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Coordinates: 57°35′46.6″N 13°41′14.3″W / 57.596278°N 13.687306°W / 57.596278; -13.687306

Rockall-photo crop.JPG
The southern face of Rockall
Location of Rockall in Europe.
Location of Rockall in Europe.

Location of Rockall in Europe
Location North-East Atlantic
Coordinates 57°35′46.6″N 13°41′14.3″W / 57.596278°N 13.687306°W / 57.596278; -13.687306
Area 784.3 m2 (8,442 sq ft)
Highest elevation 21.4 m (70.2 ft)
Exclusive economic zone
Population 0

Rockall (Irish: Sgeir Rocail) is an uninhabited remote granite islet in the North Atlantic Ocean situated 460 km west of Great Britain, 430 km northwest of Ireland, and 800 km south of Iceland within the United Kingdom's exclusive economic zone.[1][2]

Since the late 16th century, this 20-metre-high (60 ft) rock in the Atlantic Ocean has been noted in written records, although it is likely that some northern Atlantic fishermen knew of the rock before these historical accounts were made. In the 20th century the location of the islet became a major interest due to the potential oil and fishing rights, spurring continued debate amongst several European nations.

Lord Kennet said of it in 1971 that, "There can be no place more desolate, despairing and awful."[3] It gives its name to one of the sea areas named in the shipping forecast provided by the British Meteorological Office.

Rockall has been a point of interest for adventurers and amateur radio operators who have variously landed on or briefly occupied the islet. Fewer than 20 individuals have ever been confirmed to have landed on Rockall, and the longest continuous stay by an individual is currently 42 days.[4] In a House of Commons debate in 1971, William Ross, MP for Kilmarnock, said: "More people have landed on the moon than have landed on Rockall."[3]

In 1956 the British scientist James Fisher referred to the island as "the most isolated small rock in the oceans of the world."[5] The neighbouring Hasselwood Rock and several other pinnacles of the surrounding Helen's Reef are smaller, at half the size of Rockall or less, and equally remote, but those formations are legally not islands or points on land, as they are often submerged completely, only revealed momentarily above certain types of ocean surface waves.

The United Kingdom claimed Rockall in 1955 and had previously claimed an extended exclusive economic zone based on it. This claim to an extended zone was dropped upon ratifying UNCLOS in 1997, since rocks or islets such as Rockall, that cannot sustain human habitation or economic life[clarification needed], are not entitled to an exclusive economic zone under the Convention.[1] However such features are entitled to a territorial sea extending 12 nautical miles. The UK's claim to territorial waters around Rockall is disputed by Ireland on the basis of uncertain ownership of the rock.[6]

In response to a Freedom of Information request, the British Government has said, "The islet of Rockall is part of the UK: specifically it forms part of Scotland under the Island of Rockall Act 1972. No other state has disputed our claim to the islet."[1]


View of Rockall from the south.

The origin and meaning of the name "Rockall" are uncertain. The Old Norse name for the islet, Ròcal, may contain the element fjall, meaning "mountain".[7] It has also been suggested that the name is from the Norse *rok meaning "foaming sea", and kollr—meaning "bald head"—a word which appears in other placenames in Scandinavian-speaking areas.[8] Another idea is that it derives from the Gaelic Sgeir Rocail, meaning "skerry of roaring" or "sea rock of roaring"[9] (although rocail can also be translated as "tearing" or "ripping".)[10][11]

Dutch mapmakers P. Plancius and C. Claesz show an island called "Rookol" northwest of Ireland on their Map of New France and the Northern Atlantic Ocean (Amsterdam, c. 1594). The first literary reference to the island, where it is called "Rokol", is found in Martin Martin's A Description of the Western isles of Scotland published in 1703. This book gives an account of a voyage to the archipelago of St. Kilda, and Martin states: "... and from it lies Rokol, a small rock sixty leagues to the westward of St. Kilda; the inhabitants of this place call it Rokabarra."[12]

The name Rocabarraigh is also used in Scottish Gaelic folklore for a mythical rock which is supposed to appear three times, its last appearance being at the end of the world: "Nuair a thig Rocabarra ris, is dual gun tèid an Saoghal a sgrios." (When Rocabarra returns, the world will likely come to be destroyed.)[7]


Winter waves breaking over the islet, 11 March 1943

The islet of Rockall is the eroded core of an extinct volcano (a volcanic plug), and is one of the few pinnacles of the surrounding Helen's Reef. It is located 301.3 km, or 162.7 nmi west of the island of Soay, St Kilda, Scotland,[13] and 423.2 kilometres (263.0 mi), or 228.5 nmi, northwest of Tory Island, County Donegal, Ireland.[14][citation needed] The surrounding elevated seabed is called the Rockall Bank, lying directly south from an area known as the Rockall Plateau. It is separated from the Western Isles by the Rockall Trough, itself located within the Rockall Basin (also known as the "Hatton Rockall Basin"). The Anton Dohrn Seamount is a submarine elevation on Rockall Trough about halfway between Rockall and the Outer Hebrides.[citation needed]

The Rockall Trough separating Ireland and Scotland from the Rockall Plateau on which Rockall is situated.

Cold-water coral mounds have been identified in the region,[15] and are currently being researched.[16] Rockall lies near the Darwin Mounds, deep water coral mounds about 185 km (100 nmi or 115 mi) northwest of Cape Wrath.[citation needed] These corals are long-lived and slow-growing, a justification for designating Rockall and the Rockall waters as a Marine Protected Area.[17]

Rockall is about 25 metres (80 ft) wide and 31 metres (100 ft) long at its base[18] and rises sheer to a height of approximately 21 metres (70 ft).[19] It is often washed over by large storm waves, particularly in winter. There is a small ledge of 3.5 by 1.3 metres (11 by 4 ft), known as Hall's Ledge, 4 metres (13 ft) from the summit on the rock's western face.[20] It is the only named geographical location on the rock.

The nearest point on land from Rockall is 301.3 km, or 162.7 nmi, east at the uninhabited Scottish island of Soay in the St Kilda archipelago.[citation needed] The nearest inhabited area lies 303.2 km, or 163.7 nmi, east[21][citation needed] at Hirta, the largest island in the St. Kilda group, which is populated intermittently at a single military base.[22][23] The nearest permanently inhabited settlement[citation needed] is 366.8 km, or 198.1 nmi, west of the headland of Aird an Runair,[24] near the crofting township of Hogha Gearraidh on the island of North Uist at NF705711 (57°36′33″N 7°31′7″W / 57.60917°N 7.51861°W / 57.60917; -7.51861 (Hogha Gearraidh / Hougharry)). North Uist is part of the Na h-Eileanan Siar council area of Scotland.

The exact position of Rockall and the size and shape of the Rockall Bank was first charted in 1831 by Captain A.T.E. Vidal, a Royal Navy surveyor. The first scientific expedition to Rockall was led by Miller Christie in 1896 when the Royal Irish Academy sponsored a study of the flora and fauna.[25] They chartered the Granuaile.[5][26]

A detailed underwater mapping of the area around Rockall undertaken in the summer of 2011 by FRV Scotia showed that Rockall itself is a minor pinnacle, whilst Helen's Reef extends in a sweeping arc of fissures and ridges to the north west of the islet. Between the islet and Helen's Reef is a deeper trench much used by squid fishermen.[27]


1889 illustration of Rockall[28]

Rockall is made of a type of peralkaline granite that is relatively rich in sodium and potassium. Within this granite are darker bands richer in the alkali pyroxene mineral aegirine and the alkali amphibole mineral riebeckite. The dark bands are a type of granite that geologists have named "rockallite", although use of this term is now discouraged. In 1975, a mineral new to science was discovered on Rockall. The mineral is called bazirite, (chemical composition BaZrSi3O9), named after the elements barium and zirconium.[29]

Rockall forms part of the deeply eroded Rockall Igneous Centre that was formed as part of the North Atlantic Igneous Province,[30] approximately 55 million years ago, when the ancient continent of Laurasia was split apart by plate tectonics. Greenland and Europe separated and the northeast Atlantic Ocean was formed between them.[31]

The RV Celtic Explorer surveyed the Rockall Bank and North West of Donegal in 2003.[32] The ILV Granuaile was chartered by the Geological Survey of Ireland (GSI), on behalf of the Department of Communications, Marine and Natural Resources (DCMNR), to conduct a seismic survey at the Rockall and Hatton Banks in July 2004,[33] as part of the National Seabed Survey.[33]


The island's only permanent macro-organism inhabitants are common periwinkles and other marine molluscs. Small numbers of seabirds, mainly fulmars, northern gannets, black-legged kittiwakes, and common guillemots, use the rock for resting in summer, and gannets and guillemots occasionally breed successfully if the summer is calm with no storm waves washing over the rock. In total there have been just over twenty species of seabird and six other animal species observed (including the aforementioned molluscs) on or near the islet.

Discovery of new species[edit]

In December 2013 surveys by Marine Scotland discovered four new species of animals in the sea around Rockall. These are believed to live in an area where hydrocarbons are released from the sea bed, known as a cold seep. The discovery has raised the issue of restricting some forms of fishery to protect the sea bed.[34] The species are:

  • Volutopsius scotiae – A sea snail about 10 cm long
  • Thyasira scotiae – A clam
  • Isorropodon mackayi – A clam
  • Antonbrunnia – A marine worm

Visits to Rockall[edit]

HMS Endymion at Rockall

The date for the earliest recorded landing on the island is often given as 8 July 1810, when a Royal Navy officer named Basil Hall led a small landing party from the frigate HMS Endymion to the summit. However, research by James Fisher of the 1955 landing (see below) in the log of the Endymion and elsewhere, indicates that the true date for this first landing was Sunday 8 September 1811.[35]

The Endymion was taking depth measurements around Rockall when it drifted away in a haze. The expedition made a brief attempt to find the frigate in the haze, but soon gave up and returned to Rockall. After the haze became a fog, the lookout sent to the top of Rockall spotted the ship again, but it turned away from Rockall before the expedition in their boats reached it. Finally, just before sunset, the frigate was again spotted from the top of Rockall, and the expedition was able to get back on board. The crew of the Endymion reported that they had been searching for five or six hours, firing their cannon every ten minutes. Hall related this experience and other adventures in a book entitled Fragment of Voyages and Travels Including Anecdotes of a Naval Life.

The next landing was accomplished by a Mr Johns of HMS Porcupine, whilst the ship was on a mission, from June and August 1862, to make a survey of the sea bed prior to the laying of a transatlantic telegraph cable. Johns managed to gain foothold on the island, but failed to reach the summit.

On 15 September 1955, Sergeant Brian Peel, Lieutenant Commander Desmond Scott, Corporal Anthony Fraser and the naturalist James Fisher, all attached to the Royal Navy's HMS Vidal, were winched from a helicopter onto Rockall with the intention to formally annex the islet for the United Kingdom. The group erected a flagpole on Rockall made from old propeller shafts to which they bolted a brass plaque commemorating the event, and raised a Union Flag.

In 1971, Captain T R Kirkpatrick RE led the landing party on an government expedition mounted from RFA Engadine to establish that the rock was part of the United Kingdom and to prepare the islet for the installation of a light beacon. The landing party included Royal Engineers, Royal Marines and civilian members from the Institute of Geological Sciences in London. The party was landed by winch line from the Wessex 5 helicopters of the Royal Naval Air Services Commando Headquarters Squadron, commanded by Lt Cmdr Neil Foster RN. As well as collecting samples of the aegerine granite, Rockallite, for later analysis in London, the top of the rock was blown off using a newly developed blasting technique, Precision Pre-Splitting. This created a level area that was drilled to take the anchorages for the light beacon that was installed the following year. There was no evidence of the brass plate thought to have been installed in 1955 and 2 phosphor bronze plates were chased into the wall above Hall's Ledge, each secured by four 80-tonne rock-anchor bolts.

Establishing that the rock is part of the United Kingdom and its development as a light beacon facilitated the incorporation of the island into the District of Harris in the County of Inverness in the Island of Rockall Act 1972 and reinforced the UK Government's position with regard to seabed rights in the area.

Former SAS member and survival expert Tom McClean lived on the island from 26 May 1985 to 4 July 1985 to affirm the UK's claim to the island[36] (although he was born in Ireland).[citation needed]

In 1997, the environmentalist organisation Greenpeace occupied the islet for a short time as a publicity stunt,[37] calling it Waveland, to protest against oil exploration. Greenpeace declared the island to be a "new Global State" (in this case qualifying it as a micronation), and offered citizenship to anyone willing to take their pledge of allegiance. The British Government's response was simply to give them permission to be there, and otherwise ignore them. Indeed, when asked, the Home Office responded that since Rockall was part of the United Kingdom, and since the United Kingdom was a free country, Greenpeace were perfectly entitled to be at Rockall.[citation needed] During his one night on Rockall, Greenpeace protester and Guardian journalist John Vidal unscrewed the 1955 plaque and re-fixed it back-to-front.[38]

In 2010, it was revealed that the plaque had gone missing. An Englishman, Andy Strangeway, announced his intention to land on the island and affix a replacement plaque in June 2010.[39] The Western Isles Council have approved planning permission for the plaque.[40] The 2010 expedition was cancelled, but Strangeway still intends to replace the plaque.[41]

In 2013 an occupation of the island by explorer Nick Hancock to raise money for the charity Help for Heroes was planned. The challenge was to land on Rockall and survive solo for 60 days, thereby setting a record for the longest occupation of Rockall.[42][43][44] On 31 May 2013, Hancock, and a TV crew from The One Show, sailed to the islet aboard the Orca III, and he made his first unsuccessful attempt to land on the islet.[45] The weather conditions at the time "were not favourable" according to a Maritime and Coastguard Agency official. Subsequently, Hancock postponed his challenge until 2014.[46]

The "Round Rockall" sailing race, sponsored by Galway Bay Sailing Club, runs from Galway, Ireland, around Rockall and back. It was held in 2012 to coincide with the finish of the 2011–12 Volvo Ocean Race around the world.[47]

Territorial claims[edit]

United Kingdom[edit]

Lt Cdr Scott hoists the Union Flag in 1955

The UK claims a 12-nautical-mile (22 km; 14 mi) territorial sea around Rockall that merges with a 200-nautical-mile (370 km; 230 mi) Extended Fishery Zone, 200-nautical-mile continental shelf and other zones, drawn from baselines on the west coast of the Western Islands.[48] The UK also claims "a circle of UK sovereign airspace over the islet of Rockall".[48]

The nearest seasonally inhabited land to Rockall is Hirta, and the nearest permanently inhabited land is North Uist, both of which are in the United Kingdom (see above). In 1997 the United Kingdom ratified the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. In doing so it relinquished its right to claim an exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of 200 nmi (370 km) extending onward from the rock, as the agreement states that "Rocks which cannot sustain human habitation or economic life of their own shall have no exclusive economic zone or continental shelf". But as Rockall lies within 200 nmi (370 km) of both St. Kilda and North Uist, it remains within the EEZ of the United Kingdom and, as such, under international law the UK can claim "the sovereignty of the coastal state in relation to the exploitation, conservation and management of natural and living resources fishery and mineral resources" of the rock itself and an area of territorial waters extending for 12 nmi (22 km) around it. Furthermore, the United Kingdom and Ireland have signed an EEZ boundary agreement that includes Rockall in the United Kingdom area.[2]

Rockall and a large sea area around it were declared as coming under the jurisdiction of Scots law under the Scottish Adjacent Waters Boundaries Order (map) in 1999. This sea area is co-terminous with the UK's EEZ.[49]

On 18 September 1955 at precisely 10.16 am, in what would be the final territorial expansion of the British Empire, the island was officially annexed by the British Crown when Lieutenant-Commander Desmond Scott RN, Sergeant Brian Peel RM, Corporal AA Fraser RM, and James Fisher (a civilian naturalist and former Royal Marine), were deposited on the island by a Royal Navy helicopter from HMS Vidal (coincidentally named after the man who first charted the island). The team cemented in a brass plaque on Hall's Ledge and hoisted the Union Flag to stake the UK's claim. The inscription on the plaque read:

By authority of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II, by the Grace of God of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and of her other realms and territories Queen, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith, and in accordance with Her Majesty's instructions dated the 14th day of September, 1955, a landing was effected this day upon this island of Rockall from HMS Vidal. The Union flag was hoisted and possession of the island was taken in the name of Her Majesty. [Signed] R H Connell, Captain, HMS Vidal, 18 September 1955.

On the 7th November 1955, one J. Abrach Mackay, a member of the Clan Mackay made an official protest about the annexation; the 84 year old local councillor declared:‘My old father, God rest his soul, claimed that island for the Clan of Mackay in 1846 and I now demand that the Admiralty hand it back. It's no' theirs'.’ The British Government ignored the protests which were soon forgotten.[50][51]


The formal annexation of Rockall was announced by the Admiralty on 21 September 1955. The initial incentive for this had little to do with any territorial claim to rights of exploitation of the seas around the island. It was the test firing of the UK's first guided nuclear weapon, the American-made Corporal missile. The missile was to be launched from South Uist and over the North Atlantic. The Ministry of Defence was concerned that the unclaimed island would provide a unique opportunity for the Soviet Union to spy on the test by placing surveillance equipment on the island; and so in April 1955 a request was sent to the Admiralty to seize the island, and declare UK sovereignty lest it become an outpost for foreign observers.

On 10 February 1972, the Island of Rockall Act received Royal Assent. It made the island administratively part of the Isle of Harris (St. Kilda being administratively part of Harris), in what was then Inverness-shire, fully incorporating it into the United Kingdom. A navigational beacon was installed on the island in 1982 by RAF Kinloss Mountain Rescue Team, using a Chinook helicopter, and the UK declared that no ship would be allowed within a 50-mile (80 km) radius of the rock.[52] In United Kingdom law,[citation needed] it now falls administratively under the Western Isles.

In his paper "Ireland and the Rockall Dispute", Clive Symmons summed the matter up as follows, "With the retraction of the Rockall based arc of 200-mile fishery limits by the UK, Rockall has become a virtual dead letter in terms of the law of the sea; and so as an irritant to Anglo-Irish relations. In the light of recent events, Rockall is effectively now merely an unimportant piece of rock with vestigial insular status in international law. Its sole legal importance now for the UK – which, as seen, has reiterated its title to it – is that it remains in a technical sense an ‘island’ and therefore continues to generate a territorial sea.[53]


The Irish naval vessel, LE Roisin, on routine patrol at Rockall 230 nautical miles off the north-west coast of Ireland, 12 October 2012

Historically, Ireland's claim to the rock (Sgeir Rocail as it is known in native Irish) was long based on it's proximity to the Irish mainland.[54] Rockall is nearer by some 31.15 kilometres (19.36 mi) to the County Donegal coastline in Ireland than to Invernesshire in Scotland.[55][56] Ireland regards Rockall as an uninhabitable rock without any territorial waters and thus irrelevant when determining the boundaries of the exclusive economic zones.[57][58]

In October 2012, a picture appeared in the Irish Independent showing the Irish Navy ship L.E. Roisin sailing past Rockall, claiming that it was defending Ireland's sovereign rights to the rock.[59] However any claims of ownership of the islet by Ireland have only been for internal consumption and have not been made officially;[1] additionally, the United Kingdom and Ireland have signed an EEZ boundary agreement that includes Rockall in the United Kingdom area.[2]

Shipping disasters[edit]

There have been disasters on the neighbouring Hasselwood Rock and Helen's Reef (the latter was not named until 1830).

  • 1686 – a Spanish, French, or Spanish-French ship ran aground on Rockall. Several men of the crew, Spanish and French, were able to reach St. Kilda in a pinnace and save their lives. Some details of this event were recounted by Martin Martin in his A late voyage to St. Kilda, published in 1698.[12] The ship was perhaps a fishing vessel based in the Bay of Biscay and bound for North Atlantic cod fisheries.
  • 1812 – survey vessel Leonidas foundered on Helen's Reef.

In popular culture[edit]

  • The 1955 British landing, complete with the trappings such as the hoisting the flag, caused a certain amount of popular amusement, with some seeing it as a sort of farcical end to imperial expansion. The satirists Flanders and Swann sang a successful piece entitled "Rockall", playing on the similarity of the word to the vulgar expression "fuck all", meaning "nothing": The fleet set sail for Rockall, Rockall, Rockall, To free the isle of Rockall, From fear of foreign foe. We sped across the planet, To find this lump of granite, One rather startled gannet; In fact, we found Rockall.[60]
  • In The Goon Show episode "Napoleon's Piano", Seagoon made a less-than-triumphant landfall on Rockall with the titular piano. Rockall was the launching site for the prototype "Jet propelled guided NAAFI" in the Goon Show episode of the same name. Musty Mind, the parody of Mastermind on the lunchtime radio programme of Noel Edmonds featured a send-up subject, The Cultural and Social History of Rockall. And the cast of I'm Sorry, I'll Read That Again claimed to have spent the break between two series of the programme making a "triumphant tour of Rockall".
  • In literature, it has been suggested that Rockall is the rock which forms the setting for William Golding's novel Pincher Martin. The Master, a 1957 novel by T. H. White, is set inside Rockall.[61]
  • Ben Fogle made a claim to Rockall by sticking a post-it note onto the rock bearing the words "Property of Ben Fogle" in his book Offshore.
  • In Steve Bell's Guardian cartoon strip, one of the characters – a penguin – annexes and claims Rockall as the "People's Republic of Rockall".
  • In music, Irish rebel music band the Wolfe Tones released a track called "Rock on Rockall" that argues against the supposed British ownership of the rock and supports an Irish claim.[62] English post-punk band Gang of Four reference the rock in the 1979 song "Ether" (from the album Entertainment!), in the line "There may be oil ... under Rockall," possibly a reference to the disputed exploitation rights. Icelandic jazz-funk band Mezzoforte in 1983 released a piece of music entitled Rockall. The House Band named their 1996 album after the island.
  • David Frost, when hosting the 1960's BBC satirical tv programme That Was The Week That Was, recited a list of the dwindling British colonial possessions, ending with the words, "... and sweet Rockall." [63]
  • A club, "The Rockall Club", has been established for people who have landed there.[64]

See also[edit]



  1. ^ a b c d FOI response by HM Government 8 March 2012
  2. ^ a b c Written Answers - Rockall Island. 24 March 2011. Retrieved 6 April 2014.
  3. ^ a b The Independent ~ 12 June 1997
  4. ^ "BBC News – Adventurer Nick Hancock sets sail for 60 day Rockall attempt". Retrieved 2013-05-31. 
  5. ^ a b Fisher, James (1956). Rockall. London: Geoffrey Bles. pp. 12–13. 
  6. ^ Clive Symmons "Ireland and the Rockall Dispute: An Analysis of Recent Developments" Durham University
  7. ^ a b Mac an Tàilleir, Iain (2003) Ainmean-àite/Placenames. (pdf) Pàrlamaid na h-Alba. Retrieved 26 August 2012. p. 101
  8. ^ Coates (1990) pp. 49–54, esp. 51-2.
  9. ^ Keay and Keay (1994) p. 817.
  10. ^ "Sgeir" Retrieved 18 January 2008.
  11. ^ "Rocail" Retrieved 18 January 2008.
  12. ^ a b Martin, Martin (c. 1695). A Description of the Western Islands of Scotland. 
  13. ^ Google Earth. Rockall WGS84 57°35’46.6”N 13°41’14.3”W to Gob a' Ghaill, Soay, St Kilda at approximately WGS84 57°49’40.8”N 8°38’59.4”W is approximately 301.302 kilometres (187.2 miles), or 162.7 nautical miles.
  14. ^ Google Earth. Rockall WGS84 57°35’46.6”N 13°41’14.3”W to Tory Island at approximately WGS84 55°16’29.73”N 8°15’00.92”W is approximately 423.239 kilometres (263.0 miles), or 228.5 nautical miles.
  15. ^ "Atlantic Coral Ecosystem Study (ACES) and Environmental Controls on Mound Formation Along the European Margin (ECOMOUND)". HERMES programme. University of Liverpool. Retrieved 1 February 2011. 
  16. ^ Wheeler, A.J.; Wheeler, A.J. – Kozachenko, M. – Henry, L.-A. – Foubert, A. – de Haas, H. – Huvenne, V.A.I. – Masson D.G. – Olu, K. (2010). "The Moira Mounds, small cold-water coral banks in the Porcupine Seabight". Marine Geology 282: 53–64. doi:10.1016/j.margeo.2010.08.006. Retrieved 1 February 2011. 
  17. ^ Lutter, Stephan. "The". The Rockall Bank – A Potential MP. WWWF. Retrieved 1 February 2011. 
  18. ^ MacDonald, Fraser (2006) 'The last outpost of Empire: Rockall and the Cold War", (pdf) Journal of Historical Geography, 32 627–647. University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
  19. ^ Haswell-Smith (2004) p. 314.
  20. ^ "About Rockall" Accessed 12 December 2010
  21. ^ Google Earth. Rockall WGS84 57°35’46.6”N 13°41’14.3”W to An Campar, Hirta, St Kilda at approximately WGS84 57°49’30.4”N 8°37’03.6”W is approximately 303.196 kilometres (188.4 miles), or 163.7 nautical miles.
  22. ^ Maclean (1977) page 142.
  23. ^ "Advice for visitors" (2004) National Trust for Scotland. Retrieved 18 March 2007.
  24. ^ Google Earth. Rockall WGS84 57°35’46.6”N 13°41’14.3”W to Aird an Runair, North Uist at approximately WGS84 57°36’11.4”N 7°32’59.3”W is approximately 366.843 kilometres (227.9 miles), or 198.1 nautical miles.
  25. ^ "Brochure" (PDF). The Royal Irish Academy. Archived from the original on 28 May 2008. Retrieved 2010-12-13 via the Internet Archive. 
  26. ^ John Hamilton (1999/2000). "Granuaile — Not the Irish Lights tender..". BEAM Magazine 28. Retrieved 2007-08-01. 
  27. ^ Marine Scotland report
  28. ^ Harvie-Brown et al (1889) Facing p. LXXXI.
  29. ^ Minerals of Scotland by Alec Livingstone, 2002, National Museums of Scotland
  30. ^ Ritchie, J.D.; Gatliff, R.W.; Richards, P.C. (1999). "Early Tertiary magmatism in the offshore NW UK margin and surrounds". In Fleet A.J. & Boldy S.A.R. Petroleum geology of Northwest Europe: proceedings of the 5th conference, held at the Barbican Centre, London, 26–29 October 1997, Volume 1. London: Geological Society. p. 581. ISBN 978-1-86239-039-3. Retrieved 28 April 2011. 
  31. ^ Igneous Rocks of the British Isles edited by D.S. Sutherland, 1982, Wiley
  32. ^ "Irish National Seabed Survey". 2004. Retrieved 2007-08-01. 
  33. ^ a b Gray, Dermot (2004/2005). "Granuaile carries out seismic survey at Rockall" (PDF). Beam (Irish Lighthouse Service) 33: 14–16. Retrieved 2007-08-01. 
  34. ^ "Deep sea creatures found off Rockall 'new to science'". News Highlands and Islands. BBC. 28 December 2013. Retrieved 28 December 2013. 
  35. ^ Fisher, James (1957). Rockall. The Country Book Club. pp. 23–35. 
  36. ^ "Written Answers — Rockall Island". Dáil Éireann 358. 22 May 1985. Retrieved 2007-08-01. 
  37. ^ SchNews issue 131, Justice?, Brighton, 22 August 1997; see also SchNEWS Annual, Justice?, Brighton, 1998, ISBN 0-9529748-1-9
  38. ^ The Guardian 1/1/2011
  39. ^ "Rockall bid – to erect Queen’s plaque". Letterkenny Post. 25 February 2010. Retrieved 2010-04-11. 
  40. ^ "BBC article on 2010 planning permission". BBC News. 2010-05-12. Retrieved 2010-08-24. 
  41. ^ "Island Man News". Andy Strangeway. 2010-07-20. Retrieved 2010-12-07. 
  42. ^ [1][dead link]
  43. ^ [2]
  44. ^ "There's no place like home: Explorer plans to spend 60-days living on remote Scottish islet in this 8ft box". Daily Mail date=2013-04-28. Retrieved 2013-05-17. 
  45. ^ Severin Carrell, Scotland correspondent. "Rockall adventurer fails in first attempt to land on remote Atlantic islet | UK news |". The Guardian. Retrieved 2013-05-31. 
  46. ^ Severin Carrell, Scotland correspondent (2013-06-01). "Rockall occupation bid postponed until 2014 after weather prevents landing | UK news". The Guardian. Retrieved 2013-06-06. 
  47. ^ Round Rockall Race
  48. ^ a b Letter dated 8 March 2012, released as part of a response from Foreign and Commonwealth Office to a request made using WhatDoTheyKnow, accessed 6 October 2012.
  49. ^ Note that it does not necessarily apply to the sea bed, because this is determined by the UN Law of the Sea.
  50. ^ Ondřej Daněk "Rockall" 2009
  51. ^ The Independent
  52. ^ "Rockall – The Jubilee landing and a bit of history. | heavywhalley". 2012-06-11. Retrieved 2013-05-31. 
  53. ^ Ireland and the Rockall Dispute: An Analysis of Recent Developments Clive R. Symmons
  54. ^ Symmons (1993), p. 35. "As a matter of international law fall within Irish jurisdiction" and "which are closer to the Irish than the British coast"
  55. ^ Symmons, Clive (1998). "Ireland and the Rockall Dispute: An Analysis of Recent Developments". Durham University. Retrieved 20 October 2012. 
  56. ^ "The significant fact is that the island is 300 miles (480 km) west of Scotland and 250 miles (400 km) north-west of the coast of Donegal." [3]
  57. ^ Tullio Treves; Laura Pineschi (1997). The Law of the Sea: The European Union and Its Member States. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. pp. 305–. ISBN 978-90-411-0326-0. Retrieved 21 November 2012. 
  58. ^ "Dáil Éireann — Volume 384 – 29 November 1988 Continental Shelf Delimitation Agreement between Ireland and Britain: Motion". Retrieved 2010-08-24. 
  59. ^ Heffernan, Breda (13 October 2012). "Our Navy's show of force off Rockall". 
  60. ^ Flanders and Swann online
  61. ^ White, T. H., The Master: An Adventure Story (1957) J. Moulder and M. Schaefer. Retrieved 28 March 2008.
  62. ^ "Rock On Rockall". Retrieved 2007-08-01. 
  63. ^
  64. ^ The Rockall Club


  • Coates, Richard (1990) The place-names of St Kilda. Lewiston, etc.: Edwin Mellen Press. ISBN 0-88946-077-9.
  • Harvie-Brown, J. A. & Buckley, T. E. (1889) A Vertebrate Fauna of the Outer Hebrides. Edinburgh. David Douglas.
  • Haswell-Smith, Hamish (2004) The Scottish Islands. Edinburgh. Canongate ISBN 1-84195-454-3
  • Keay, J., and Keay, J. (1994) Collins Encyclopaedia of Scotland. London. HarperCollins ISBN 0-00-255082-2
  • Maclean, Charles (1977) Island on the Edge of the World: the Story of St. Kilda, Edinburgh, Canongate ISBN 0-903937-41-7
  • Martin, Martin (1703) "A Voyage to St. Kilda" in A Description of The Western Islands of Scotland. Appin Regiment/Appin Historical Society. Retrieved 16 September 2008.
  • Symmons, Clive Ralph (1993). Ireland and the law of the sea. Blackrock: Round Hall Press. ISBN 1-85800-022-X. 
  • Symmons, Clive Ralph (1978). The maritime zones of islands in international law. The Hague ; Boston: M. Nijhoff. ISBN 9789024721719. 

Further reading

External links[edit]