Rochester Cathedral

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Rochester Cathedral
Cathedral Church of Christ
and the Blessed Virgin Mary
Exterior of Rochester Cathedral
Rochester Cathedral is located in Kent
Rochester Cathedral
Rochester Cathedral
Shown within Kent
51°23′20″N 0°30′12″E / 51.388962°N 0.503293°E / 51.388962; 0.503293Coordinates: 51°23′20″N 0°30′12″E / 51.388962°N 0.503293°E / 51.388962; 0.503293
OS grid reference TQ 74273 68521
Location Rochester, Medway
Country England
Denomination Church of England
Website www.rochestercathedral.org
History
Former name(s) Priory of St Andrew (604–1542)
Founded 604
Founder(s) St Justus
Consecrated 604
Past bishop(s) St John Fisher (martyr), Nicholas Ridley (martyr)
Architecture
Status Cathedral
Functional status Active
Heritage designation Grade I
Designated 24 October 1950
Architect(s) Gundulf of Rochester
Style Norman, Gothic
Years built 1079–1238
Specifications
Bells 10 (full circle)
Tenor bell weight 30 long cwt 0 qtr 14 lb (3,374 lb or 1,530 kg)
Administration
Diocese Rochester (since 604)
Province Canterbury
Clergy
Bishop(s) James Langstaff
Dean Mark Beach
Precentor Neil Thompson
Canon Pastor Philip Hesketh
Canon Missioner Jean Kerr
Archdeacon Simon Burton-Jones, Archdeacon of Rochester (Canon Residentiary)
Curate(s) Vacant
Laity
Director of music Scott Farrell
Organist(s) Roger Sayer
Business manager Edwina Bell

Rochester Cathedral, or the Cathedral Church of Christ and the Blessed Virgin Mary, is a Norman church in Rochester, Medway. The bishopric is the second oldest in England after Canterbury. It is a Grade I listed building (Number 1086423).[1][2]

History[edit]

Anglo-Saxon establishment[edit]

The Rochester diocese was founded by Justus, one of the missionaries who accompanied Saint Augustine of Canterbury to convert the pagan Southern English to Christianity in the early 7th century. As the first Bishop of Rochester, Justus was given permission by King Æthelberht of Kent to establish a church of St Andrew the Apostle (the same dedication as the monastery in Rome from which St Augustine and St Justus had set out for England) on the site of the present cathedral, which was made the home of a bishopric. The cathedral was to be served by a college of secular priests and was endowed with land near the city called Priestfields.[3][a][b]

Under the Roman system, a bishop was required to establish a school for the training of priests.[4] To provide the upper parts for music in the services a choir school was required.[5] Together these formed the genesis of the cathedral school which today is represented by the King's School, Rochester. The quality of chorister training was praised by the Venerable Bede.[6]

The original cathedral was 42 feet (13 m) high and 28 feet (8.5 m) wide. The apse is marked in the current cathedral on the floor, and sets outside show the line of the walls. Credit for the construction of the building goes to King Ethelbert rather than St Justus. Bede describes St Paulinus' burial as "in the sanctuary of the Blessed Apostle Andrew which King Ethelbert founded likewise he built the city of Rochester."[c][7]

King Ethelbert died in 617 and his successor, Eadbald of Kent, was not a Christian. Justus fled to Francia and remained there for a year before he was recalled by the king.[8]

In 644 Ithamar the first English born bishop was consecrated at Rochester.[d] As bishop, Ithamar consecrated Deusdedit as the first Saxon Archbishop of Canterbury on 26 March 655.[9]

The cathedral suffered much from the ravaging of Kent by Aethelred of Mercia in 676. So great was the damage that Bishop Putta retired from the diocese and his appointed successor, Cwichelm, gave up the see "because of its poverty".

Later, in 762, the local king, Sigerd, granted land to the bishop as did his successor, Egbert.[e][10] The charter is notable as it is confirmed by Offa of Mercia as overlord of the local kingdom.

Following the invasion of 1066, William the Conqueror gave the cathedral and its estates to his brother, Odo of Bayeux. Odo misappropriated the resources and reduced the cathedral to near-destitution. The building itself was ancient and decayed. The diocese is one of the smallest English dioceses and, sandwiched between London and Canterbury, has always been financially challenged. During the episcopate of Siward (1058–1075) it was served by four or five canons "living in squalour and poverty".[11] One of the canons became priest of Chatham and acquired sufficient money to make a gift to the cathedral for the soul and burial of his wife, Godgifu.[12]

Medieval priory[edit]

Gundulf's church[edit]

The great west door, substantially unaltered from Ernulf's time.

The situation could not last. Archbishop Lanfranc of Canterbury, amongst others, brought Odo to account at the trial of Penenden Heath c. 1072. Following Odo's final fall, Gundulf was appointed as the first Norman bishop of Rochester in 1077. The cathedral and its lands were restored to the bishop.

Gundulf's first undertaking in the construction of the new cathedral seems to have been the construction of the tower which today bears his name. In about 1080 he began construction of a new cathedral to replace Justus' church. He was a talented architect who probably played a major part in the design or the works he commissioned. The original cathedral had a presbytery of six bays with aisles of the same length. The four easternmost bays stood over an undercroft which forms part of the present crypt. To the east was a small projection, probably for the silver shrine of St Paulinus which was translated there from the old cathedral. The transepts were 120 feet long, but only 14 feet wide. With such narrow transepts it is thought that the eastern arches of the nave abuted the quire arch.[13] To the south another tower (of which nothing visible remains) was built. There was no crossing tower.[14] The nave was not completed at first. Apparently designed to be nine bays long, most of the south side but only five bays to the north were completed by Gundulf. The quire was required by the priory, and the south wall formed part of the monastery buildings. It has been speculated that Gundulf simply left the townsfolk to complete the parochial part of the building.[15] Gundulf did not stop with the fabric, he also replaced the secular chaplains by Benedictine monks, obtained several royal grants of land and proved a great benefactor to his cathedral city.

In 1078 Gudulf founded St Bartholomew's Hospital just outside the city. The Priory of St Andrew contributed daily and weekly provisions to the hospital which also received the offerings from the two altars of St James and of St Giles.[16] During the episcopates of Ernulf (1115–1124) and John I (1125–1137) the cathedral was completed. The quire was rearranged, the nave partly rebuilt, Gundulf's nave piers were cased and the west end built. Ernulf is also credited with building the refrectory, dormitory and chapter house, only portions of which remain. Finally Bishop John translated the body of Ithamar from the old Saxon cathedral to the new Norman one, the whole being dedicated in 1130 (or possibly 1133) by the Archbishop of Canterbury, assisted by 13 bishops in the presence of Henry I, but the occasion was marred by a great fire which nearly destroyed the whole city and damaged the new cathedral. It was badly damaged by fires again in 1137 and 1179. One or other of these fires was sufficiently severe to badly damage or destroy the eastern arm and the transepts. Ernulf's monastic buildings were also damaged.

Medieval remodelling[edit]

Probably from about 1190, Gilbert de Glanville (bishop 1185–1214) commenced the rebuilding of the east end and the replacement on the monastic buildings. The north quire transept may have been sufficiently advanced to allow the burial of St William of Perth in 1201, alternatively the coffin may have lain in the north quire aisle until the transept was ready. It was then looted in 1215 by the forces of King John during siege of Rochester Castle. Edmund de Hadenham recounts that there was not a pyx left "in which the body of the Lord might rest upon the altar".[13] However, by 1227, the quire was again in use when the monks made their solemn entry into it. The new portions of the cathedral were dedicated by Richard Wendene (also known as Richard de Wendover), Bishop of Rochester, and Richard, Bishop of Bangor, in 1240.

The shrines of St Paulinus and St William of Perth, along with the relics of St Ithamar, drew pilgrims to the cathedral. Their offerings were so great that both the work mentioned above and the ensuing work could be funded.

Unlike the Abbeys of the period (which were led by an abbott) the monastic cathedrals were priories ruled over by a prior with further support from the Bishop.[17] Rochester and Carlisle (the other impoverished see) were unusual in securing the promotion of a number of monks to be bishop. Seven bishops of Rochester were originally regular monks between 1215 and the dissolution.[18] A consequence of the monastic attachement was a lack of patronage at the bishop's disposal. By the early sixteenth century only 4% of the bishop's patronage came from non-parochial sources.[19] The bishop was therefore chronically limited in funds to spend on the non-monastic part of the cathedral.

The next phase of the development was begun by Richard de Eastgate, the sacrist. The two eastern bays of the nave were cleared and the four large piers to support the tower were built. The north nave transept was then constructed. The work was nearly completed by Thomas de Mepeham who became sacrist in 1255. Not long after the south transept was completed and the two bays of the nave nearest the crossing rebuilt to their current form. The intention seems to have been to rebuild the whole nave, but probably lack of funds saved the late Norman work.

The cathedral was desecrated in 1264 by the troops of Simon de Montfort, during sieges of the city and its castle. It is recorded that armed knights rode into the church and dragged away some refugees. Gold and silver were stolen and documents destroyed. Some of the monastic buildings were turned into stables.[20] Just over a year later de Montfort fell at the Battle of Evesham to the forces of the King, Edward I. Later, in 1300, Edward passed through Rochester on his way to Canterbury and is recorded as having given seven shillings (35p) at the shrine of St William, and the same again the following day. During his return he again visited the cathedral and gave a further seven shillings at each of the shrines of SS Paulinus and Ithamar.

The new century saw the completion of the new Decorated work with the original Norman architecture. The rebuilding of the nave being finally abandoned. Around 1320 the south transept was altered to accommodate the altar of the Blessed Virgin Mary.

There appears to have been a rood screen thrown between the two western piers of the crossing. A rood loft may have surmounted it.[21] Against this screen was placed the altar of St Nicholas, the parochial altar of the city. The citizens demanded the right of entrance by day or night to what was after all their altar. There were also crowds of strangers passing through the city. The friction broke out as a riot in 1327 after which the strong stone screens and doors which wall off the eastern end of the church from the nave were built.[22] The priory itself was walled off from the town at this period. An oratory was established "in angulo navis" for the Reserved Sacrament. It is not clear which "angulo" was referred to. Palmer[23] argues that the buttress against the north-west tower pier is the most likely setting. He notes the arch filled in with rubble on the aisle side; and on nave side there is a scar line with lower quality stonework below. The buttress is about 4 feet (1.2 m) thick, enough for an oratory. Palmer notes that provision for the reservation of the Host was often made to the north of the altar which would be the case here.

The central tower was at last raised by Bishop Hamo de Hythe in 1343, thus essentially completing the cathedral. Bells were placed in the central tower (see Bells below). The chapter room doorway was constructed at around this time. The Black Death struck the Kingdom in 1347–49. From then on there were probably considerably more than twenty monks in the Priory.[24]

Later medieval history[edit]

The nave looking east
The nave looking west

The modern painting of the choir walls is modelled on paintwork from this period. Sir Gilbert Scott found part of the painting behind the wooden stalls during his work in the 1870s. The painting is therefore part original and part authentic. The alternate lions and fleur-de-lis reflect Edward III's victories, and assumed rule, over the French. In 1356 the Black Prince had defeated John II of France at Poitiers and made him prisoner. On 2 July 1360 John passed through Rochester on his way home and made an offering of 60 crowns (£15) at the Church of St Andrew.[25]

The oratory provided for the townsfolk did not settle the differences between the monks and the city. The eventual solution was the construction of St Nicholas' Church on the north side of the cathedral. A doorway was knocked through the western end of the north aisle (since walled up) to allow processions to pass along the north aisle of the cathedral before leaving by the west door.[25][26]

In the mid-15th century the clerestory and vaulting of the north quire aisle was completed and new Perpendicular Period windows inserted into the nave aisles. Possible preparatory work for this is indicated in 1410–1 by the records of the Bridge Wardens for Rochester Bridge which record a gift of lead from the Lord Prior. The lead was sold on for 41 shillings.[f][27] In 1470 the great west window at the cathedral was completed and finally, in around 1490, what is now the Lady Chapel was built.[25] Rochester Cathedral, although one of England's smaller cathedrals, thus demonstrates all styles of Romanesque and Gothic architecture.[28]

In 1504 John Fisher was appointed Bishop of Rochester. Although Rochester was an impoverished see, Fisher elected to remain as bishop for the rest of his life. He had been a tutor to the young Prince Henry and on the prince's accession as King Henry VIII, Fisher remained a staunch supporter and guide. He figured in the anti-Lutheran policies of Henry right up until the divorce question and split with Rome in the early 1530s. Fisher remained true to Rome and for his defence of the Pope was elevated to cardinal in May 1535. Henry was angered by these moves and on 22 June 1535 Fisher was beheaded on Tower Green.

Henry visited Rochester on New Year's Day 1540. He there met Ann of Cleves for the first time and was "greatly disappointed".[29] Whether connected or not, the old Priory of St Andrew's was dissolved by commission later in the year, one of the last monasteries to be dissolved.

Modern foundation[edit]

Henrician settlement[edit]

The post-dissolution foundation was a dean, six prebendaries, six minor canons, a deacon, a sub-deacon, six lay clerks, a master of the choristers, eight choristers, an upper and an under master of the grammar school, twenty scholars, six poor men, a porter (who was also to be barber), a butler, chief cook and assistant. Four scholars (two each at Oxford and Cambridge universities) were supported. The deacon and sub-deacon disappeared at the English Reformation, the butler and cooks went when there was no longer a common board.[30]

Nicholas Ridley was made Bishop of Rochester in 1547 during the reign of Edward VI. During his period at Rochester he directed that the altars in the churches of his diocese should be removed and tables put in their place to celebrate the Lord's Supper.[g] In 1548 he helped Thomas Cranmer compile the Book of Common Prayer and in 1549 he was one of the commissioners who investigated Bishops Stephen Gardiner and Edmund Bonner and agreed that they should be removed from office. In 1550 he was translated to the See of London. Three years later Ridley was involved in the plot to place Lady Jane Grey on the throne in preference to the Roman Catholic Queen Mary. The plot failed and Ridley paid the price; he was burnt at the stake for treason on 16 October 1555.

The cathedral suffered a steep decline after the Dissolution of the Monasteries in the 16th century, during which time its estates were confiscated by the Crown, and it became dilapidated and disreputable. Later Samuel Pepys, the diarist, would dismiss it as a "shabby place". Rochester's location astride the Watling Street did however mean that there were a string of notable visits. Most famously, Queen Elizabeth I stayed in Rochester for four days in 1573, attending divine service in the cathedral on 19 September. In 1606 Christian IV of Denmark visited along with his brother-in-law, King James VI & I. James' family (Queen Anne and Prince Henry) accompanied them. King James was accommodated at the bishop's house and the whole party attended service on Sunday.

Archbishop Laud visited it 1633 and complained about the general state of the cathedral, in particular that it "suffered much for want of glass in the windows".[31] By the following year the defects had been mainly remedied (apart from some of the glass), the excuse being that the backlog had built up due to money (£1,000) being spent on "making of the organs".[31] Laud accepted this and required completion, noting among other items that the bells and their frame needed to be put into good order (see below, in 1635 one bell was recast).[31]

In 1635 the cathedral was described as: "...small and plaine, yet it is very lightsome and pleasant: her [the cathedral's] quire is neatly adorn'd with many small pillars of marble; her organs though small yet are they rich and neat; her quiristers though but few, yet orderly and decent." The author then describes the various monuments "divers others also of antiquity, so dismembred, defac'd and abused...".[32] The reference to the monuments is particularly relevant, for this was six years before the despoilation of the cathedral by Parliamentary soldiers in the wake of the English Civil War.

In 1641 Sir John Evelyn paid his first visit to the cathedral as recorded in his diary: "The 19th we rod to Rochester, and having seene the Cathedrall, ...".[33]

Civil War[edit]

The official record runs: "On Wednesday, being Bartholomew Day, we marched forth, some of our souldiers ... went to the Cathedrall about 9 or 10 of the clock, in the midst of their superstitious worship, with their singing men and boyes; they ... went about the work they came for. First they removed the table to its place apointed, and then tooke the seat which it stood upon, ... and brake that all to pieces; ...they pluckt down the rails and left them for the poore to kindle their fires; and so left the organs to be pluckt down when we came back again, but it appeared before we came back they took them downe themselves."[34] Post restoration, the relative lack of damage was noted, in particular the "monuments of the dead" were not defaced, although one John Wyld (a shoemaker of the city) was accused of taking down and selling iron and brass from some tombs. Fairfax's troops stabled their horses in the quire as in other cathedrals. Although no structural damage seems to have occurred, several saw pits were dug in the nave floor.[35]

Shortly after the Restoration, Samuel Pepys visited Rochester Cathedral on his way between the London and Chatham dockyard. The cathedral had fallen into disrepair during the Commonwealth and Pepys observed it was "now fitting for use, and the organ then a-tuning".[36] By 1662 £8,000 had been spent and a further £5,000 or repairs were outstanding. The joint registrar to the bishops from 1629 until 1671 was a Mr. Peter Stowell. Under the Commonwealth his loyalty had cost him both fines and his liberty. He spent his own money recovering various books and fittings as well as spending £100 on flooring the church from the west door to the pulpitum.[37] In 1770 Archdeacon John Warner oversaw the removal of seats from the chancels with communion tables set up and railed "as formerly", a notably early readoption of the railed altar.[38] The cathedral was the scene for the funeral of the French rear admiral Rabiniere who had died of his wounds following action against the Dutch.[39]

The cathedral fabric required continuous care: in 1664 the south aisle was recased and in 1670 40' of the north aisle had to be rebuilt.[37] In 1679 the spire was in a dangerous state and an architect, Mr Guy, reported on it. He reported that £1,000 of work was needed, however a few months later a Westminster carpenter, Henry Fry, took a different view. some lead work and the repair of one beam was sufficient. £160 was spent on the organ. In 1705 work started to relead the roof, completed by 1724. In 1730 the old ringers' loft above the choir steps was removed and the crossing vaulted. Between 1742 and 1743 major work was undertaken in the choir, sufficiently disruptive that the dean and chapter used nearby St. Nicholas' church. In 1749 the steeple had to be rebuilt and between 1765 and 1772 the west front towers were rebuilt.[40]

The south choir aisle and transept were giving cause for concern, so in 1751 they were buttressed, the roof lightened and supporting brickwork placed in the crypt. In 1798 Edward Hasted wrote a description of the cathedral and its environs, published as part of his The History and Topographical Survey of the County of Kent. He observed: "time has so far impaired the strength of the materials with which it is built, that in all likelihood the care and attention of the present chapter towards the support of it will not be sufficient to prevent the fall of a great part of it at no great distance of time".[41] A new organ in 1791 completed the 18th-century works.

19th century onwards[edit]

Between 1825 and 1830 Lewis Nockalls Cottingham was in charge. The quire and its south transept were reroofed due to dry rot. The wall between the main transept and the south quire aisle was still leaning, and the previous century's work had actually worsened the situation. Cottingham built a new external face which effectively buttresses the original wall. The tower was demolished and rebuilt without a spire. The east end was remodelled by lowering the altar and removing the old altar screen. Various windows and arches were opened up and in one of them the tomb of Bishop John de Sheppey was discovered.[42]

Cottingham remained in charge for the next period of restoration. From 1840 the pulpit and bishop's throne were rebuilt. The removal of the old pulpit revealed the medieval wheel of life painting to be seen at the eastern end of the choir stalls today. It is said to be the oldest such painting in England.[43] A new ceiling of the crossing, new canopy for John de Sheppey, cleaning whitewash and the renovation of the crypt all occurred at this time.[44]

From 1871 until 1877 the work was entrusted to Sir George Gilbert Scott. The first phase of the work was to repair the clerestory of the nave, the nave could then be used for service whilst the choir and transepts were worked upon. The south transept was underpinned and the timber vaulting renovated. The north transept had new western windows and a new door. both had the masonry renovated. The gables and roofs were restored to their old high pitch form based on prints. The organ screen was restored to its original plain form, perhaps a mistake since there was now no screen on the other side of the pupitum as there had been in the days of St. Nicholas' altar. The east end gables were raised, but due to lack of funds the roof has still not been raised to match. The east window ("ugly" according to Palmer) was replaced with the present lancets. The floor of the presbytery was lowered and the whole eastern part of the building refloored. The choir and prebends stalls were renovated, using original material where possible. The work uncovered the original fleur-de-lys and leopard artwork on which Scott based his decoration of the quire.[45]

In memory of Dean Scott the choir screen was decorated with the current statues by J. Loughborough Pearson. Pearson also superintended the 1888 restoration of the west front, parts of the facing of which were separating from the core. The flanking towers were restored to the original height and form and the north gable turret rendered as a copy of its partner to the south. During this work the foundations of the original church were discovered and marked out as noted above.[46]

In 1904 the present spire was raised upon the Scott tower, creating the skyline as it is today. During 1998 the precinct outside the west end was repaved and the Saxon foundations uncovered further. The coloured sets extend define the outline.[47]

For the 1400th anniversary of the cathedral, in 2004, a new fresco was painted by Russian icon painter Sergei Fyodorov.

Architecture[edit]

External[edit]

The tympanum.

The West front is dominated by the central perpendicular great west window. Above the window the dripstone terminates in a small carved head at each side. The line of the nave roof is delineated by a string course above which rises the crenelated parapet. Below the window is a blind arcade interrupted by the top of the great west door. Some of the niches in the arcade are filled with statuary. Below the arcade the door is flanked with Norman recesses. The door itself is of Norman work with concentric patterned arches. The semicircular tympanum depicts Christ sitting in glory in the centre, with SS. Justus and Ethelbert flanking Him on either side of the doorway. Supporting the saints are angels and surrounding them are the symbols of the Four Evangelists: SS. Matthew (a winged man), Mark (a lion), Luke (an ox) and John (an eagle).[48] On the lintel below are the twelve apostles and on the shafts supporting it King Soloman and the Queen of Sheba.[49] Within the Great West Door there is a glass porch which allows the doors themselves to be kept open throughout the day.

Either side of the nave end rises a tower which forms the junction of the front and the nave walls. The towers are decorated with blind arcading and are carried up a further two stories above the roof and surmounted with pyramidal spires. The aisle ends are Norman. Each has a large round headed arch containing a window and in the northern recess is a small door. Above each arch is plain wall surmounted by a blind arcade, string course at the roof line and plain parapet. The flanking towers are Norman in the lower part with the style being maintained in the later work. Above the plain bases there are four stories of blind arcading topped with an octagonal spire.[50]

The outside of the nave and its aisles is undistinguished, apart from the walled up north-west door which gave access from the cathedral to the new St. Nicholas' Church.[26] The north transept is reached from the High Street via Black Boy Alley, a medieval pilgrimage route. The decoration is Early English, but reworked by Sir Gilbert Scott. Scott rebuilt the gable ends to the original high pitch from the lower one adopted at the start of the nineteenth century. The gable itself is set back from the main wall behind a parapet with walkway. He also restored the pilgrim entrance and opened up the blind arcade in the northern end of the west wall.[51]

To the east of the north transept is the sextry gate. It dates from Edward III's reign and has wooden domestic premises above. The area beyond was originally enclosed, but is now open to the High Street through the memorial garden and gates. Beyond the Sextry gate is the entrance to Gundulf's Tower, used as a private back door to the cathedral.

The north choir transept and east end are all executed in Early English style, the lower windows light the crypt which is earlier. Adjoining the east end of the cathedral is the east end of the chapter room which is in the same style. The exact form of the east end is more modern than it appears, being largely due to the work of Scott in the nineteenth century. Scott raised the gable ends to the original high pitch, but for lack of funds the roofs have not been raised; writing in 1897 Palmer noted: "they still require roofs of corresponding pitch, a need both great and conspicuous".[52]

On the south side of the cathedral the nave reaches the has the main transept and beyond a modern porch. The aisle between the transepts is itself a buttress to the older wall behind and supported by a flying buttress. The unusual position of this wall is best explained when considering the interior, below. The southern wall of the presbytery is hidden by the chapter room, an eighteenth-century structure.

Cloisters and ancillary buildings[edit]

The cloister was at the heart of the monastery and its outlines can be followed in the cloister garth. The eastern part was formed by Ernulf's chapter house and dormitory of which now only the western wall survives.[53] The south of the cloister was the refectory, the work of Prior Helias in about 1215. The lower part of the wall remains and is of massive construction. There was a problem to be solved, the older cloister was bounded by the Roman city wall. Helias simply drove through it the a doorway and used the wall as the north wall of the refectory.[54]

Gundulf Tower[edit]

Plaque recording the restoration of the Gundulf Tower

Immediately to the north of the cathedral proper and nestling in between the quire transept, pilgrim steps and Sextry gate is the 11th-century Gundulf tower. This is oldest part of the cathedral still above ground. Until the 18th century it rose as high as the adjacent parts of the church, some 65 feet.[55] During the nineteenth century it severely decayed, until by 1897 "only ruins now remain".[52] The lower part of the tower was roofed and the fabric made good in 1925. Most of the cost (£1400) was met by the freemasons. The plaque illustrated to the left is affixed to a wall therein. The three floors are now occupied by the cathedral music department (first floor and top floor) and the vergers (ground floor).

Nave and transepts[edit]

A Green Man from the crossing ceiling.

The western part of the nave is substantially as Gundulf designed it. According to Palmer (who substantially followsSt. John Hope) "Rochester and Peterborough possess probably the best examples of the Norman nave in the country".[56] The main arcade is topped by a string course below the triforium. The triforium is Norman with a further string course above. The clerestory above is of perpendicular style. From the capitals pilasters rise to the first string course but appear to have been removed from the triforium stage. Originally they might have supported the roof timbers, or even been the springing of a vault.[57]

The easternmost bay of the triforium appears to be Norman, but is the work of fourteenth-century masons. The final bay of the nave is Decorated and leads to the tower piers. Of note is the north pier which possibly contains the oratory chapel mentioned above.[58]

The aisles are plain with flat pilasters. The eastern two bays are Decorated with springing for vaulting. Whether the vault was ever constructed is unknown, the present wooden roof extends the full length of the aisles.

The crossing is bounded to the east by the choir screen with the organ above. This is of 19th-century work and shows figures associated with the early cathedral. Above the crossing is the central tower, housing the bells and above that the spire. The ceiling of the crossing is notable for the four Green Men carved on the bosses. Visible from the ground is the outline of the trapdoor through which bells can be raised and lowered when required. The floor is stepped up to the pulpitum and gives access to the quire through the organ screen.

The south transept is best described with the Lady Chapel.

The north transept is from 1235 in Early English style. The Victorian insertion of windows has been mentioned above in the external description. Dominating the transept is the baptistry fresco. The fresco by Russian artist Sergei Fyodorov fills the eastern wall. It is located within an arched recess. The recess may have been a former site of the altar of St. Nicholas from the time of its construction in 1235 until it was moved to the screen before the pulpitum in 1322. A will suggests that "an altar of Jesu" also stood here at some point, an altar of some sort must have existed as evidenced by the piscina to the right of the recess.[59] The vaulting is unusual in being octopartite, a development of the more common sexpartite. The pilgrim door is now the main visitor entrance and is level for disabled access.

Lady Chapel and south transept[edit]

Stained glass from inside the Cathedral showing the risen Christ with the cross of St. George

The south transept is of early Decorated style. The eastern wall of it is a single wide arch at the arcade level. There are two doorways in the arch, neither of which is used, the northern one being hidden by the memorial to Dr. Franklin. The south wall starts plain but part way up is a notable monument to Richard Watts, a "coloured bust, with long gray beard".[60] According to Palmer there used to be a brass plaque to Charles Dickens below this but only the outline exists, the plaque having been moved to the east wall of the choir transept.[61] The west wall is filled by a large arch with a screen below dividing it from the present Lady Chapel.

The eastern arch originally housed the altar of the Blessed Virgin Mary. There are traces of painting both on the east wall and under the arch. The painting delineates where the medieval north screen of the Lady chapel was. The Lady Chapel was extended westwards in around 1490 with what has become the modern Lady Chapel as its nave. The transept west wall was pierced with the large arch where two smaller arches (the upper parts of which are visible within the Lady Chapel) had been.

The Lady chapel as it now exists is of Decorated style with three lights along southern wall and two in the west wall. The style is a light and airy counterpart to the stolid Norman work of the nave. The altar has been placed against the southern wall resulting in a chapel where the congregation wraps around the altar. The window glass is modern and tells the gospel story.

The first window has the Annunciation in the upper light: Gabriel speaking to Mary (both crowned) with the Holy Spirit as a dove descending. The lower light shows the Nativity with the Holy Family, three angels and shepherds. The next window shows St. Elizabeth in the upper light surrounded by stars and the sun in splendour device. The lower light shows the Adoration of the Magi with Mary enthroned with the Infant. The final window of the south wall has St. Mary Magdelene with her ointment surrounded by Tudor roses and Fleur-de-Lys in the upper light with the lower light showing the Presentation in the Temple. The west wall continues with St. Margaret of Scotland in the upper light surrounded by fouled anchor and thistle roundels. The reference is to the original dedication of the Cathedral as the Priory of St. Andrew. The lower light shows the Crucifixion with Mary and St. Peter. The final window is unusual, the upper light is divided in three and shows King Arthur with the royal arms flanked by St. George on the left and St. Michael on the right. The lower light shows the Ascension: two disciples to the left, three women with unguents to the right and three bare crosses top right.

The first four windows have various dedications in the lower border, but the fifth has the cathedral, Kent and Rochester arms interspaced with the dedication: "To the Glory of God and in proud and abiding memory of the following Old Roffensians | who laid down their lives for their country in the Great War 1914–1918". Below is a stone tablet with the names. Under the fourth window is a slightly later tablet recording those of 1939–45.

Quire, aisles and transepts[edit]

The choir looking towards the nave. There is a white cloth covering the choir to protect it from falling debris

The eastern part of the church is the old monastic area. It is walled of from the public parts by the organ screen, side walls to the quire and cross walls in both aisles. The riots in 1327 are considered part of the cause, but this coincided with a general trend to wall off monasteries.[22]

The north aisle is a simple passageway interrupted by a flight of steps and the cross wall. The steps form part of the pilgrimage route to St. William's shrine (hence their designation as "The Pilgrim steps"), and are so worn by Medieval feet that before 1897 had to have wooden treads added.[62]

The south aisle was originally the same width as its northern fellow. The 14th-century cross wall is still visible filling the arch to the east, now forming the entrance to the vestry over the crypt entrance. Gundulf's small tower occupied what is now the south western portion of the aisle. To keep the cloisters uniform, a wall was established from the tower to what is now the cathedral library. When the tower was demolished its base along with the enclosed area was incorporated into the south aisle. The new "Kent Steps" lead up from the widened aisle into the quire transept, whilst the old entrance now gives access to the cryt below.

Before the Victorian renovations the quire had steeply stepped stalls and a pulpit. Removal of these revealed the medieval wheel of life painting and the original patterning of the walls. The existing wall pattern has modern, being a copy of that found, but the wheel is untouched. Above the painted walls the triforium is blind arched with the clerestory and sextipartite vaulting above. Some of the earlier timbers have been reused in the stalls, but most of the work is 19th-century.

Before Scott's work the quire stalls continued in their high backed form and cut off the quire transepts. They are now open and form a single space to accommodate a larger congregation when required. The south transept has two openings which lead nowhere; one originally led to the crypt (before the south aisle was widened), the other led up to the Indulgence Chamber.

The north transept was the site of St. William's shrine and the center of pilgrimage in the Middle Ages. Of St. William's shrine little now remains. Hasted refers to a "large stone chest, much defaced", Palmer notes that the tomb in the easternmost bay of the transept is "reputed to be that of St. William".[41][63] The shrine was originally in the centre of the floor.[63] The whole transept used to be known as St. William's chapel, the railed off area to the east being later called St. John the Baptist's chapel and more lately the Warner chapel on account of the monuments therein. Tucked into a corner of the Warner chapel is a cross of nails. In the centre of the north wall is the resting place of Walter de Merton, past bishop and founder of Merton college. Two wooden doors are visible, one of which leads nowhere, access now being from the other side of the wall; the other leads to the cathedral treasury. This latter is reputed to be one of the oldest doors still in use in England.[64]

The north quire transept and presbytery form a stylistic whole. The east end however has been substantially remodelled by Scott. The arcading contains the tombs of various past bishops, that between the Warner chapel and the presbytery is unusually well preserved. It is the tomb of John de Sheppey which was walled up at some point and forgotten about. As a result it escaped the depredations of the Commonwealth. The tomb was rediscovered, uncovered and restored by Cottingham between 1825–1840.

Chapter room doorway[edit]

The doorway to the chapter room and present library is described variously as "magnificent",[65] "elaborate",[66] and "one of the finest examples of English Decorated architecture in existence"[67] by those who have visited and studied the cathedral. The two full length figures either side of the door represent the New and Old Covenant. The latter is a female figure with a broken staff and the tables of the law held upside down, blindfold to symbolise ignorance of the Messiah. The former is a female holding a cross and church. Palmer notes that Cottingham's 1825–30 restoration added the head of a "mitred, bearded bishop", but examination today reveals nothing of this.[67]

Above these two are the four great Doctors of the Church: SS Augustine, Gregory, Jerome and Ambrose. They are depicted seated at reading desks and lecterns. Above, on each side, are a pair of angels bearing scrolls and ascending from flames. The uppermost figure in the arch is a small nude figure. This is symbolic of a purified soul arising from Purgatory upwards towards a canopy, possibly the gates of heaven. It may be Bishop Hamo de Hythe who commissioned the doorway.[68] Above the canopy the ogee outer arch rises to a final pinnacle bearing a pedestal. Today there is no figure upon this pedestal. The outer arch is decorated with deeply undercut foliage. The spandrels and the areas under the figures are filled with diaper work, themselves noteworthy.[67]

East end[edit]

The presbytery

Much of what can be seen of the east end is the work of Scott, though closely based upon the earlier building.

Crypt[edit]

The crypt looking towards the south quire transept from the quire crossing

The oldest part of the crypt is the two westernmost bays under the eastern end of the quire. It is part of the original 1080s Lanfranc construction with typical romanesque groin vaulting springing from plain capitals atop quite slender plain shafts. The rest of the crypt is from a century later. The plinths, shafts and capitals are in the same style as the earlier work, but quadripartite rib vaulting was used. Owing to the oblong shape of the bays, the shorter transverse arches are pointed; however, since the other ribs are rounded, the overall appearance is romanesque. In places remnants of the medieval paintwork are visible in the vaulting. More medieval paintwork is visible in the east end window openings.

The eastern part of the crypt under the presbetry has been made into a chapel dedicated to St. Ithamar. Except when used for Sunday Club (for youngsters), during Sunday Eucharist, it is reserved as a place of quiet and stillness for private prayer and reflection.

To the south of the Ithamar chapel is a kitchenette area and behind it, running under the chapter room, a suite of panelled vestries used by the choirs. This area is not open to the public.

Access to the crypt is down a flight of stairs from the south quire aisle. The stairs occupy the width of the original aisle prior to the demolition of Gundulf's small tower (see above). As of 2012 there is no disabled access, though this is planned.

Music[edit]

Organ[edit]

The organ

The current pipe organ originates from the 1905 instrument built by J. W. Walker & Sons Ltd. It was later rebuilt by Mander Organs in 1989, who installed a new choir organ and pipework under the advice of Paul Hale.[69]

Organists[edit]

James Plomley is listed as organist at Rochester in 1559. Among the composers, conductors and concert performers who have been organists at Rochester Cathedral are Bertram Luard-Selby, Harold Aubie Bennett, Percy Whitlock and William Whitehead.

Choirs[edit]

The cathedral choir traces its roots right back to the foundation in AD 604. The quality of the chorister training was praised by the Venerable Bede in his Ecclesiastical History of the English Nation.[6]

Main choir[edit]

The main choir consists of the boy choristers, girl choristers and the lay clerks. The provision of boy choristers was why King's School was founded in 604, at the same time as the cathedral itself. It still supplies boys from the prep school to sing the treble line. From 1995 a girls' choir was introduced to sing some of the services for which the boys were not available. Girls are drawn from any of the local schools. The lay clerks are professional singers who provide the lower three voices: alto, tenor and bass. For great services, all three parts of the choir may combine.

Voluntary choir[edit]

The present choir was formed in August 2008 from the previous auditioned adult voluntary choir. The Voluntary choir sings for around 10 weekends per year, usually during holiday periods when the child choristers are not available. It also sings at the Eucharist on other occasions when the main choir is not available.

Bells[edit]

The number 3 bell showing the dedication to the USS Pittsburgh. The bell diameter is 30".

Rochester Cathedral has a ring of 10 bells hung for change ringing in the English style. All were cast in 1921, some as memorials to men lost in WWI. The heaviest bell is 30 cwt and 14 lbs tuned to D.[70]

Although it is probable that one or more bells were in the original Saxon cathedral of 604, early records are scant. The 11th-century Gundulf tower has architectural features that indicate bells were placed there from the start. In 1154 Prior Reginald made two bells and recast a third, existing, cracked one.[71] Two further bells were obtained during the 12th century as mentioned in the Custumale Roffense of c. 1300.[72] In 1343 Bishop Hamo de Hythe caused the central tower to be heightened and hung four bells called "Dunstanus, Paulinus, Itmarus atque Lanfrancus" (Dunstan, Paulinus, Itamar and Lanfranc).[71]

In 1635 the third was recast and in 1683 the fifth and tenor, followed by the treble in 1695. The fourth was noted as cracked in 1711 and a quotation obtained from Richard Phelps. The contract went the following year to James Bagley who also quarter turned the second: "the striking sides being much worn".[73] The 1695 treble was recast in 1770 and the 1683 tenor recast in 1834. In 1904 two further bells were added at the time that the tower and spire were rebuilt. Of the original six bells four were recast and two retained.[71] In 1921 all the bells were recast and augmented to the current ring of 10. When bells are recast the original metal is reused with new metal added as required, therefore there is every reason to assume that the current bells contain the metal from all the original bells back to the time of Gundulf.[71] In 1960 the bells were rehung on a new steel frame by John Taylor.[70]

For many years the reason why the number 3 bell bears the inscription "U.S.S. PITTSBURGH IN MEMORY OF 1920" was a mystery.[h] However a letter from Captain J W Todd USN commanding USS Pittsburgh was published in the Chatham News on 17 December 1920. In it he thanks the Dean for various events during the two and a half months that the Pittsburgh was in dry dock at Chatham. He encloses a cheque for £52 10s to pay for the recasting of the bell and discusses the inscription.[74]

Dean and chapter[edit]

  • Dean – The Very Revd Dr Mark Beach (since 20 May 2012 installation)[75]
  • Canon Precentor – The Revd Canon Neil Thompson (since 15 June 2008 installation)[76]
  • Canon Pastor – The Revd Canon Dr Phil Hesketh (since 2005 installation; additionally Acting Dean, 2011–2012)
  • Canon Missioner – The Revd Canon Jean Kerr (since 2005 installation)
  • Archdeacon of Rochester (Canon Residentiary) – The Ven Simon Burton-Jones (since 24 January 2010 collation)[77]

Notable people[edit]

The Reverend Grevile Marais Livett, FSA, a longtime precentor of the cathedral and later vicar of Wateringbury, authored several books and monographs on the Norman churches of England as well as contributing extensively to Archaeologica Cantiana, the journal of the Kent Archaeology Society.[78][79] (Livett's name was a variant of Levett, an old Sussex and Kentish family.)

The author Charles Dickens had wished to be buried in the churchyard at Rochester. Instead, his body was buried in Poet's Corner inside Westminster Abbey.[80]

Notable burials[edit]

Library[edit]

The Anglo-Saxon establishment probably had a library, but no details of it have survived. When Gundulf established the priory in 1082 it was as a Benedictine house. As reading forms a part of the daily routine as laid down in the Rule of Saint Benedict there probably was a library from this point. By the time of Gundulf's death in 1108 the number of monks had risen from the original 22 to over 60, implying a sizeable library.

In the Textus Roffensis of 1130 a catalogue of the library is included within it. There was the famous Gundulf Bible (now in the Huntington Library, California); the Textus itself; scriptural commentaries; treatises by various Church Fathers; historical works (including Bede's Ecclesiastical History) and assorted books on monastic life.[81] Most books were in Latin, with just a few in Anglo-Saxon. One hundred and sixteen books are named, with a further 11 added later. These were volumes; some would contain multiple works within them.[82] A further catalogue compiled in 1202 records 280 volumes.[82] This latter catalogue was only rediscovered in the 19th century. It had been written on two leaves at the beginning of a copy of St Augustine's De Doctrina Christiana belonging to Rochester. The copy is now in the British Museum.[83]

The medieval library was housed in different parts of the cathedral and precincts at different times. The precentor was in charge of it and also responsible for providing the materials needed for the copyists, illuminators and authors to use. Because all copying was by hand and taught locally, monasteries varied in their style. There is an identifiable "Rochester Script" of the 12th century.[84]

When King John besieged the castle (1215) some manuscripts were lost, as were more in 1264 when Simon de Montfort occupied the city.

The dissolution was catastrophic for the library. John Leland, the Royal Librarian and antiquary, complained to Thomas Cromwell that young German scholars were appearing and cutting documents out of books in the cathedral libraries.[85] Leland was able to save some manuscripts and 99 from Rochester are now in the Royal Collection in the British Museum.[86] 37 other works have been traced in England, Scotland, Europe and even the United States.

Following the dissolution, the old vestry to the east of the south quire transept was adopted as the chapter room and library. Notwithstanding its change in designation, it is still used from time to time as a vestry by the clergy. The only contents to survive the dissolution were ancient manuscripts, the 50 volumes predating 1540 appear to have been later acquisitions.[87] The library remained smaller than in medieval times, there were less clergy than monks. The chapter were required to be "learned and erudite" and possess a university degree, so it is postulated that they would have their own personal books.[87] From the 18th century onwards the library grew, in part due to donations made by deans and canons on appointment. Some legacies were received, notably Richard Poley of Rochester whose grave can be seen at the foot of the choir steps. In 1907-9 the east wall of the library was reconstructed, the floor replaced and new bookcases provided by the donation of T. H. Foord, a benefactor of both the city and cathedral.

Notable contents[edit]

The Textus Roffensis, mentioned above, is in the care of the local council. The Custumale Roffense dates from around 1300 and gives (in Latin) information about the priory's income and domestic arrangements. Instructions are given for the ringing of bells, confirming their use at this date. There is a copy of St Augustine's[i] De Consensu Evangelistarum ("On the Harmony of the Evangelists") copied in the first half of the 12th century. It is in its medieval binding and from script it is clear that the copy was made at Rochester. Also from Rochester is Peter Lombard's Book of Sentences (Questiones Theologicae) from the late 13th century. There are a number of medieval charters.

There is a Complutensian Polygot Bible (Greek, Latin and Hebrew) printed in Spain in 1514–17. A Sarum Missal of 1534 came from Paris. Rochester has a copy of Coverdale's Bible from 1535, a Great Bible of 1539, a Bishop's Bible of 1568 and numerous other later copies. The Bishop's Bible is notable for the note at Psalm xlv.9: "Ophir is thought to be the Ilande in the west coast, of late found by Christopher Columbo, from whence at this day is brought most fine gold".[88]

Disabled access[edit]

Disabled access is through the north door into the nave transept. In the south quire aisle is a wheelchair lift over part of the Kent steps. This gives access to the quire and presbetry level. There is a disabled WC near the foot of this. There is currently no disabled access to the crypt, but there are plans to insert a lift linking the three levels roughly where the existing wheelchair lift is.

King's Engineers[edit]

Rochester Cathedral as viewed from top of Rochester Castle

Bishop Gundulf, a monk from the Abbey of Bec in Normandy came to England in 1070 as Archbishop Lafranc's assistant at Canterbury. His talent for architecture had been spotted by King William I and was put to good use in Rochester where he was sent as bishop in 1077. Almost immediately the king appointed him to supervise the construction of the White Tower, now part of the Tower of London in 1078. Under William Rufus he also undertook building work on Rochester Castle. Having served three Kings of England and earning "the favour of then all", Gundulf is accepted as the first "King's Engineer". Gundulf died in 1108 and his statue adorns the west door of the cathedral.

Because of his military engineering talent, Bishop Gundulf is regarded as the "father of the Corps of Royal Engineers". The corps claims a line of Kings Engineers pre-dating the engineers of the Board of Ordnance in 1414 and the formal founding of the corps in 1716 all the way back to Gundulf. This shared heritage and the close proximity to the cathedral of the Royal School of Military Engineering in Brompton means the Corps of Royal Engineers and Rochester Cathedral maintain strong links to this day.

There are over 25 memorials to individual officers and soldiers of the Corps of Royal Engineers, including that of Lt. John Chard V.C., the officer in charge of defending Rorke's Drift against the Zulu onslaught, and a number of memorials representing members of the corps that have given their lives in the discharge of their duty, including many stained glass windows presented by the corps.

A memorial tablet was erected in 1902 to the memory of three officers, graduates of the Royal Military College of Canada, who died while serving in Africa: Huntly Brodie Mackay, Captain Royal Engineers; William Henry Robinson, Captain Royal Engineers; and William Grant Stairs, Captain the Welsh Regiment.

The latest memorial to the Corps of Royal Engineers was dedicated during the service of remembrance on the Corps Memorial Weekend, 19 September 2010, in the presence of the Dean, the Very Revd Adrian Newman, the Chief Royal Engineer, General Sir Peter Anthony Wall and the families of the ten Royal Engineers killed in Afghanistan since September 2009, recipients of the Elizabeth Cross.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Footnotes

  1. ^ Hasted spells this Prestefelde
  2. ^ Note that the area is Priestfields, Priestfield is a road and football stadium some miles away.
  3. ^ in secretario beati apostoli Andreae quod rex Ediilbertus a fundamentis in eadem Rhofi civitate construxit.
  4. ^ Note English, ie Anglo-Saxon. The Celtic church in the North of England was British.
  5. ^ Sigered used the title rex dimidae partis provinciae Cantuariorum or "petty king of part of the province of Canterbury".
  6. ^ "Item Ressu do ploum do monsieur Priour do Rowchest xljs" Item of lead received from the Lord Prior of Rochester 41s
  7. ^ See Altar#Anglican churches for a discussion of the differences. At the time the distinction was a key differentiator between Catholic and Protestant.
  8. ^ Love's Guide to the Church Bells of Kent states "Note that there is a mystery regarding the inscription on the rear of the 3rd. The USS Pittsburgh had nothing to do with Rochester Cathedral, and perhaps the inscription appears by mistake."[70]
  9. ^ Augustine of Hippo (354–540), not Augustine of Canterbury (c.530–604).

Citations

  1. ^ English Heritage 1086423.
  2. ^ See also British Listed Buildings under number 173125
  3. ^ Stenton p146
  4. ^ Whitelock p189
  5. ^ Loyn p269. Loyn misprints Canterbury for Rochester: Canterbury goes back to the previous decade.
  6. ^ a b Music Department website
  7. ^ Palmer p3.
  8. ^ Palmer p 5, but Palmer anachronistically refers to Francia as Gaul.
  9. ^ Bethell pp 421–423 quoted on Ithamar (bishop)
  10. ^ Stenton p.206.
  11. ^ Barlow p221
  12. ^ Barlow p222
  13. ^ a b Palmer p.13
  14. ^ Palmer p7
  15. ^ Palmer p.8
  16. ^ Greenwood p.12
  17. ^ Dobson p.158
  18. ^ Dobson p.160
  19. ^ Humanism, Reform and Reformation pp72-3 and 227-9 quoted by Dobson p.162
  20. ^ Palmer p.15
  21. ^ Palmer p.67
  22. ^ a b Palmer p.16
  23. ^ Palmer p.69
  24. ^ Dobson p.157
  25. ^ a b c Palmer p.17
  26. ^ a b Palmer p.40
  27. ^ Becker p.63
  28. ^ Rochester, The past 2000 years
  29. ^ Mackie p404
  30. ^ Palmer p.19
  31. ^ a b c Palmer p.22
  32. ^ Lansdowne MS. no 213 (British Library) quoted in Palmer p23-4.
  33. ^ Evelyn entry for 19 July 1641
  34. ^ "A perfect diurnall of the several passages in our late Journey into Kent, from Aug. 19 to Sept 3, 1642, by appointment of both Houses of Parliament" quoted in Palmer p.24
  35. ^ Palmer p.25
  36. ^ Pepys, entry for 10 April 1661
  37. ^ a b Palmer p.27
  38. ^ Fincham p.36
  39. ^ Evelyn, entry for 2 June 1672
  40. ^ Palmer p.30
  41. ^ a b Hasted
  42. ^ Palmer p.32-33
  43. ^ Harrison & Evemy p.20
  44. ^ Palmer p.33
  45. ^ Palmer pp.34–35
  46. ^ Palmer pp.35–37
  47. ^ Moss p.9
  48. ^ Moss p.26
  49. ^ Dummett p.21
  50. ^ Palmer pp 45–46
  51. ^ Palmer p.51
  52. ^ a b Palmer p.52
  53. ^ Palmer p.55
  54. ^ Palmer p.59
  55. ^ Grose's "Antiquities" vol iii (1781) and "History and Antiquities of Rochester" (1772) both cited by Palmer p. 52
  56. ^ Palmer p.65
  57. ^ Palmer p.66 and Hasted. A scar is still visible on the triforium wall where the pilasters used to be.
  58. ^ Palmer pp.68–69
  59. ^ Palmer p.74. He quotes from the History and Antiquities of Rochester, anonymous but probably Rev. Samuel Denne and William Shrubsole, 1772, 2nd ed. 1817.
  60. ^ Palmer p.76
  61. ^ Palmer p.77
  62. ^ Palmer p.81
  63. ^ a b Palmer p.98
  64. ^ Cathedral History
  65. ^ MacKean p.16
  66. ^ Harrison & Evemy p.21
  67. ^ a b c Palmer p.107
  68. ^ Tourist interpretation panel adjacent to the doorway
  69. ^ British Institute of Organ Studies 2012
  70. ^ a b c Love
  71. ^ a b c d Best-Shaw & Batterbee
  72. ^ Palmer p.54
  73. ^ Palmer p.44
  74. ^ Chatham News, 17 Dec 1920 p.7
  75. ^ Rochester Cathedral 2012
  76. ^ Medway Council 2008
  77. ^ Burton-Jones 2013
  78. ^ F.W.J.
  79. ^ Livett
  80. ^ Langton
  81. ^ MacKean p5
  82. ^ a b MacKean p6
  83. ^ MacKean p6. Correct in 1953, but it may be in the British Library now.
  84. ^ MacKean p9
  85. ^ MacKean p 11 and other sources, see Leland for example.
  86. ^ MacKean p12
  87. ^ a b MacKean p 14. The figure 50 is taken from the 1953 text and may not be accurate today.
  88. ^ MacKean p22

Bibliography

External links[edit]