Rodion Shchedrin

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Rodion Shchedrin with his wife, Maya Plisetskaya, in 2009

Rodion Konstantinovich Shchedrin (Russian: Родио́н Константи́нович Щедри́н, Rodion Konstantinovič Ščedrin, pronounced [rə̥dʲɪˌon kə̥nstɐnˌtʲinə̥vʲɪ̥ʨ ɕːɪ̥dˈrʲin]; born December 16, 1932) is a Russian composer and pianist, winner of the Lenin (1984), USSR State Prize (1972) and the State Prize of the Russian Federation (1992), and a former member of the Interregional Deputy Group (1989–1991).

Biography[edit]

Shchedrin was born in Moscow into a musical family—his father was a composer and teacher of music theory. He studied at the Moscow Choral School and Moscow Conservatory (graduating in 1955) under Yuri Shaporin (composition) and Yakov Flier (piano). Since 1958, he has been married to the great ballerina Maya Plisetskaya.

Shchedrin's early music is tonal, colourfully orchestrated and often includes snatches of folk music, while some later pieces use aleatoric and serial techniques. In the west the music of Shchedrin has won popularity mainly through the work of Mstislav Rostropovich who has made several successful recordings.

Among his works are the ballets The Little Hump-backed Horse (1955), Carmen Suite (1967), based on the opera Carmen by Georges Bizet (the project had been turned down by both Shostakovich and Khachaturian), Anna Karenina (1971, on the novel by Leo Tolstoy), and Lady with a Lapdog (1985); the operas Not Only Love (1961), and Dead Souls (1976, after Nikolai Gogol's novel); piano concertos, symphonies, chamber and piano music and other works. He composed 24 Preludes and Fugues after he heard those of Shostakovich. Also remarkable is his Polyphonic Notebook.

He has written five concertos for orchestra: the first, variously translated as Naughty Limericks or Mischievous Folk Ditties (neither of which completely get the gist of the Russian which refers to a chastushka (часту́шка), an irreverent, satirical kind of folk song) is by far the best known, and was the work which first established him on the international stage.[1] The second of the Concertos for Orchestra was subtitled Zvony (The Chimes), and was premiered by the New York Philharmonic under Leonard Bernstein as one of the many commissions in honor of the orchestra's 125th anniversary. The third Concerto for Orchestra is based on old music of Russian provincial circuses. Concerto 4, Khorovody (round dances), was written in 1989, and Concerto 5, Four Russian Songs, was written in 1998.

As well as a distinguished compositional career (for which he was made a member of the Berlin Academy of Arts in 1989 and received the Russian State Prize from President Boris Yeltsin in 1992), Shchedrin is himself a virtuoso pianist and organist, taking the piano part in person for the premieres of the first three of his six piano concertos. At a remarkable concert on 5 May 1974 Shchedrin performed the feat of appearing as soloist in all three of his then-completed piano concertos, one after the other. The concert, with the USSR Symphony Orchestra under Evgeny Svetlanov was recorded and released on LP, then CD. Following the collapse of the Soviet regime, Shchedrin has taken advantage of the new opportunities for international travel and musical collaboration, and now largely divides his time between Munich and Moscow.

On June 11–14, 2008 Shchedrin Days took place in Armenia with the participation of Shchedrin and Maya Plisetskaya as honorary guest.

Invited by Walter Fink, he was the 19th composer featured in the annual Komponistenporträt of the Rheingau Musik Festival in 2009. He and his wife attended the concerts which included his Russian liturgy The Sealed Angel for choir and flute, performed in Eberbach Abbey. His chamber music included Ancient Melodies of Russian Folk Songs (2007) with the cellist Raphael Wallfisch and himself at the piano, and Meine Zeit, mein Raubtier with tenor Kenneth Tarver and pianist Roland Pontinen who performed it also at the Verbier Festival.

The premiere of a German version of his opera Lolita was performed as the opening night of the Internationale Maifestspiele Wiesbaden in a production of the Hessisches Staatstheater Wiesbaden.[2]

Stage works[edit]

Operas[edit]

  • Not Love Alone, opera in three acts with epilogue (1961). First performance on 25 December 1961 in Moscow by the Bolshoi Theatre Chorus and Orchestra, Y. Svetlanov (cond).
  • Dead Souls, opera in three acts (1976). Libretto by the composer. First performance on 7 June 1977 in Moscow by the Bolshoi Theatre Chorus and Orchestra, Y. Temirkanov (cond).
  • Lolita, opera in three acts after Vladimir Nabokov's novel (1993). Libretto by the composer. First performance: 14 December 1994 in Stockholm by the Royal Opera of Stockholm, Mstislav Rostropovich (cond), Ann-Marget Petterson, John Conklin.
  • The Enchanted Wanderer, opera for the concert stage for mezzo-soprano, tenor, bass, mixed chorus and orchestra (2001-2002). Story by Nikolai Leskov. Libretto by the composer. Commissioned by the New York Philharmonic to Lorin Maazel. First performance on 19 December 2002 in New York by the New York Philharmonic, New York Choral Artists, Lorin Maazel (cond).
  • Boyarina Morozova, choral opera in two parts for four soloists, mixed chorus, trumpet, timpani and percussion (2006). Text from "The Life of the Archpriest Awwakum by himself" and "The Life of Boyarina Morozova". Libretto by the composer. First performance: 30 October 2006 in the Moscow Conservatory in a performance directed by Boris Tevlin.
  • Levsha ("The Lefthander"), opera in 2 acts. Libretto by the composer after the novel by Nikolai Leskov. Concert performance on 26 June, and world stage premiere on 27 July 2013 at the Mariinsky II in St Petersburg, conducted by Valery Gergiev.[3]

Ballets[edit]

Musical[edit]

Nina and the Twelve Months (1988). Musical in two acts on a libretto by T. Futjita after Samuil Marshak's story. First performance on 8 August 1988 in Tokyo.

Orchestral works[edit]

Symphonies[edit]

Concertos for orchestra[edit]

Concertos for solo instrument with orchestra[edit]

  • Viola
    • Concerto "Dolce" for viola, string orchestra and harp (1997). First performance on 30 December 1997 in Moscow by the Moscow Soloists, Yuri Bashmet (cond & viola).
  • Others
    • Concerto "Parlando" for violin, trumpet and string orchestra (2004). First performance on 22 September 2004 in Saint Nazaire, France by the Chamber Orchestra Kremlin, conducted by Misha Rachlevsky with Philippe Graffin (violin) and Martin Hurrell (trumpet).
    • Double Concerto "Romantic Offering" for piano, cello and orchestra (2010). First Performance: 9 February 2011 in Luzern by Martha Argerich (piano), Mischa Maisky (cello) and the Luzerner Sinfonieorchester, conducted by Neeme Jarvi.

Other orchestral works[edit]

  • The Little Humpbacked Horse, first suite from the ballet for symphony orchestra (1955). First performance in 1956 in Moscow by the State Cinematographic SO, Aleksandr Gauk (cond).
  • Chamber Suite for twenty violins, harp, accordion and two double basses (1961). First performance in 1962 in Moscow by a Violin Ensemble of the Bolshoi Theatre Orchestra, Y. Reyentovich (cond).
  • Not Love Alone, first symphonic suite from the opera for mezzo-soprano and orchestra (1964)
  • The Little Humpbacked Horse, second suite from the ballet for symphony orchestra (1965)
  • Symphonic Fanfares, festive overture for symphony orchestra (1967). First performance on 6 November 1967 in Moscow by the USSR Radio & TV Large SO, Gennady Rozhdestvensky (cond).
  • Not Love Alone, second version for chamber orchestra (1971).First performance on 20 January 1972 by the Moscow Chamber Opera Theater, conducted by Vladimir Delman.
  • Anna Karenina, romantic music for symphony orchestra (1972). First performance on 24 October 1972 in Moscow by the USSR Radio & TV Large SO, Gennady Rozhdestvensky (cond).
  • Solemn Overture (1982). Symphonic Salute on the occasion of the 60th anniversary of the USSR. First performance in December 1982 in Moscow by the USSR Symphonic Academy Orchestra, Yevgeny Svetlanov (cond).
  • The Seagull, suite from the ballet for symphony orchestra (1984). First performance on 14 January 1986 in New York by the New York National Orchestra, A. Kassuto (cond).
  • Music for the Town of Kothen for chamber orchestra (1984). First performance on 17 February 1985 in Berlin by the Berlin Chamber Orchestra.
  • Self-Portrait, variations for symphony orchestra (1984). First performance on 15 May 1984 in Moscow by the USSR State SO, D. Kakhidze (cond).
  • Music for strings, two oboes, two horns and celesta (1985). First performance in April 1987 in Leningrad by the Leningrad State Philharmonic Academic SO, F. Glushchenko (cond).
  • The Geometry of Sound for chamber orchestra (1987). First performance in May 1987 in Cologne by Soloists of the Bolshoi Theatre Orchestra, Alexander Lazarev (cond).
  • Stikhira for the Millennium of Christianisation of Russia for symphony orchestra (1988). Dedicated to Mstislav Rostropovich. First performance in March 1988 in Washington by the Washington National SO, Mstislav Rostropovich (cond).
  • Flageolets for Toru Takemitsu for symphony orchestra (1990). First performance on 9 October 1990 in Tokyo by the Tokyo SO, H. Iwaki (cond).
  • Chrystal Gusli for symphony orchestra (1994). Dedicated to Toru Takemitsu.First performance on 21 November 1994 in Moscow by the Moscow State SO, I. Golovchin (cond).
  • Russian Photographs, music for string orchestra (1994). Dedicated to Vladimir Spivakov and the "Moscow Virtuosi". First performance on 29 Juli 1995 in Gstaad by the Moscow Virtuosi, V. Spivakov (cond).
  • Shepherd's Pipes of Vologda for oboe, English horn, horn and strings (1995). Homage to Bartok. Commissioned by the Hungarian Radio. First performance on 1 October 1995 in the Marble Hall of Budapest by the Concentus Hungaricus Chamber Orchestra, Laszlo Kovacs (cond), Bela Kollar (oboe), Gergely Hamar (englisch horn), Zoltan Varga (horn)
  • Glorification (Velicanie) for string orchestra (1995). Commissioned by the World Economic Forum. First performance on 6 February 1996 in Davos at the World Economic Forum by the Moscow Chamber Orchestra, Constantine Orbelian (cond).
  • Two Tangos by Albéniz for orchestra (1996). First performance on 9 August 1997 in the Peabody Auditorium of Daytona by the London SO, M. Rostropovich (cond)
  • "Slava, Slava" for orchestra (1997) "A festive ringing of bells". Dedicated to Mstislav Rostropovich for his 70th birthday. First performance: 27 March 1997 in Paris by the Orchestra National de France, Seiji Ozawa (cond)
  • Preludium to Beethoven's Symphony No. 9 for orchestra (1999). Commissioned by the Nuernberg Symphony Orchestra. First performance on 5 January 2000 in the Meistersingerhalle of Nuernberg by the Nuremberg Symphony Orchestra, Jac van Steen (cond)
  • Lolita Serenade, symphonic fragments from the opera "Lolita" (2001). Commissioned by the Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra to Mariss Jansons. First performance on 28 September 2001 in Pittsburgh by the Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra, Mariss Jansons (cond)
  • Dialogues with Shostakovich, symphonic etudes for orchestra (2001). Commissioned by the Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra. First performance on 8 November 2002 in Pittsburgh by the Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra, Mariss Jansons (cond)
  • Vivat!, St. Petersburg Overture (2008). First Performance: 12 December 2008 in St. Petersburg by the St. Petersburg Philharmonic Orchestra, conducted by Mariss Jansons
  • Heiligenstädter Testament (2008). Commissioned by the Bayerischer Rundfunk. First Performance: 18 December 2008 in Munchen by the Orchester des Bayerische Rundfunks, conducted by Mariss Jansons.
  • Symphonic Diptych (2009). First Performance: 20 April 2009 in Moscow by the Mariinsky Theatre Orchestra, conducted by Valery Gergiev.
  • Lithuanian Saga (2009). First Performance: 13 May 2009 in Vilnius by the London Symphony Orchestra, conducted by Valery Gergiev.

Vocal music[edit]

For soloist, chorus and orchestra[edit]

  • Bureaucratiade, satirical cantata for soloists, chorus ans small orchestra (1963). To texts of "Rules for Those Staying at the Kurpaty Boarding House". First performance on 24 February 1965 in Moscow by an Ensemble of Soloists and Chamber Orchestra, V. Delman (cond). Opus 39
  • Poetoria, concerto for poet accompanied by a woman's voice, mixed chorus and symphony orchestra (1968). To words by A. Voznesensky. First performance on 24 February 1968 in Moscow by the USSR Radio & TV SO and Chorus, Gennady Rozhdestvensky (cond), Andrei Voznesensky(poet)
  • Lenin is Amongst Us, oratorio for soprano, alt and bass, mixed chorus and symphony orchestra (1969). Traditional text. Dedicated to Lenin's centenary. First performance on 6 February 1970 in Moscow by the USSR Radio & TV SO and Chorus, Gennady Rozhdestvensky (cond), L. Zykina, L. Belobragina & A. Eisen (soloists).
  • Long Life (Mnogia Leta) for mixed chorus, piano solo and three groups of percussion instruments (1991). Dedicated to G. Rozhdestvensky. First performance on 5 May 1991 in Moscow with Valery Polyansky (cond).
  • Prayer (Molenie) for mixed chorus and symphony orchestra (1991). To words by Yehudi Menuhin. First performance on 7 March 1991 in Moscow by the Moscow Chamber Chorus and the USSR Ministry of Culture SO, Yehudi Menuhin (cond).

For one part solo[edit]

  • Song and Ditties of Varvara from the Opera "Not Love Alone" (1961). Arrangement for mezzo-soprano and piano.
  • Three Solfege Exercises, sonata for high voice and piano (1965). First performance on 13 October 1967 in Moscow by Z. Dolukhanova (voice) and N. Svetlanova (piano).
  • Laments for voice with piano accompaniment (1965). Traditional words by V. Bokov. First performance on 31 January 1966 in Moscow by I. Arkhipova (voice) and R. Shchedrin (piano).
  • "Tanja - Katja", songs without words in folkstyle for soprano and orchestra (2002). First performance on 12 December 2002 in Moscow by Russia State SO, Dmitry Sitkovetsky (cond), M. Gavrilova (voice)
  • "Tanja - Katja II", songs without words in folkstyle for female voice and violin (2002)
  • "My Age, My Wild Beast", vocal cycle for tenor, narrator and piano. Text by Osip Mandelstam. First performance on 6 February 2003 in Cologne Philharmonic by Mark Tucker (tenor) and Vladimir Ashkenazy (piano)
  • Grusha's Gypsy Song (2008). First Performance: 3 August 2008 in Verbier by Kristina Kapustinskaya and the Verbier Festival Orchestra, conducted by Valery Gergiev.
  • "Cleopatra and the Serpent", a dramatic scene for woman's voice and orchestra (2011). Words from the final scenes of Shakespeare's tragedy "Antony and Cleopatra" in a translation of Boris Pasternak (2011). First performance on 28 May 2012 at the Salzburg Festival by M. Erdmann and the Orchestra of the Mariinsky Theatre, Valery Gergiev (cond).

Choruses a cappella[edit]

  • Two Choruses to Lyrics by Alexander Pushkin for unaccompanied mixed chorus (1950)
  • "The Willow", vocalise for unaccompanied mixed chorus (1954)
  • Four Choruses to Lyrics by Alexander Tvardovsky for unaccompanied mixed chorus (1968)
  • Four Choruses to Lyrics by Andrei Voznesensky for unaccompanied mixed chorus (1971)
  • "Russian Villages" for unaccompanied mixed chorus (1973). Chorus to lyrics by Ivan Khabarov.
  • "A Woman was Washing Clothes" for unaccompanied mixed chorus (1975). Chorus to lyrics by J. Lyapin.
  • "The Execution of Pugachev", poem for mixed chorus a cappella (1981). Text by Alexander Pushkin. First performance on 10 March 1983 in Tallinn by the Moscow Conservatory Student's Chorus, Boris Tevlin (cond).
  • "Lines (Stanzas)" from "Eugen Onegin" for mixed chorus a cappella (1981). Text by Alexander Pushkin. First performance in May 1982 in Moscow by the Conservatory Student's Chorus, B. Tevlin (cond).
  • Concertino in four movements for chorus a cappella (1982). Commissioned by the Cork International Choral Festival. First performance on 5 May 1982 in Cork, Ireland by the Cork Festival Chorus and the Lialiumai Chorus, Albinas Piatrauskas (cond).
  • "The Sealed Angel", Russian liturgy for mixed chorus a cappella with shepherd's pipe (1988). Russian orthodox text. First performance on 18 June 1988 in the Tchaikovsky Concert Hall of Moscow by the Moscow Chamber Chorus and the State Academic Chorus of the USSR, Vladimir Minin (cond), Alexander Golyshev (flute).
  • Two Russian Choirs (2008). First Performance: 12 September 2008 in Moscow by the National Choir of Russian Conservatories, conducted by Boris Tevlin.

Piano works[edit]

  • Variation on a Theme by Glinka for piano (1957)
  • Toccatina for piano (1958)
  • Piano Pieces (1952–1961). Poem; Four Pieces from the ballet "The Humpbacked Horse"; Humoresque; Imitating Albeniz; Troika; Two Polyphonic Pieces
  • Piano Sonata No. 1 in C major (1962). First performance on 24 April 1968 in Moscow by D. Bashkirov (piano)
  • Twenty-Four Preludes and Fugues Volume 1 for piano (1964). Nos. 1 - 12 in sharp keys. First performance on 20 April 1965 in Moscow by R. Shchedrin (piano)
  • Twenty-Four Preludes and Fugues Volume 2 for piano (1970). Nos. 13 - 24 in flat keys. First performance of the complete cycle on 27 January 1971 in Moscow by the composer
  • Polyphonic Notebook, twenty-five preludes for piano (1972). First performance on 31 March 1973 in Moscow by R. Shchedrin (piano)
  • Notebook for the Youth, fifteen pieces for piano (1981). First performance in March 1982 in Moscow by R. Shchedrin (piano)
  • Naughty Limericks (Tschastuschki) for piano (1999). Revised version of Concerto for orchestra No. 1 "Naughty Limericks" (1963)
  • Piano Sonata No. 2 (1997). For Yefim Bronfman. First performance on 26 April 1997 in Oslo by Yefim Bronfman (piano)
  • Diary, seven pieces for piano (2002). First performance on 5 December 2002 in Moscow by Ekaterina Mechetina (piano)
  • Questions, eleven pieces for piano (2003). First performance on 9 October 2004 in the Queen Elizabeth Hall of Londen by Olli Mustonen (piano)
  • Sonatina Concertante for piano (2005). First performance on 23 November 2005 in Moscow by Alexander Ghindin (piano)
  • A la Pizzicato for piano (2005). Commissioned by the International Adilia Alieva Competition for piano in Gaillard, France.

Hommage a Chopin" for four pianos (2005). Revision of opus 64 (1983). First performance: 20 September 2006 in Oslo by the Aurora Piano Quartet of Berlin

  • Artless Pages (2009). First Performance: 1 August 2009 in Verbier by Yuja Wang (piano)
  • Concert Etude "Tchaikovsky Etude" (2011). Commissioned for the XIV International Tchaikovsky Competition. First Performance: 20 June 2011 in Moscow

Chamber and instrumental works[edit]

  • Suite for clarinet and piano (1951). First performance in 1952 in Moscow by B. Prorvich (clarinet) and R. Shchedrin (piano)
  • In the Style of Albeniz for violin and piano (1973)
  • The Frescoes of Dionysios for nine instruments (1981). First performance in October 1981 in Moscow by Soloists of the Bolshoi Theatre Orchestra
  • Musical Offering for organ, three flutes, three bassoons and three trombones (1983). Written for the 300th Anniversary of J.S. Bach's birth. First performance on 21 October 1983 in Moscow by R. Shchedrin (organ), A. Korneyev, A. Poplavsky & I. Kopchevsky (flute), A. Arnitsans, A. Kapchelya & Y. Yevstrafiev (bassoon), N. Mironov, S. Shkolnik & E. Osipov (trombone)
  • Echo Sonata for solo violin (1984). Written for the 300th Anniversary of J.S. Bach's birth. First performance on 27 June 1985 in Cologne by U. Hoelscher (violin)
  • Three Shepherds, trio for flute, oboe and clarinet (1988). First performance on 25 July 1988 in Kuhmo (Finland) by Soloists of the Kirov State Opera and Ballet Theatre SO
  • Russian Tunes (Russkie Naigryshi)" for cello solo (1990). Dedicated to Mstislav Rostropovich. First performance in November 1990 in Paris
  • Echos on a Cantus Firmus by Orlando di Lasso for organ and soprano recorder (1994). First performance on 5 November 1994 in Munich by Markus Zahnhausen (flute) and Elisabeth Zawadke (organ)
  • Piano-Terzetto for violin, cello and piano (1995). Commissioned by l'Association Parade, Paris to the Tchaikovsky Piano Trio. First performance on 17 April 1996 in the Conservatorio "G. Verdi" of Milan by the Tchaikovsky Piano Trio (Alexandre Brussilovsky (violin), Anatole Liebermann (cello), Konstantin Bogino (piano)
  • The House of Ice, Russian fairy-tale for marimba solo (1995). First performance on 17 March in the Small Hall of Munich, Gasteig by Dmitri Nedelev (marimba)
  • Music From Afar for two bass recorders (1996). I: Music from afar; II: Slavonic Dance.For Markus Zahnhausen. First performance on 9 November 1996 in the Laetare Church of Munich by Markus Zahnhausen and Markus Bartholome (bass-recorders)
  • Sonata for cello and piano (1996). For Mstislav Rostropovich. First performance on 5 May 1997 in Monte Carlo by Mstislav Rostropovich (cello) and Rodion Shchedrin (piano)
  • Pastorale for clarinet and piano (1997). For Juerg Widmann. First performance on 10 April 1997 in the Carl Orff-Saal, Gasteig of Munich by Juerg Widmann (clarinet) and Moritz Eggert (piano)
  • Balalaika for violin solo (1997). For Maxim Vengerov. First performance on 29 March 1999 in Budapest by Maxim Vengerov (violin)
  • Variations and Theme for violin solo (1998). Composed for the Fourth International Violin Competition "Leopold Mozart" in Augsburg. First performance on 21 November 1999 in Augsburg
  • Menuhin Sonata for violin and piano (1999). Commissioned by the Credit Suisse Private Banking. First performance on 30 July 1999 in Saanen by Dmitri Sitkovetsky (violin) and Michel Dalberto (piano)
  • Duo for violin solo (2000)
  • Hamlet Ballad for four cellos or cello ensemble (2005). Commissioned by the International Cello Congress 2005 in Kobe (Japan) for the 1000 Cellist Concert. First performance on 22 May 2005 in Kobe (Japan) by M. Rostropovich (cond) and Naoto Otomo
  • Ancient Melodies of Russian Folk Songs (2007). First Performance: 24 May 2007 in London by Raphael Wallfisch (cello) and Rodion Shchedrin (piano)
  • One for the Road (Na Pososhok) for six cellos and treble recorder (or flute, oboe, clarinet, trumpet and viola) (2007). In memory of Mstislav Rostropovich. Commissioned by the Kronberg Academy. First performance: 5 October 2007 at the Kronberg Academy Cello Festival in the St. Peter and Paul Church by the Ensemble Cellissimo: Julius Berger, Laszlo Fenyo, Sebastian Hess, Wolfgang Lehner, Wolfgang Tiepold and Raimund Trenkler (cellos) and an unknown performer (treble recorder)
  • Belcanto in the Russian Mode (2008). First Performance: 29 July 2008 in Verbier by Mischa Maisky (cello) and Rodion Shchedrin (piano)
  • Lyrische Szenen (2008). Commissioned by Int. Musikwettbewerb ARD. First Performance, 11 September 2008 in Munchen by the Apollon Musagete Quartet
  • Journey to Eisenstadt (2009). First Performance: 1 December 2009 in London by Leonidas Kavakos (violin) and Nikolai Lugansky (piano)
  • Dies Irae (2010). Commissioned by the International Orgelwoche Nьrnberg - Musica Sacra. First Performance: 5 June 2010 in Nurnberg by Edgar Krapp, Matthias Ank, Lutz Randow (organ) and Till Weser, Thomas Forstner (trumpet) and others

Honours and awards[edit]

This article incorporates information from the equivalent article on the Russian Wikipedia.
  1. in the nomination "The best essay in contemporary academic music" for the Concerto cantabile (1997)
  2. in the nomination "The best work of contemporary composer of classical music" for the opera "The Enchanted Wanderer" (2009)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Concerto for Orchestra No. 1, "Naughty Limericks" Kennedy Center
  2. ^ Volker Milchs: Oper "Lolita" - Deutschlandpremiere bei den 115. Maifestspielen in Wiesbaden Wiesbadener Tagblatt 1 May 2011 (German)
  3. ^ Levsha at Schott

External links[edit]