|— City —|
|• Total||0.7 sq mi (1.9 km2)|
|• Land||0.7 sq mi (1.9 km2)|
|• Water||0.0 sq mi (0.0 km2)|
|Elevation||1,962 ft (598 m)|
|• Density||918.6/sq mi (338.4/km2)|
|Time zone||Central (CST) (UTC-6)|
|• Summer (DST)||CDT (UTC-5)|
|GNIS feature ID||1375773|
In 1885, shortly after Fisher County was organized, a dispute arose between business partners from Mississippi and a town called Fisher. Both wanted their land to host the courthouse. The partners were M.L. and D.C. Roby, and the town of Fisher is now called North Roby.
In 1886, construction was begun on the new courthouse and a school and post office opened. The community had thirteen houses by that summer. In 1890 the population was estimated to be 300 people and the town had a hotel, two general stores, Baptist and Methodist churches, a restaurant and a weekly newspaper, the Fisher County Call.
Roby had no jail until 1892, when one was constructed out of stone. A new jail was built in 1926 out of brick, and is still in use as of 2010. It has had three different courthouses during its existence, unlike many Texas county seats which have preserved and restored original courthouses. The most recent courthouse was built in 1972, and is strikingly modern in comparison to those found in many Texas counties.
In 1898 the first bank was chartered and the Roby school district was formed. The area covered by the school district grew slowly over the years as it absorbed rural schools in the vicinity.
By 1900 the population had grown to 712 residents. By 1914 it had Baptist, Methodist, Presbyterian and Nazarene churches. Telephone service was also established as of 1914.
Roby received its first railroad in 1907 (The Texas Central) and in 1915 the Roby and Northern laid 4.4-miles of track to connect Roby proper with North Roby. In 1930 the population was 801. It actually increased during the Great Depression – reaching 904 for the 1940 Census. The Roby and Northern line was scrapped during World War II and its rails went to the war effort.
Roby incorporated in 1915, and its population grew to 801 in 1930 and 904 in 1940. The population peaked in 1950 with 1,040 people calling Roby and North Roby home and sixty businesses. The city was plagued by insufficient water throughout its life and finally in 1953 during a long period of drought, water from Oak Creek Lake at Blackwell was piped in. By 1970 the population had fallen below 800 with twenty-two businesses in operation. It further declined to 616 in 1990 before rebounding to 673 in 2000, and as of the 2010 Census, the population had fallen to 643.
Roby is located at .(32.744839, -100.381100)
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.7 square miles (1.8 km2), all of it land. Roby is surrounded by wide cotton fields.
As of the census of 2000, there were 673 people, 264 households, and 175 families residing in the city. The population density was 936.1 people per square mile (360.9/km²). There were 312 housing units at an average density of 434.0 per square mile (167.3/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 86.18% White, 3.27% African American, 0.45% Native American, 8.32% from other races, and 1.78% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 22.14% of the population.
There were 264 households out of which 31.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.4% were married couples living together, 10.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 33.7% were non-families. 31.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 20.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 3.13.
In the city the population was spread out with 27.8% under the age of 18, 6.2% from 18 to 24, 25.1% from 25 to 44, 20.2% from 45 to 64, and 20.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 80.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 78.0 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $27,031, and the median income for a family was $34,632. Males had a median income of $27,500 versus $19,286 for females. The per capita income for the city was $13,926. About 14.8% of families and 15.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.9% of those under age 18 and 14.7% of those age 65 or over.
The Roby 43 
Forty-three lucky residents of Roby, Texas put $10 each in a lottery pool in 1996 and won the $43,000,000 jackpot on Thanksgiving of that year, making 6-7% percent of the population millionaires instantly.
The City of Roby is served by the Roby Consolidated Independent School District.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
- "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.