Robin Edgar Birley (born 19 January 1935) is a British archaeologist. He was formerly the Director of Excavations at the Roman site of Vindolanda, and now heads the Vindolanda research committee. He is the son of the Wall scholar Eric Birley and brother to Anthony Birley. His wife Patricia Birley and son Andrew Birley are also published authors on Roman Vindolanda.
Both Birley brothers lived at the site with their father Eric Birley, with Robin starting his first excavation at age 14. He was educated at Clifton College, before spending some years with the Royal Marines before returning to work at Vindolanda and becoming the Director of the Vindolanda Trust. Robin has excavated extensively at the site of Vindolanda and was intimately involved in the discovery of the Vindolanda Tablets in 1973 and their subsequent interpretation and publication. These are a series of wooden tablets containing Latin script and are the oldest surviving handwritten script in Britain. These are published in text and on an online catalogue.
He had published extensively on the Vindolanda site as well as appearing in several TV documentaries, including the 2003 BBC production of Our Top Ten Treasures.