Robinson R22

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R22
Robinson 1172.jpg
Role Light utility and trainer helicopter
Manufacturer Robinson Helicopter Company
Designer Frank D. Robinson
First flight 1975
Introduction 1979
Number built over 4,484 (2012)
Unit cost
$270,000
Developed into Robinson R44

The Robinson R22 is a two-bladed, single-engine light utility helicopter manufactured by Robinson Helicopter. The two-seat R22 was designed in 1973 by Frank Robinson and has been in production since 1979.

Development[edit]

The majority of flight testing was performed at Zamperini Field in Torrance, California. Flight testing and certification was performed in the late 1970s by test pilot Joseph John "Tym" Tymczyszyn and the R22 received FAA certification in March 1979.[1] Due to relatively low acquisition and operating costs, the R22 has been popular as a primary rotorcraft trainer around the world and as a livestock management tool on large ranches in North America and cattle stations in Australia. The R22 has a very low inertia rotor system[2] and the control inputs are operated directly by push rods with no hydraulic assistance. Thus, the flight controls are very sensitive and require a light touch to avoid over correcting. A student that masters an R22 generally does not have a problem transitioning to a heavier helicopter. Due to the issues relating to a low inertia rotor-system and a teetering main rotor, operation by any pilot in the United States of the Robinson R22 or Robinson R44 requires a special endorsement by a certified flight instructor.[3] Tip weights were added to increase rotor inertia,[4] but the small rotor limits weight.[5]

Design[edit]

Robinson R22 hovering

The R-22 is a light, two-place, single reciprocating-engined helicopter with a semi-rigid two-bladed main rotor and a two-bladed tail rotor. The main rotor has a teetering hinge and two coning hinges, the tail rotor has only a teetering hinge.

The normal production variant has skid landing gear. The Mariner version provided floats; wheeled gear is not available.

The basic structure is welded chromoly steel tubing. The forward fuselage is made of fiberglass and aluminum with a Plexiglas canopy. The tailcone, vertical and horizontal stabilizers are aluminum. It has an enclosed cabin with side-by-side seating for a pilot and passenger. The doors may be removed for flight, and are often done so for photographic flights, interior cooling in high temperatures, or a 10.4 lb weight saving.

The first version was produced as the R22, followed by the R22 HP, R22 Alpha, R22 Beta and R22 Beta II. Superficially, the aircraft appear similar. The R22 HP was fitted with a 160 bhp Lycoming 0-320-B2C engine, an increase of 10 bhp (7.5 kW) over the original R22. The landing skid assembly on the R22 Alpha was modified by extending the rear struts, giving it a slightly nose-down attitude on the ground and better matching its attitude in a low altitude hover with two people on board. The R22 Beta added an engine speed governor (optional), rotor brake and auxiliary fuel tank (optional). The battery was moved from below the instrument cluster to the engine compartment for better balance. It has been offered as an instrument trainer version, with optional fixed floats as the R22 Mariner, and other special configurations for police work, electronic news gathering, and so on. The R22 Beta II added a Lycoming 0-360 engine, remade of lightweight materials and derated for sealevel operation. It allows greater altitudes for hovering in and out of ground effect (HIGE/HOGE). The R22 Beta II also made the engine speed governor standard and included a "carb heat assist" which correlates adding carb heat with decrease in collective control. Only the basic skid style is currently being sold. The R44 is available as the Clipper with floats, and as police and electronic news configurations.

Controls[edit]

The R22's cockpit, showing its unique "T-Bar" control.

Instead of floor-mounted cyclic sticks between the pilot's knees, the R22 uses a unique teetering "T-Bar" control connected to a stick that emerges from the console between the seats. This makes it easier for occupants to enter and exit the cabin and reduces chances for injury in the event of a hard landing. The teeter bar has a hand grip on both sides that hangs down between the pilots' legs. Thus, if teetered to the right, the right side pilot would be flying and the left grip would be about 12 inches above the left pilot's lap. R22 flight instructors quickly learn how to fly with their hand in the air. The left part of the bar, left collective control, and left tail rotor pedals can be removed if the left seat occupant is not certificated to fly the R22 or the space is needed for technical or observer duties. A floor-mounted foot activated push-to-talk switch facilitates intercom communications for the left seat occupant, although some later models may be equipped with a voice activated intercom system.

The helicopter rotor system consists of a two-bladed main rotor and two-bladed anti-torque rotor on the tail, each equipped with a teetering hinge. The main rotor is equipped with two coning hinges. Collective and cyclic pitch inputs to the main rotor are transmitted through pushrods and a conventional swashplate mechanism. Control inputs to the pre-coned tail rotor are transmitted through a single pushrod inside the aluminum tail cone.

To ease the pilot's workload, a mechanical throttle correlator adjusts the throttle as the collective pitch control is raised or lowered. The pilot only needs to make small adjustments by twisting the throttle grip on the collective throughout the flight regime. Later models are also equipped with an electronic governor which works to maintain RPM within normal operating limits (between 97 and 104% RPM); the governor is only active when the engine is running above 80% RPM, and is most effective in normal flight conditions. The governor can be switched on or off with a toggle switch located at the end of the pilot's collective pitch control; when the governor is not engaged, a yellow caution light glows on the instrument panel.[6]

Powerplant[edit]

Lycoming O-320 mounted in a Robinson R-22 Beta
The R22 is a simple and tight design

The R22 uses a horizontally mounted Lycoming O-320 (O-360-J2A on the Beta II), four-cylinder, air-cooled, normally aspirated, carburetor-equipped piston engine. It is fueled with 100LL grade aviation gasoline. Cooling is provided through a direct drive squirrel-cage cooling fan. At sea level it is capable of producing more power than the transmission and rotor system can safely handle, and to ensure maximum engine and transmission life the O-360 must be derated, or operated at less than maximum power. As the air becomes thinner with increasing altitude, maximum available horse power decreases, reaching a point where the throttle can be completely open and rotor RPM is controlled by collective position. By derating the engine at sea level, the R22 achieves acceptable high-altitude performance without use of supercharging or turbocharging, thus saving the weight, complexity, unreliability, and shortened engine life of a forced induction system.

A carburetor is used to provide the air-fuel mixture. Carbureted engines are susceptible to carburetor icing, a condition most likely to occur in conditions of low 11 °C (52 °F) difference between the outside air temperature and dew point (the "dew point spread"), as well as visible signs of moisture in the atmosphere. Icing can lead to loss of engine power, and if not corrected total shutdown of the engine. A carburetor heat control is used to supply heated air to the carburetor from the exhaust muffler heat exchanger; this can prevent or cure icing, but also causes a reduction in engine power output because hot air is less dense, enriching the fuel-air mixture. The carburetor heat control is a simple plunger-type control mounted on the center console near the collective pitch control lever; pulling the control up slides a gate near the carburetor that admits warm air from a shroud surrounding the muffler. The R22 employs a carburetor air temperature gauge, marked to indicate temperatures conducive to icing. The Beta II version of the R22 also includes a "carburetor heat assist", which automatically applies carburetor heat when the collective is lowered below a certain point. When icing conditions are present carburetor heat is required to prevent icing around the butterfly valve from the pressure drop at that point. As the carburetor air temperature (CAT) indicator does not read correctly below 18 inches (46 cm) of intake manifold air pressure, icing conditions require applying full carburetor heat below 18 inches (46 cm) of manifold pressure. A placard indicating this requirement is located on the CAT indicator and in the Pilot's Operating Handbook (POH).

Power is transmitted from the engine to the rotor system through drive belts. Originally, the R22 used four separate v-belts. This system proved problematic, as belt length variations due to manufacturing tolerances caused some belts to overstress and break. As a temporary measure, in 1982, R22 operators received a kit from Robinson that was installed in the cockpit and clutch worm-gear motor, isolating the tensioning circuits and locking the clutch/drive system at take-off tension. The problem was ultimately solved by replacing the four individual v-belts with two dual-v belts, running on matching multi-groove sheaves. The upper driven sheave is mounted on the tail rotor drive shaft next to a flexible coupling and is raised and lowered relative to the engine-mounted driving sheave by means of a small electric gear motor. During shutdown, the gear motor is used to lower the top sheave to loosen the drive belts. For startup, the engine is started with the belts loose, allowing the engine to run without spinning the rotor system. Immediately after engine start, the clutch switch located in the cockpit is closed by the pilot, powering the gear motor to slowly move the top sheave up to flight position, which tightens the belts. The gear motor is thereafter controlled by a pressure-sensing switch, automatically maintaining proper belt tension during flight as the belts warm up and stretch. The tail rotor drive shaft is also driven by the main transmission; the semi-conical gear box delivers power to the main rotor shaft through a pair of splash-lubricated spiral bevel gears.

A sprag clutch is built into the center of the top sheave to allow the rotor system to continue to rotate in the event of engine failure, allowing the R22 to enter autorotation and land in a controlled manner. Because the main rotor has very little mass and inertia, autorotation in an R22 requires careful and proper execution to assure a successful outcome. Much time is spent in training practicing various types of autorotation. Target speed in an autorotation is 65 kn (120 km/h) and the glide ratio is approximately 4:1 in maximum-glide configuration.

Transport[edit]

Robinson R22 helicopter on 8 x 30-foot (2.4 x 9.1 m) trailer with a gross weight of 3,500 pounds (1,600 kg).

The two-bladed rotor and the small size of the R22 make it possible to transport the helicopter without blade folding or dismantling tasks. Transporting the R22 requires securing the tail boom and rotor blades to the truck or trailer bed,[citation needed] which must be torsionally rigid to prevent motion and stresses being applied to the helicopter during transportation. It is possible to take off from and land directly onto a trailer.

Variants[edit]

R22
Initial production version powered by a Lycoming O-320-A2B or A2C piston engine.
R22 HP
Higher-powered version, powered by a 160-bhp Lycoming 0-320-B2C piston engine.
R22 Alpha
Improved version certified in 1983 powered by a Lycoming 0-320-B2C piston engine.
R22 Beta
Fitted with a more powerful engine, powered by a Lycoming 0-320-B2C piston engine.
R22 Beta II
Fitted with a more powerful engine, powered by a Lycoming O-360-J2A piston engine.
R22 Beta II Police
Police patrol version, equipped with searchlight and loudspeaker.
R22 Mariner
Designed for off-shore work, fitted with floats and wheels, Lycoming 0-320-B2C piston engine. Limited to daylight operations when fitted with floats.
R22 Mariner II
Designed for off-shore work, fitted with floats and wheels, Lycoming O-360-J2A piston engine. Limited to daylight operations when fitted with floats.
R22 Police
Police version.
R22 IFR
Designed for IFR training with a larger 10-hole panel to accommodate additional instruments. Not IFR certified, so training must be done with a safety pilot in VFR conditions.
Maverick UAV
Unmanned military version marketed by Boeing
Renegade UAV
Unmanned R&D version built for DARPA

Unmanned derivatives[edit]

The R22 is the basis for Boeing's Maverick military unmanned aerial vehicle helicopter, and its Renegade version. In 1999, Frontier Systems developed a remotely piloted R22, the Maverick. This aircraft, along with the company, was later acquired by Boeing Phantom Works. In 2003 the United States Navy purchased four aircraft, equipped with Wescam EO/IR (Electro-Optical/Infrared) systems.[7]

Boeing then modified one of the Mavericks further, calling it the Renegade, under contract with DARPA as a research testbed to develop software for its A160 Hummingbird.[7] The software system, known as the Software Enabled Control (SEC) program, was developed by Boeing and teams from the University of California Berkeley, Georgia Institute of Technology and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and was first flown on May 26, 2005. During the flight, the SEC assumed control of the aircraft to "execute autonomous maneuvering algorithms".[8] The software allows the aircraft to autonomously select "optimal routes through a field of pop-up and already-known threats; flying low-level, terrain-hugging profiles to avoid detection; and determining safe landing zones by using vision-based algorithms to process landing site imagery and terrain height information."[9]

Operators[edit]

The R-22 is operated by many private individuals, companies and flying clubs. In Australia, where there are 489 R22s registered as of mid-2011, a survey found that 62% of the fleet's flying time was in mustering operations, while 13% of hours were spent in training pilots. Many broadcasters used the R-22 until the mid-1990s when the financial landscape of radio broadcasting in the U.S. changed due to deregulation of the industry.[10]

Military[edit]

 Dominican Republic
 Philippines

Accidents and incidents[edit]

Since the R22 received FAA certification in March 1979, Robinson has delivered 4620 R22 helicopters. The R22 had 182 fatal accidents between March 1979 and June 2010 from a total of 1230 incidents. In late 1981, the R22 had its type certificate temporarily revoked by the Federal Aviation Administration due to delamination of a main rotor blade. The cause of the delamination was determined to be contamination of one of the bonded parts during a priming operation performed at an outside vendor. In response, Robinson Helicopter Company instituted stringent quality procedures and requirements, and replaced all main rotor blades on the fleet of 33 helicopters in service at the time.[14]

In the early 1980s, the R22 experienced a number of student-pilot related accidents due the R22’s use as a primary flight trainer. Believing the number of accidents was the result of insufficient training and lax standards, Robinson established the Robinson Pilot Safety Course in 1982 to educate Certified Flight Instructors transitioning from larger helicopters to the new, smaller R22.[15] After the introduction of the Robinson Pilot Safety Course, the rate of fatal R22 accidents declined from 3.7 per 100,000 flight hours in 1983 to 0.97 per 100,000 flight hours for the 12 months preceding July 1995.[16] Robinson’s statistics show the rate of fatal R22 accidents per 100,000 flight hours fell from 6.0 in 1982 to 0.7 in 1997.[17] To date more than 17,000 students have gone through the course.[18]

R22 Cost[edit]

The R22 has a suggested retail price of $279,000 (ex factory price, USA)[19] and the value on the second hand market is dependent on component time.

A full overhaul of major components is required at 2200 Hours (or 12 years, whichever comes first), which is sometimes known as "Timex"

Depreciation on a Robinson R22 is negligible, as freshly overhauled R22s typically sell for more than the original cost.[20] However, a provision per flown hour must be made for a "reserve for overhaul" cost. Which is currently estimated at US$59.42 per hour.[20] (Total approximate overhaul cost: ~$60 x 2200 Hours = ~US$132,000)

The Robinson price list is updated in February each year.

Specifications (R22)[edit]

Data from Robinson R22 Pilot's Operating Handbook.[6] Current versions of the R22 vary slightly.

General characteristics

  • Crew: 1
  • Capacity: 2, including pilot
  • Length: 28 ft 8 in (8.74 m)
  • Rotor diameter: 25 ft 2 in (7.67 m)
  • Height: 8 ft 11 in (2.72 m)
  • Disc area: 497 ft² (46.2 m²)
  • Empty weight: 796 lb (389 kg)
  • Loaded weight: 920 lb (417 kg)
  • Max. takeoff weight: 1,370 lb (635 kg)
  • Powerplant: 1 × Lycoming O-320-A2B or -A2C flat 4 piston engine, 124 hp (93 kW)
  • Main tank total capacity: 19.8 US gallons (75 liters)
  • Main tank usable capacity: 19.2 US gallons (73 liters)
  • Optional aux tank total capacity: 10.9 US gallons (41 liters)
  • Optional aux tank usable capacity: 10.5 US gallons (40 liters)

Performance

See also[edit]

Related development
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Aerospace Walk of Honor: "Tymczyszyn Bio"]". Retrieved 1 April 2014. 
  2. ^ Greenspun, Philip. "2005 Robinson R22 - owner's review" March 2010. Accessed: 20 September 2014.
  3. ^ SFAR No. 73 to Part 61 in the Federal Aviation Regulations
  4. ^ http://www.unicopter.com/0385.html
  5. ^ Borrows, David A. Rotor RPM Flight Training, March 1998. Accessed: February 2011.
  6. ^ a b Robinson Helicopter Company (1996-10-22). R22 Pilot’s Operating Handbook and FAA Approved Rotorcraft Flight Manual. pp. 2–2, 7–17. 
  7. ^ a b Boeing Maverick at Designation Systems
  8. ^ Boeing Team Demonstrates Advanced Autonomous Flight Control for UAVs "Boeing Team Demonstrates Advanced Autonomous Flight Control for UAVs" Boeing news release, June 21, 2005
  9. ^ "Boeing Completes Successful Autonomous Flight Control Technology Program", Space Daily, March 20, 2006
  10. ^ Marchbank, Margo, ed. (July–August 2011). "Stockhorse of the sky: the Robinson R22". Flight Safety Australia (Civil Aviation Safety Authority) (81): 14–15. ISSN 1325-5002. 
  11. ^ "Dominican Rep. Army Aviation". Retrieved 10 January 2013. 
  12. ^ "Robinson R-22 Beta II". Retrieved 10 January 2013. 
  13. ^ "Philippine Navy". Retrieved 10 January 2013. 
  14. ^ Krauss, Barbara. (1986, July/August). Robinson Helicopter: Number two and trying harder. Vertiflite, Volume 32, p 24
  15. ^ Ells, Steven W. (2007, June 1) The highest standards: Robinson Helicopter aims for excellence. AOPA Pilot.
  16. ^ Campbell, J.R. "Zoom". (1995, October) Witch hunt extraordinaire. US Aviator 8-16.
  17. ^ Robinson Helicopter Company. (2012, Spring). Robinson safety class turns thirty. Robinson News, Volume 18, Issue 1, p. 3.
  18. ^ Moorman, Robert. (2013, May/June). The house that Frank built. Vertiflite, Volume 59, p. 25
  19. ^ "R22 Pricelist". Robinson Helicopter Company. Retrieved 23 May 2014. 
  20. ^ a b "R22 Operating Costs". Robinson Helicopter Company. Retrieved 23 May 2014. 

External links[edit]