Robert Troup (August 19, 1756 – January 14, 1832) was an American soldier, lawyer and jurist.
At the start of the American Revolutionary War, he joined the Continental Army, serving from 1776 to 1780 and obtaining the rank of Lieutenant Colonel. Serving under General Nathaniel Woodhull he was captured by the British near Brooklyn during the Battle of Long Island on August 27, 1776 and confined to the Jersey Prison Ship. He was later transferred to the Provost prison until he was exchanged in 1777. He was an aide to General Horatio Gates and participated in the Surrender of General Burgoyne at the Battle of Saratoga on October 17, 1777. He is depicted in the painting of the Surrender of General Burgoyne at Saratoga by John Trumbull.
Troup was appointed by Congress as Secretary of the Board of War in 1778 and Secretary of the Board of Treasury from 1779 to 1780. He maintained a private law practice in Albany, New York from 1782 to 1783, and in New York City from 1784 to 1796. He was a member of the New York State Assembly in 1786. From 1789 to 1796, he served as Clerk of Court of the District of New York until he was nominated by President George Washington, on December 9, 1796, to fill the judicial seat vacated by John Laurance. Confirmed by the United States Senate on December 10, 1796, Troup received his commission the same day and served as a Judge in the District of New York until his resignation on April 4, 1798. He then returned to private practice in New York City.
In 1801, Troup was appointed general agent managing the Pultney Estate, which had purchased land rights to large portions of upstate New York. The town of Troupsburg, New York was named after him. The town of Charlotte north of the city of Rochester, New York was named by Troup in honor of his daughter.
Robert Troup was a personal friend of Alexander Hamilton, who had been his King's College roommate, served with him in the Hearts of Oak militia unit, and supported him in politics. Hamilton and Troup were later founding members of New York Manumission Society promoting the abolition of the slavery in New York, although Troup himself owned slaves.
Troup married Jennet Goelet and had four children; Charles, Robert, Charlotte, and Louisa. Both of Troup's sons died before him. His daughter Charlotte married James Lefferts Brinckerhoff and had two daughters; Charlotte and Maria Louisa.
Robert Troup died January 14, 1832 in New York, NY. He was originally buried at St. Andrew's, however, after the death of his daughter Charlotte in 1872, his body was moved to Green-Wood Cemetery in Brooklyn.
- Blunt, Joseph (1833). American Annual Register of Public Events for the Year 1831-32. Fressenden and Company. pp. 389–390. Retrieved 2008-01-20.
- Surrender of General Burgoyne
- "Key to the Surrender of General Burgoyne". Retrieved 2008-01-20.
- Milliken, Charles F. (1911). A History of Ontario County, New York and Its People. Lewis Historical Publishing Co. p. 351. Retrieved 2008-01-20.
- Campbell, William W. (1849). The Life and Writings of De Witt Clinton. Baker and Scribner. p. 113. Retrieved 2008-01-18.
- Lodge, Henry Cabot (1904). The Works of Alexander Hamilton. G. P. Putnam's Sons. pp. 107–113. Retrieved 2008-01-20.
- Tripp, Wendell E. (1982). Robert Troup: A Quest for Security in a Turbulent New Nation. Ayer Publishing. p. 307. ISBN 0-405-14074-6. Retrieved 2008-02-20.
- Robert Troup Papers 1771-1870. New York Public Library Research Collections. Retrieved 2008-02-02.
- Tripp, Wendell E. (1982). Robert Troup: A Quest for Security in a Turbulent New Nation. Ayer Publishing. p. 322. ISBN 0-405-14074-6. Retrieved 2008-02-02.
- "Find a Grave: Robert Troup". Retrieved 2008-02-01.
- Robert Troup at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center.