Rocca di Papa
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|Rocca di Papa|
|Comune di Rocca di Papa|
|Frazioni||Pratoni del Vivaro|
|• Mayor||Pasquale Boccia|
|• Total||40 km2 (20 sq mi)|
|Elevation||680 m (2,230 ft)|
|Population (31 May 2008)|
|• Density||380/km2 (980/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
|Patron saint||St. Charles Borromeo|
|Saint day||November 4|
Rocca di Papa is a small town and comune in the province of Rome, Lazio, Italy. It is one of the Castelli Romani about 25 km south east of Rome on the Alban Hills. It is bounded by the other communes of Velletri, Rocca Priora, Monte Compatri, Grottaferrata, Albano and Marino. It is the centre of the Regional Park known as the "Parco Regionale dei Castelli Romani".
Documents from 12th century name Rocca di Papa as Castrum Rocce de Papa ("Rock Castle of the Pope"), because Pope Eugene III lived there.
In 1541 Pier Luigi Farnese, with French troops, destroyed the castle.
In 1855 the people proclaimed the "Rocca di Papa Republic" against prince Colonna and the Papal States government.
In 1889 the "Royal Geodynamic Observatory" was built on the top of Rocca di Papa, near the little Church of the Crucified. Between 1922 and 1935 the scientist Guglielmo Marconi carried out several experiments from this building in radio-transmission, wireless transmission and broadcasting.
In 1944, during World War II, Rocca di Papa was bombed. The Centre of the city was destroyed. Thirty four people died in that air strike and 35 died in a second air strike on May 25. The city was liberated from the Nazi German occupation on June 4, 1944 by the 85th Infantry Division.
- Papal Fortress, known since medieval times but restored in the current form during the reign of Pope Paul III.
- Santuario Madonna del Tufo
- Chiesa del Crocefisso
- Church of the Assunta, built in the 18th century. It is dedicated to the Assumption, and was rebuilt after the earthquake of 1806 in larger size.
- Fontana della Barcaccia
- Quartiere dei Bavaresi, built by Bavarian militiamen left here by Emperor Louis IV in 1328.
- Via Sacra (The Sacred Way of Monte Cavo).
- Convent of Palazzolo, located on top of a rock dominating the east shore of Lake Albano. The old Roman buildings (on the site on which some scholars place the ancient Albalonga) was turned into monasteries and a church dedicated to St Mary of Palatiolo. In the orchard of the convent is a sepulchral monument of the 2nd century BC with a staircase pyramid. Currently the Abbey and the church belongs to the English College.
Economy of Rocca di Papa is mostly based on tourism and agriculture, the latter dominated by wine and vine production.
The most important festival held in Rocca di Papa is the Roast Chestnut Festival (3rd week-end of October), in which is possible to eat the roast chestnut (the "Rocchicianelle") with wines of Castelli Romani pouring out by stands in the streets of the town.
The Geophysical Museum illustrates the idea and the scientific data that have brought to the modeling of the inside of the Earth, preserve tools and scientific documents of the geology, geography and terrestrial physics.
The astronomic observatory
The astronomic observatory "Franco Fuligni", located in the frazione of Vivaro, is a public structure, available for whoever (skygazings, curious, mateur astronomers, groups and students) is interested in astronomy.
Federal Equestrian Centre of C.O.N.I. - Pratoni del Vivaro
It is situated on a knoll in the centre of the communal farm of "Domatore". From 1960, when for the Olympic Games the equipment for the horse-riding events was installed, it has been the centre of equestrian championships and a meeting place for horse-riders. The equipment has been improved and enlarged to form an adequate spot for the preparation of the best horse-riders, offering an excellent track with every kind of difficulty and obstacle.
The funicular of Rocca di Papa was inaugurated in 1906: it connected “Valle Oscura” to avenue "Silvio Spaventa" and it worked thanks to a system of communicating large cases, with the movement furnished by the counterweights of the same ones moved by the water every time, regulated according to the number of passengers. Dismantled the previous one, an electric funicular was inaugurated on June 28, 1932, connecting the station of “Valle Vergine” with Margherita Square; it remained in service until to 1962.
Rocca di Papa was also connected to Rome by the Castelli Romani tramway, dismantled in the 1960s and replaced by a bus service. Direct road connection to Rome is provided by the SS511 Anagnina State Road and by the Via dei Laghi (former SS217 State Road). The nearest railway station is that of Frascati.
- Massimo Taparelli (1798–1866) the Marquis d'Azeglio, Italian statesman, novelist and painter
- Theodore William Achtermann (1799–1884) sculptor
- Luise Rinser (1911–2002) writer
- Domenico Tojetti (Rocca di Papa 1807 - San Francisco 1892) painter
- 1960 Summer Olympics official report. Volume 1. p. 81.
- Official site Geophysical Museum
- Official site Astronomic observatory
- Official site of Palazzola-Venerable English College