 2012.
- Maclay, Kathleen (April 19, 2006). "4.19.2006 – Blum Center to develop sustainable solutions to issues facing world's poor". Berkeley.edu. Retrieved May 26, 2012.
- "Blum Center for Developing Economies | Real-World Solutions to Combat Poverty". Blumcenter.berkeley.edu. Retrieved May 26, 2012.
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- "Robert Reich | Bill Clinton | Marijuana". The Daily Caller. September 2, 2011. Retrieved May 26, 2012.
- Dubner, Stephen J. (May 1, 2008). "Robert Reich Answers Your Labor Questions". The New York Times. Retrieved May 22, 2010.
- Pete Winn Reich's Call for Unionization is 'a 1930s Solution to a 2009 Problem,’ Economists Say Cybercast News Service February 18, 2009
- Robert Reich Why We Need Stronger Unions, and How to Get Them Robert Reich's blog January 27, 2009
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Robert Reich.|
- Official website
- The American Prospect articles by Robert Reich
- US Department of Labor biography
- UC Berkeley bio
- Robert Reich's blog posts for the Why Democracy? project
Lynn Morley Martin
|United States Secretary of Labor