Robert Reid (pipemaker)
Robert Reid (1784–1837) is widely acknowledged as the creator of the modern form of the Northumbrian Smallpipes. He lived and worked at first in Newcastle upon Tyne, but moved later to the nearby town of North Shields at the mouth of the Tyne, probably in 1802. North Shields was a busy port at this time. The Reids were a family with a long-standing connection to piping; Robert's father Robert Reed (sic), a cabinet maker, was a player of the Northumbrian big-pipes, while Reid's son James (1814–1874) joined his father in the business. Robert died in North Shields in 1837, and is buried there in the graveyard of Christ Church. After Robert Reid's death, James continued alone, in particular maintaining pipes, although there are some sets made solely by James.
Simple closed chanter smallpipes had existed since the late 17th century (possibly being described in the Talbot manuscript from about 1695) but became standard in Northumberland during the 18th. Keys were not added until around 1800 -John Peacock's tune book (c1800) includes A compleat drawing of J. Peacock's New Invented Pipe Chanter with the addition of four keys. As John Dunn was closely associated with Peacock at this time, Dunn may well have been the first to construct such an instrument, but sets of Reid pipes from this time onwards started including keys, and more keys were added to the design over the following years.
The Clough family had a 7 key set with a Reid chanter that Tom Clough stated had been made for his great grandfather Henry (1789–1842); this oral tradition, if correct, would date the set to around 1810 or 1820.
Another such chanter, dated c. 1820, is shown below - the four views show respectively:
- from the front, the fingerholes (for G, A, B, c, d, e, f sharp),
- from the player's left, the keys (for low E and high a) operated by the left little finger,
- from the back, the thumbhole (for high g) and two keys operated by the right thumb (for low F sharp and for d sharp),
- from the right, the other keys operated by the right thumb (for low D, c sharp, and high b).
The stamp used by Reid to mark instruments he made is shown here.
Francis Wood, himself a pipemaker, has written  "From an instrument maker’s perspective, the Reid chanters appear extraordinary objects, a fine example of ideal design, which mysteriously seems to have emerged fully formed without any apparent evolution with the exception of the rare examples of 6 key chanters lacking the D sharp key. Some changes of detail occur throughout Reid’s career but what remains evident and constant is the extreme economy and functionality of the design, in which little is purely decorative. Every detail is generally present for a practical reason, to a degree that is remarkable. The very compact keywork also conforms to that principle. The outline of the keys remains close to the chanter stem with no part unduly projecting, a particularly neat construction that reduces the vulnerability of the keywork to accidental damage. Players will notice an immediately comfortable hold on the chanter, with keywork that is lightly and evenly sprung and with pleasantly rounded key-touches which accommodate differing angles of finger action. These are all characteristics which are evident on some finely made modern pipes but they are by no means universal."
By the 1830s 14 key chanters were available, of which a fine example, with 5 drones, is found in the Morpeth Chantry Bagpipe Museum. Reputedly, Tom Clough described this as “the finest set I ever played on”. Some detail of this set's keywork is shown here.
The key arrangements found in this period have remained largely unchanged since.
Some 77 sets of pipes wholly or partially by Reid survive; some 45 in private hands and perhaps 10 are actively played; a number of sets by the Reids are also in public collections, most numerously in the Morpeth Chantry Bagpipe Museum.
Robert Reid was also active in making Union Pipes; the precursor to modern Uilleann pipes.
Henry Clough was known to play a Reid set of Union pipes including regulators; surviving parts of this set are now in private hands.
- letter from James Reid to William Kell, 7.12.1857
- Peacock's Tunes, 1st ed., Northumbrian Pipers' Society (1980), ISBN 0-902510-07-X
- Clough Family of Newsham, Northumbrian Piper's Society (2000), ISBN 0-902510-20-7
- In Praise of Old Pipes, Journal of the Northumbrian Pipers' Society, v. 31, 11, 2010.
- G.W.H. Wells, D. Phil. thesis, Oxford University, 2009
- Northumbrian Pipers Society Magazine, Volumes 1-29, http://www.northumbrianpipers.org.uk/