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The Supreme Court in 2009, with Chief Justice John Roberts
The Roberts Court refers to the Supreme Court of the United States since 2005, under the leadership of Chief Justice John G. Roberts. It is generally considered more conservative than the preceding Rehnquist Court, as a result of the retirement of moderate Justice Sandra Day O'Connor and the subsequent confirmation of the more conservative Justice Samuel Alito in her place. In its first five years, the Roberts court has issued major rulings on gun control, affirmative action, campaign finance regulation, abortion, capital punishment and criminal sentencing.
After the death of Chief Justice William Rehnquist, Roberts was nominated by President George W. Bush, who had previously nominated him to replace Sandra Day O'Connor. The U.S. Senate confirmed his nomination by a vote of 78–22.
Roberts took the Constitutional oath of office, administered by senior Associate Justice John Paul Stevens at the White House, on September 29, 2005, almost immediately after his confirmation. On October 3, he took the judicial oath provided for by the Judiciary Act of 1789, prior to the first oral arguments of the 2005 term.
Since 2005, there have been a number of Supreme Court cases decided by the Roberts Court: